This assessment will cover following questions:
- Discuss historical perspectives of selected educational policies and developments.
- Evaluate the background to the introduction of a variety of educational policies and developments.
- Generate perspectives relating to aspects of educational policy and developments.
- Elaborate the effectiveness of different of educational of policies and developments that have occurred in response to ideology or issues that have arisen.
Education is termed as one of the basic necessity that each individual needs to possess access in easy and most efficient manner. Education is important because it provides all the required knowledge which makes an individual efficient and knowledgeable with information related to world and overall surroundings. Educational system is in the existence form several centuries and with the changing word all the required changes are introduced to the system as well. In UK educational system is divided into four parts that are: primary education, secondary education, further education and higher education (Koglbauer, 2018). In order to govern the educational system in productive manner several governmental policies are introduced and modified year-by-year. Government of the country taken initiative in order to make sure that quality of education improved and good results are achieved.
In this project report a issue in relation of quality of education is concerned. Details for historical development of educational policies with effective analysis of variety of policies are provided. Effectiveness of policies and developments that have occurred in response to ideology or issues that have arisen. Personal perspective that an individual possess for educational system, policies and required actions taken in this area is discussed and elaborated in the most effective manner.
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Section 1: Historical perspective in relation to educational system
Announcement of Brexit was one of the most effective news that affects all the sectors in UK and its related countries. The effect of Brexit in UK's economy is quite huge and noticeable as large amount of changes are recorded. When Brexit was announced which says that Britain was stepping out form European Union. As Brexit was affecting the economy of Britain in negative manner it somehow created some amount of negative influence on educational system in UK. Government of UK make policies in order to govern all the organisations and individuals that are present in educational system. Impact of Brexit on education system and recruitment of teachers was in such that before Brexit was introduced educations staff that are recruited form any state in the union are termed qualified to be employed (Tinsley, 2018). After application of Brexit staff members who do not belongs to the same state will become disqualified to get employed to some other states. Government of the country is initiating an agreement so that this effect can be minimised with mutual consent. As this will create a negative impact on organisational policies by restricting the scope of good and qualified professionals to some states only.
At present UK is part of the European Union and all the policies in relation to various sectors are same to all the member state of the Union. When Brexit will take place then implication of all the EU policies will be removed form that UK. This will also generate some affect on educational system (Lanvers, Doughty and Thompson, 2018). As in the present time various strict educational policies are introduced by EU so that all the member follow such rules and regulations. The effect of Brexit will leads to freeze implication of EU policies on educational system of UK. This will leads to generation of several issues in the education system such as recruitment of teachers and quality of education are some of the primary concerned among all.
In the present time government is making more and more amount of emphasis to make investment in the educational system so that future economy can be established in more efficient manner. In UK and different part of the world there is high amount of demand of qualified professionals who can be employed in the education system. Leaving EU will generate shortage of teachers in Britain and as a result educational system become poor. Quality and access to education for individuals residing in UK will minimise. The Brexit will generate negative effect on educational system and together with this it will hinder recruitment of teachers in negative manner.
Educational system are governed on the basis of policies and regulations that are set by the government for this sector. Educational policies are the principles and government policy-making in the educational system leads to govern various operations of education system. It leads to collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems. Policies are drown by the governing authorities so that negative effect that Brexit will bring for the government will be minimised and removed in the long term duration (Parrish, 2019). Government is initiating a step through which a policy can be formed for employing teachers that are residing in UK to other member states of UK. In this policy employment for teachers in various member states will set free. Government is seeking an emergent partnership and research opportunities so that current educational system can be moulded towards some educational benefits that are introduced post Brexit. Policies which minimises scope of duel taxation on teachers are introduce. When UK will get exit for EU then teachers who are employed in other member state of EU will be taxed twice in both the states.
Higher education industry in UK is one of the major contributing sector towards economy which leads to growth and development of the country in the most appropriate manner. Their are several policies that were prevailing in UK educational system even before Brexit was introduced. One of the policy which leads to development of education and various systems through which it is provided is improved. Introduction of Brexit generate a slide destruction in the educational success of UK. This will be improved with development of policies which leads to educational reforms for introducing policies which results in development of educational sector in more positive manner (Fowler and et. al., 2018). As UK is one of those nation in which students from overseas come for higher educations. Introduction of Brexit will minimise this rate and government will develop such policies so that no poor effect is generated on the educational system. Students form overseas will be supported and provided a balanced and improved quality of education through professionals so that more and more students can be attracted form UK's educational system.
Government of UK is making is making various bilateral ties with other nation so that effect on educational system can be minimised for Brexit. This will help in employing and retaining qualified professionals form other states in the nation together with this students form other nations will get attracted towards educational system and quality of higher education in UK. As recruitment of teachers who belongs to other nation become difficult in UK due to implementation of dual taxation. Policies which minimises such effect leads to generation of more and more amount of employment for teachers. After Brexit more and more amount of employment for teachers are made through employment agencies and it become difficult for teachers to get employed to their desired place (Czerniawski and et. al., 2018).
Educational system and teachers in UK was a important area for concern in the educational system which is prevailing in UK from several centuries. In order to maintain the same state and improve the quality of educational system effective policies that helps in establishment of policies in most productive manner is performed.
Section 2: Analyse in some detail the background to the issue
The concerned issues which needs to be addressed here is impact of Brexit on educational system and the recruitment of teachers. The law which is applicable in UK states that full time education is compulsory for all children's between the age of 5 and 16. Where in some other countries this limit is extended to some different age group.
Section 3: Evaluation of the implementation and effectiveness of the policy
Educational policy are the principals and government policy making in educational sphere as well as collection of laws and rules that governs the operation of educational systems. Government of UK possess educational policies which supports compulsory child education for children's who belongs to a certain age. When educational reforms were introduced in UK all the educational organisations were forced to improve their standards in terms of quality. The educational system has grown and improved to a grate extent and in order to achieve more and more amount of success and improved quality of education various policies are implemented. When history is analysed it is seen that preference to the educational system which helps in providing education to all the individuals is supported (Herridge and James, 2019). Over the years development has taken place in the educational system and all the possible improvement is made so that each individual can be provided with specific amount of education.
Quality of education is concerned as one of the primary issue that will arise with introduction or success of Brexit. Introduction of Brexit will set free UK to follow all the policies or norms set by EU as a member state. This will make UK free to implement their own policies and leads to introduction of government policies in the country. In concerned with the quality issue to education government policies like setting prescribed standards that needs to be met so that set targets can be achieved. Government plans for inspections to universities and educational institutes are important are part of policies for improving educational quality all over UK. Government also initiates with boosting the amount invested in the educational system in UK so that quality can be maintained in effective manner (Tupa and VOJTOVIČ, 2018). In terms of providing education to all and that to good quality then various loans schemes that are assessable to all are made available to all.
Establishment of various policies are made by the government but results that are targeted can not be achieved without accurate implementation of all the policies and regulations that are required. So in order to implementation of Brixit for international students who want to study at UK government need to develop policies like students has to pay only tuition fees as well as British government should also confirmed that all students will be treated like home students in respect of tuition fees and other funding option. This is so because at EU nation international and home students are treated differently due to which fee of home students are generally non existent or low. Like at United Kingdom, international students have to pay near by £ 15,000–£ 25,000 per year on the other hand home students of UK pay £ 9,000 every year for the similar course (What does Brexit mean for international students in the UK?, 2020). By the implementing this policy government able to ensure that international students conduct their educational session in proper manner and they also assure that all students are paying same fee like home. Furthermore government of United Kingdom also develop policy related to Visa Extension of international students so that they can look for work at respective country, through this UK want to enhance numbers of overseas students after the Brexit (Visa extension to boost numbers of overseas students in UK after Brexit, 2020). Along with this, government also develop package plan for international students according to which salary was set.
There are several views which are in the favour or against of Brexit impact over education system in United Kingdom (Silman, Altinay Aksal and Altinay Gazi, 2018). Similarly public mood on Brexit is also very uncertain because there are some benefits and opportunities gain by them but along with that they also faced several issues. Like from 29th March 2019 there is official deadline of British departures who are from EU (European Union), due to this there are several students who do withdrawal from educational sectors or courses (How will Brexit affect the education system in the UK?, 2020). After Brexit EU and British Citizens are consider as third country nationals which means they have no automatic rights for readmission. Along with this, it will also impact on the teaching staffs who are working at the United Kingdom due to which they need to withdraw from their employment. Major employment issue which they are facing is bilateral double taxation according to that EU citizens need to paid tax for working in UK. This will also impact on the British School because teachers of these school who are teaching modern foreign language are EU members states and due to that they need to left their job. Moreover for British teachers who are working at European Union, The United Kingdom departments of Education ensure a deal along with European School System in order to continue employment of approx 40 British teachers (Corbett and Gordon, 2018).
Furthermore, according to research Brexit also impact on the worker's rights as well as recruitment at United Kingdom. In respect of this before Brexit, British government have develop workplace protection rules and regulation under the EU law. That will include numbers of rights as well as protections for teaching staffs such as annual leave, rest breaks, holiday pay, health and safety requirement, parental leave, workplace harassment, discrimination and many other aspects. But after implement of Brexit, scenario get changed and according to that respective country facing shortage of teachers. This is so because at there Department of education missed its requirement target of running five years as well as currently they are lacking in home grown teachers who are required for looking further afield for new hirings. On the other hand, through Brexit it get easier to hire or recruit people from outside European Union but it get harder to recruit from inside of EU because post Brexit immigrant salary are generally higher than the salaries of some teachers (Tinsley, 2018). Brexit also impact on the pupils of or students of respective nation because numbers of students and independent schools are impacted by this concept. It is seen that at 2018, it is showed by independent school council census that 10 percent of students at UK's independent school are overseas who may need to withdraw from their educational courses due to Brexit. It also highly impact on the financial service industry due to which numbers of people need to relocated from London, United Kingdom to the European Union. In addition to this many citizens of EU are get affected by these change and now children need to attain British independent school currently. Due to Brixit school trips also get impacted negatively because before educational institutions conducted school trips to abroad in order to teach students about cultural immersion. This shows how Brexit get implemented and impact on the policies developed by government.
Brexit is the most influencing news of the citizens of the country because it impacts the business and its related services and also influences the education system. Because of the implementation of Brexit, in education system most of the new policies are add which is useful in improving knowledge and skills of students. Here, the major issue is concerned with the impact of Brexit in the current education system (Brighouse, 2018). This impact currently enrolled the British schools and also thousands of EU nationals who teach in Britain. The system legally impacts the implications for the citizens and under the EU law it provide some freedom to the students of UK as right to education, providing free books and many more. The issues are concerned with the teaching staff as they will keep a keen eye on the recognition of professional teaching qualifications. Despite of this, UK government has pledged to continue recognising these qualifications until December 2020.
After the implication of Brexit, admissions become easy under the European Economic Community, as in 1975 British people has ability to travel in the states with concerning ease. This freedom of movement enabled the educational institutions to organise the school trips to abroad which provide young people with experiences which offer the immersion of culture and also has the change to engage with new environments. But by considering the perspective, it disadvantages from the background purpose such as, experience can be transformed and for teachers educational trips will provide opportunity to forge important bonds with their students. After Brexit, some schools might be dissuaded from organising purpose like excursions because of the logistical obstacles that could accompany travelling to the EU states (Clear, Cahill and Clifford, 2019). In context of this, quality of education is related with basic issue as success of country depends on citizens and when people of country are not educated then development is not possible. Here, the education policy is related with the quality issue which describe the prescribed standards which improve the education system.
Establishment of different policies are developed by the government and as a result most of the targets are not achieved for the implementation of policies and regulations. In addition to this, the government of United Kingdom develop a new policy which is concerned with the visa extension for the international students in order to overlook the work and its respective country. Despite of this, government also develop the package plan for their respective international students. In context of Brexit, various views are considered which are in favour and against of the impact of Brexit on the education system in United Kingdom (Stiell and et. al., 2018). Major issues are also concerned with employment as they are facing bilateral double taxation according to the citizens of EU. For this, the department of United Kingdom, ensure a strong deal along the European School to continue the employment of British teaches. Here, the uncertainty is at the heart of Brexit which is the palpable source of anxiety.
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Analyse the key background to the issue in the education system policy
Issue and background
The issues which is related to the BREXIT has direct impact on the education system as there are EU students who are currently enrolled in the British schools are moving out due to such issue. Hence this is reduces the job opportunities for the teachers who are teaching in the schools as mostly which are filled by European students. Along with there are other several teachers who belongs to EU have to leave there jobs due to BREXIT.
Background of the issues
The quality of education is the prime issue in the education system of UK. Before the effect of Brexit the UK withdrawal from the EU on the education system which needs to be look after the legal implementation on students as well as on the educational system (Elliott and Johnston, 2019). In year 1992 the treaty of Rome was singed which provide beneficial to education system for the European union students. As they have the opportunities to come and study abroad which help them to gain better knowledge and skills in the well define manner. Overturning the freedom of movement where British leave the EU which means British have no automatic rights to readmission on the school or university.
Impact on teachers:
For the EU nationals who teaches in UK have further clarification is needed on how to withdrawal the effect of employment from the teachers as Brexit tends to leave the nation from where they belong. One such issue which bilateral double taxation which most EU members states currently have under place. Which help in paying the tax of the workers which is owned by the company. If these kind of issues are not resolved the EU national teaching in the UK may feel compelled to relocate in the well define manner (Rowe, Martin, Buck and Anttila, 2018) .
As this consequences of Brexit in result in that teaching of modern foreign language in British school will be negatively impacted especially those subjects which are use to teach by EU teachers. For the British school it will be difficult to find out the teachers who are French and other foreign languages due to Brexit. As per the British teacher who are working in the UK department of education as also secure the deal with the European school to system to employee British teachers for the better education.
Impact on teaching:
Another issue is teaching staff which will keep the eye on the professional teaching qualification which comes under UK. Since 1997 the UK has recognised more than 142000 EU professional teachers who were as per the earlier norms made by the government. The British government have, however provide clarification which plan to continue workplace protection which falls under EU law. Further it will ensure the workforce right of the teachers including annual leave holiday pay and rest break.
UK state boarding schools will be impacted too as there will be no longer able to consider EU national for school places unless they have settled. Further from 2021 UK wants 4 tier student visa which is eligible for the state boarding places and the funding policies will be changed as per the new rules which will be formed after the Brexit (Gorrara, 2018). It has been announced from the government of UK is the new Visa rules which are more strict and which operates under the point based system where the most qualified people across the globe will be selected and find the rational data. British universities attract a vast number of international students. Higher tuition fees and stricter Visa regulations might persuade a number of these aspiring learners to enrol in British programs. Further the funding and to the schools and funding will be reduced and also slow down the exchange programmes which was done earlier in the well define manner.
The EU consists of consists of different sizes with different higher education system and the level of research capacity. Due to Brexit it effect the entire education system which reduces effectiveness of the company and also impact on the quality of teaching. The EU consists of Germany, France, Spain and Italy. However some of the small countries such as Netherlands and Denmark which shares the total of EU funding. In year 2015 to 2019 UK as well as Ireland approximately have twice as many students from other countries. There are other students such as Portuguese and Hungarian students.
As high proportion of student exchange programs are done but now this will have the major impacts on the students due to Brexit(Gay, 2018). There are In 2013-14 the UK was the top receiving country for work placements but the fourth only for mobility for studies, after France, Spain and Germany. Therefore, given that the figures above include both work placements and studies, they do not reflect the extent of unbalanced relationships between UK the other nation. Along with this 43% of the educational establishment in England will get effected due to some of the major reasons for betterment and growth opportunities. Where the surveys shows that around 28% of the people are worried about the legislation changes and the Brexit and also education system.
The major risk from the Brexit is about 48% of students will get impact and around the 30% of the educational economic will get effected due Brexit. There are other factors such as around 57% of the schools as well as university are currently employee by the EU nationals as reduces GDP and per capita income of the people (Cremona and Dimopoulos, 2019). Apart from this, it will leads towards unemployment and reduce the educational sector efficiency for the long term. There are just 23% of the independent school feel that they are completely prepare to deal with the change Brexit will bring. Over half (57%) of British schools and colleges presently employ EU federal and a 3rd of these are unclear if those faculty will want or be able to remain in the UK post Brexit or they want to move back to there country.
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Books and Journals
Brighouse, T., 2018. Post-Brexit Education in the UK: A Formidable Challenge But a Chance to Change Direction in Schooling. In Education Across the United Kingdom 1944–2017 (pp. 255-273). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Clear, S., Cahill, D. and Clifford, G., 2019. Mapping the effects of Brexit on legal education in Wales: proposals for addressing students’ concerns. The Law Teacher. 53(3). pp.338-363.
Corbett, A. and Gordon, C., 2018. Brexit and Higher Education and Research. In The Routledge Handbook of the Politics of Brexit (pp. 103-117). Routledge.
Cremona, M. and Dimopoulos, A., 2019. The impact of Brexit on the careers of EUI law graduates. The Law Teacher. 53(2). pp.189-196.
Czerniawski, G. and et. al., 2018. The professional learning needs and priorities of higher-education-based teacher educators in England, Ireland and Scotland. Journal of Education for Teaching. 44(2). pp.133-148.
Elliott, I. C. and Johnston, L., 2019. The Future of Public Administration Teaching and Research in the North East. In The North East After Brexit: Impact and Policy. Emerald Publishing Limited.