Introduction to Research Methodology

Research methodology helps in to achieve reliability in a study for similar purpose and gives attention on study at a large level. This section is useful as it provides a comprehension about different tools and techniques that has been used in the study. Here, in this study primary and secondary research both have been accomplished in which prime attention has been given to assess different socio cultural issues that impacts on the urban regeneration of Nigerian economy. In this respect for secondary research diverse books, journals and articles has been reviewed on the precise area of research.

research methodology

To accomplish primary research researcher has used a quantitative approach in which data has been acquired by undertaking a survey with the help of questionnaire tool that provides clear information in the area of research. Here, in researcher has selected respondents on random basis and they have been urged to fill up the questionnaire. Other than this researcher has ensured that all those participants are being surveyed who were previously living in rural areas and have now moved to urban areas. Here in this report the major emphasis has been given on understanding the fact that how social and cultural issues can affect the urban regeneration process. It is a process which affects the human life in both positive and negative ways. In order to gain proper understanding about the related subject matter it is necessary to went through appropriate research process which must be compatible with the objectives of research and fulfill the entire research requirement (Friese, 2012). Thus it exonerates that this section of this research report will be helpful for researcher in various ways.

This chapter carries huge significance as it offers a firm base in any of the study and it provides a base to carry out any research, hence it is evident to give prime attention on research methodology as it has been depicted with the help of different research philosophies, approaches and design. In wide form research methodology has been stated as the amalgamation of various methods that has been given special consideration to successfully achieve the research aim. The effectiveness of this chapter affects the efficiency of whole research report (Bernard, 2011). It is a science as it explains all the logic and reasons related to the selection of appropriate tools and techniques. In this report the use of research methodology will help in completing the research with fewer obstacles as the researcher will be able to understand all the concepts earlier and it will work as a roadmap for the researcher. Further it is to acknowledge that research methodology is one of the chapters which can help the researcher to accomplish his objectives (Creswell, 2003). The construction of research methodology could be done in the way that helps common people to understand the complexities of research report. Thus it is clear through above discussion that without this chapter it is meaningless to construct any research report.

Theoretical Framework

The present research mainly gives attention on assessing the various aspects of social and cultural issues that mainly impacts on the urban regeneration of Nigeria. This process has provided option for growth in different areas and localities as it helps in to understand the positive as well as negative attribute that exists in the study (Garland and Garland, 2012). This research has provided immense knowledge in the area of urban regeneration, social and cultural implications in an economy and importance of equal distribution of wealth in the economy.

This report is focusing on the different aspects which affect the society people in adverse manner. Most of the people loss their earning sources and most importantly it forced them to left their living places where local residents were having their premises from last so many years. It could be consider as major drawback of urban regeneration (Grbich, 2012). Socio-cultural issues are the one which can treat as major issues on the ground of ensuring the success of urban renewal. The concern of government matters a lot and above mentioned all the issues must gained huge priority. In order to deal with such kind of problems there is requirement of making the proper plan which must be beneficial to each and every section of the society and there is need of identifying the various problematic aspects (Hoy, 2009). This present study contributes towards this direction and could help the society people to get rid of the challenging aspects. This report has focused on different cultural issues which have been raised due to the process of urban regeneration. With the help of this report the incumbency in Nigeria can eradicate the social issues as well. In order to maintain the effectiveness of present report and to provide more reliable information related to the subject matter, the special emphasize has been given to the research methodology chapter. It will justify with the requirement of this report (Jackson, 2010).

Research Strategy

This is one of the most important aspects in any study and it involves selection of different plans that suits best in the research report. Designing a research strategy is a complex process and it demands high level of comprehension on the area of research. Here, in this study focus has been given to implement adequate research philosophies and suitable research strategy with the best research type. . If any person is not aware with the appropriate research tools then he won’t be in position to gain the competitive advantage and surely he will lost his command on the research process (Jonker and Pennink, 2010).

Other than this research strategy can include the research approach and sampling technique as well. The clear applicability of these techniques is also helpful for the researcher to complete the task in effective manner. Research philosophy comes into existence as every researcher has its own mindset and thought process which helps in to take his decision and to establish some research gap (Blaikie, 2007). According to all the concepts and established theories the researcher can create his own philosophy regarding the subject matter. Majorly research philosophy consists of two types’ positivism and Interpretation. But the Research philosophy which could be suitable for this research report is Interpretative approach. Research approach is another factor which represents the pattern of research in which the research has taken place (Bryman, 2006). The researcher can adopt various ways to complete the research and mainly in the terminology if research deductive and inductive is two approaches which could be applied by the researchers. Here in this research inductive will be suitable as it provides the data first and then the researcher will conclude something. Both these research approaches are significant with a view of completing the research with less error margins.

Research type could be considered as major element of research strategy. It is one of the major components of research strategy which has direct relationship with the efficiency of research. Research type could comprises of two types first quantitative research type and another one is qualitative research type. Both these research types can contribute in their own way. Here in this research quantitative research type has been used by the researcher. It will use various graphs and statistical tools will be used by the researcher. The applicability of various analytic tools could generate high standard information and will be reliable for the research purpose. While formulating the research strategy it is essential to discuss about the research design. It provides firm base to the complete research report as it defines the trajectory in which the data or information has been collected. In current research report the researcher has used the information through primary and both secondary sources. In order to collect the data through primary sources the researcher has taken the help of questionnaire. It will be followed through interview process and will provide the clear information. A sample size of 100 people has taken; they will participate as respondents and will act as a clear source of information. The use of secondary sources will increase the knowledge and the combination of both primary and secondary sources will generate huge level of results. Thus it is a complete research strategy which is followed by the researcher (Clark, 2002).

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Case Study Approach

In this concept the use of scientific theories is not very prevalent (Kimmel, 2009). It guides the data analysis and data collection process in effective way and decides the future trajectory of any research. For current study the selection of case study approach will be suitable as it supports the nature of research and will accomplish the research objectives (Kuada, 2012).

As name suggest, under this approach the researcher go through any subject related case study and try to find out the meaningful results. The case study which becomes the part of research is already evaluated by previous authors. Case study approach helps in establishing the relationships between the current study and previous studies. The various experts have stated that with the help of case study approach a researcher can understand the subject matter in more comprehensible manner (Zikmund, Carr and Griffin, 2013). Case study approach includes the clear view points about the content in detailed manner. Here in this scenario the use of case study will provide accurate information. The case study will consist of information like geographical and cultural information and most importantly societal norms in any particular area will also become clear.

Case study comprises of various other types of issues which are significant with a view of gaining the knowledge about the different problems and serious issues. Generally a case study is a research method which is used for taking the in depth knowledge of any event or real life example. The purpose of case study approach is to investigate about any problem or any phenomena or it could raise the standard of living as it deals with the real life learning. Here as researcher has used the interview process so it can suits this technique in most appropriate manner (Taylor, 2005). The unique aspect of case study approach is that it could be qualitative or quantitative in nature. If any case is representing the emotions or immeasurable fact then it meets out the requirement of qualitative case study approach and if it includes the facts and statistical figures then it convert into the qualitative technique.

Case study approach includes the clear deep knowledge about the subject matter and most importantly it includes the various other approaches as well. It could be of three types descriptive, exploratory or explanatory in nature. Case study approach is more suitable when it is related to the real life context but it is too complex and lengthy process.

Applications of case study approach

Applicability of case study method demands huge level of analytical skills and understanding about the theoretical concepts. Case study consists of various methods and theories or ideas which can show their expediency in research process. In this report the case study approach has been applied by the researcher. For the same purpose it is required to understand the various steps in case study approach which can act as a useful factor in the implementation process of case study approach (Marlow, 2010).

Secondary Sources

In this research secondary data has been acquired from different scholarly books, articles and journals, in which attention has been given on critical evaluation of different author’s perception and their views on the research topic. The data acquired from secondary sources have assisted a lot in framing and deriving the findings. With the help of this information are gathered in the most prominent manner and it helps to collect the articles and journals in a comprehensive manner (Saunders and et. al., 2006). These two sources are very common and have gained huge level of acceptance by the researcher at worldwide. Other than journal articles and newspaper articles the researcher can collect the research through books and online content also. It could be consider a most reliable and valid source of information. Accuracy of any research depends upon the research sources which have been used by the researcher.Every source of research has its own expediencies and significance. Books and online content can be used when the researcher wants very specific and clear theory which is scientific in nature and have not used any type of modification and alteration (Flick, 2011). The books which are available in the market are published by the eminent authors and have very reliable and credible information which is useful for the research purpose. Other than this journal article and again online content includes the one’s own perspective regarding any problem or subject matter. Mostly journals articles and previous researches include the theories in their own way whatever they have concluded during their research (Creswell, 2009).

The scholars may mix the different strategies and theories and can state their new theory. Newspaper articles and case studies these two are another secondary source of collecting the data. The usefulness of these data is that they are mostly based on real life situations and propounded the real situations and practical approach (Flick, 2009). Newspaper articles are totally based on practical situations or scenarios which have taken place in real world or depict the genuine and authentic information. Same wise case study is also another source of collecting the secondary data. As mentioned above that case study is also focused on real life situations. The only difference between the case study approach and newspaper article is that case study is collective form of information and it helps in gaining the knowledge about any subject matter in very effective manner. Thus these are the major secondary sources of collecting the data (Gibbs, 2002).

Constraints to research methodology

Research methodology is very complex process and as mentioned above it involves the understanding of various tools and techniques which are significant to complete the task in effective manner. But there are certain problems which could be faced by researcher and it could affect the credibility of any research. Here it is noticeable none of the research process is free from any problems and obstacles. While constructing the research report it is clear that it may create some hurdles on the ground of collecting the data or to analysis the data in most efficient manner (Gobo, 2004).

The major problem which has been experienced during the research process is that there was lack of data which can provide accurate information about the subject matter. The data which were available that just shows information about the problems which may faced during the urban regeneration but practically it didn’t indicate towards the exact information of socio-cultural issues. It could be consider as major problem which has hampered the research quality and test the intellect and hold of researcher on the subject matter. Lack of data is one problem which can affect the complete research process (Hansen, 2011). It was not easy to find out the relevant information which can provide exact data and information.

Due to above problem the researcher has faced one more problem i.e. time consuming process. In the process of searching the data through secondary sources it has been observed that it becomes very time consuming process and shortage of time was major problem. It was essential to match the compatibility of the data with other sources and for the same purpose it was required to pay adequate time to the searching process. Further time was hold so long in collecting the primary sources as well. It’s not easy to gather information from common people and to register their opinions (Saunders and et. al., 2009). It demands too much patience and convincing power to win their confidence so that they can take part in research process. Other than lack of data and time consuming process storing of data was another problem which has gained huge priority by the researcher. It seems too easy that data could be stored in easiest way but there is requirement of handling and storing the data in appropriate manner. Thus these were the major problem which has been faced by the researchers and create barriers in constructing the research report (Kuada, 2012).

Ethical Issues

A research report is something which contributes towards the problems of society in at very large scale. There is requirement of focusing on the credibility of the research report. It could lie under the category of ethical issues. It is really essential to current research report to maintain its integrity as it indicate towards the social problems which has been raised due to urban regeneration and the problem which weaker section of the society is facing. If researcher is not very attentive towards all these ethical issues then it may put question mark on the relevancy of the research report (Marlow, 2010).

The major ethical issue which has gained huge priority is the plagiarism. It is a term which states that the research report must be prepared by the researcher in own words there should not be any sort of copied content in the research report. If researcher has taken the data and information from any source then that must be cited in well organized manner. Without proper bibliography and other citations the research can be treated as copied content. Thus it is a major ethical issue that a researcher must pay respect to previous researcher which has helped him to accomplish his objective. It will show individual’s ethics and values which are necessary for the research report (Bryman, 2006).

Other than the proper acknowledgment to the previous authors, another ethical issue which has taken into special consideration is to maintain the reliability of data. The researcher should not alter the data for his selfish reasons. Whatever data the researcher has been collected that must be shown in accurate manner only there should not be any change in the actual data thus it comes under the unethical research practices. Manipulation with the data must be avoid by the researchers as it can affect the whole society and sometimes help in formulating the nation’s society as well (Clark, 2002). Adherence to these above mentioned aspects can create troubles for researchers.

In the process of conducting the primary research, it is mandatory that the researcher must not disclose the information of the respondents who are taking participation on the research process. The people who have registered their information, their identity and personal information must be concealed by the researcher. Thus these are the major ethical issues which and it is to acknowledge here that whatever ethical issues have been mentioned above are completely available in the current research report and the personal details of the participants will remain confidential and will not be revealed under any circumstances (Jackson, 2010).

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Summary

From the above analysis it has been understood that research methodology carries huge significance in a study and without it none of the research aim and objectives could be achieved without a suitable methodology. In this report an outcome has been derived that reflects the prime issues which mainly arise when any economy faces critical situation due to urban regeneration and different social and cultural issues that arises at this point of time. By accomplishing the detailed research has acquired a strong insight in the area of both primary and secondary research process and the manner research objectives can be achieved.

Distribution of wealth and income in proportionate manner along with the generation of employment should be major objective of the government and urban regeneration is affected by various types of social and cultural problems. Thus, the major objective of this research is to focus on social and cultural aspects which act as major problems in urban regeneration. In order to do justification with the research report and subject matter, case study approach has been applied by the researcher (Saunders and et. al., 2009).As mentioned above that case study approach comes into existence when there is need of understanding the major factors of social issues and there is strong urgency of gaining the knowledge form real life experiences. Here in this report the use of case study approach will help in doing clear justification with the report and definitely will generate positive outcomes for the society people. From the above analysis it has been understood that research methodology carries huge significance in a study and without it none of the research aim and objectives could be achieved without a suitable methodology. In this report an outcome has been derived that reflects the prime issues which mainly arise when any economy faces critical situation due to urban regeneration and different social and cultural issues that arises at this point of time. By accomplishing the detailed research has acquired a strong insight in the area of both primary and secondary research process and the manner research objectives can be achieved.

While accomplishing this research there are various limitations as well that were raised on the maintaining credibility of a research report and it the time limitation involved with this study. The report is based on relevant data and information and all the irrelevant information has been altered from the current report. Further this report is clear on the ground of ethical issues and there is no such evidence of any sort of unethical research practices. It is to acknowledge that the situation of plagiarism has been avoided by the researcher and manipulation of data is which is strictly avoided by the researcher along with the maintenance of keeping the participants identity confidential.

References

  • Beazley, P. and Jackson, K., 2013. Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. SAGE
  • Bernard, R. H., 2011. Research Methods in Anthropology. 5th ed. Rowman Altamira.
  • Blaikie, N., 2007. Approaches to Social Enquiry: Advancing Knowledge. 2nd ed.Polity.
  • Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research. 6. pp. 97-113.
  • Clark, A. M., 2002. The qualitative-quantitative debate: moving from positivism and confrontation to post-positivism and reconciliation. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 27(6). pp.1242-1249.
  • Creswell, W. J., 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE.
  • Creswell, W.J., 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed. SAGE Publications.
  • Flick, U., 2009. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 4th ed. SAGE. Bell, J., 2010. Doing Your Research Project. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill International.
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