- Generate knowledge of the effects of globalization in a comparative manner.
- Create a theoretical framework for understanding the impact of global processes on local, national and international education policies
- Provide important concepts and positions on globalization and education in a coherent and systematic
Higher education at present has become one of the vital most subjects that need proper study for countries that are dealing with issues like low income and so on. On the other hand, globalisation involves the transformation of both space and time along with the transcending of state territories, and historical traditions (Busemeyer and Garritzmann, 2019). It has been found that globalisation has somewhere impacted almost every country's higher education system. In this report, the two case studies of Bangladesh and Mozambique are taken into consideration. Both of these nations are coming within the specific criteria of this assignment and these are low-income and postcolonial countries. Away with this, the report is also going to be enclosed with a critical discussion on the impacts of globalising forcing higher education to get changed accordingly.
1. Concepts and positions on globalisation and education
Over the years, globalisation has majorly impacted upon higher education of all the countries. Basically, globalisation has led all the nations to rise and look after all the different factors like social, technological, educational and economical as well. According to Adelino Leonardo Chissale, (2013), that higher education developments in Mozambique in the past fifteen years are not only reflective of free market economy logic, but it has also ignored all the factors that are directly linked with social and historical context, which is majorly needed for today's young generation to have appropriate knowledge related with social inequalities. Therefore, this could be considered as one of the crucial issue that students that are studying among universities are specifically unaware of it. But, it is also critically analysed that Mozambique has also raised number of elements where they need to improvise.
Away with this, if it is talked about the other case study that is considered of Bangladesh, which has clearly showed that Higher education plays a crucial role for a country's development as it directly stays connected with various factors like political, socio along with the economic development. In order to improvise the human civilization, many of the purveyors along with the creators of knowledge, the universities' contributions are widely accepted in the societies and seldom require any elaboration. But, just when globalisation started taking place, communicative revolution along with emergence of the neo-liberal economy as the dominant economic ideology, universities are now undergoing rapid transformations. Due to this, privatisation that already took place in education sector has raised number of issues for the middle class families because it raised cost of the educative courses within Bangladesh. On the other hand, it is also said that curriculum has changed accommodating state as well, which is directly linked with number of courses in relation to innovations along with the art scientific research as well (Davis and Wilson, 2019).
Another issue that came in front due to globalisation is quality assurance for the universities of Bangladesh because they have directly gets rank on the basis of regional, nationality and at global levels. This could be understood with a good example of famous universities where they started offering courses to students from all over the world. They have done this on the basis of Massive Open Online Course (MOOC).
2. Effects of globalisation in both comparative and particular
Impact of globalisation on higher education within Bangladesh:
According to Ho, (2019), within Bangladesh due to globalisation there are number of free along with paid courses with minimal costs has started being offered by many national and international universities. They have started offering free online courses to Bangladeshi students and but after sometime, they charge money so that they could get genuine certificates. On the other hand, it is also said that students among different developing nations are rushing to get their certificates and diplomas overlooking their own countries' institutes. But, due to low income country, Bangladesh mainly deals with various issues that lead to students not to opt for the courses that demands high fees. Along with this, it is also said that universities considering developing world where they are now grappling to find ways to catch up with the new trends in higher education. Through developing a whole new curriculum, adopting number of learning methodologies and utilising various technologies, universities within Bangladesh is going through major issues while taking actions to improvise the higher education within the country .
Impact of globalisation on higher education within Mozambique:
Based on the information given by Sylvester who has given information in the year of 1999 that, it is pretty much needed for enhancing the insightfulness in order to improve the number of subjects that are linked with postcolonial studies. Therefore, it can easily be said that due to number of approaches like contextualization in regards to the development within Mozambique needs to think of enhancing the positive impact over different elements like cultural transformations, economic, social, political and so on. Therefore, it can be said that postcolonial studies if given to Mozambique students then it will directly enhance the knowledge level in relation to the neo-liberal globalisation and it will also improve the modernization as well for the business company.
Henceforth, these could be considered as both comparative and particular impacts on higher education on both the low income nations (Mozambique and Bangladesh) of globalisation. Both the case studies consists of different topics and these are: Globalizing Higher Education for Neo-liberal Development (Mozambique). On the other hand, the other case study is based on the future of higher education within Bangladesh. Therefore, these are said to be some of the crucial differences that has carried different conclusions, which means the study is performed on particular basis as globalisation do not mostly carries a specific impact over different nationalities.
2.1 Debates on globalisation and education:
According to Montana-Hoyos and Scharoun, (2019), it has been evaluated that globalization influence on higher education and develops various opportunities for students in future. It has wider the utilization of technologies, Research & Development and so on. Entry of foreign universities is one of the most effective tool of globalisation as it raises the education standard of students which impacts positively on the economy. Foreign universities bring quality teaching as well as infrastructure up to a high extent. Due to Globalisation, the competition in education industry increases and teachers started to adopt innovative technologies in their learning processes. Globalisation arise the need of E-learning in the education industry and develops s high competition among them. E-learning enhances the skills, competencies and knowledge of students due to which they get high grades and develops high position for them. By the assistance of globalisation, there is change in the way of delivering lessons in classroom, teachers are giving assignments as well as projects electronically. Along with this, videos, digital books, pictures attracts students to gain more understanding about topics in a defined manner. For instance, In Bangladesh the overall curriculum is changing and its universities adopt MOOC(Massive Open online course) in their teaching processes. The private universities is opened in cities of Bangladesh and the government is allowed public universities to open technology programmes or part time programmes in order to meet students requirement. This takes place due to the reason of globalisation and to control capital outflow of foreign countries. The other reason is government of Bangladesh wants to keep its student in their own country. In context to Mozambique, its government changes policies of institutions in order to adopt new technologies in universities and give quality education to students. The reason behind this is to utilize skills and knowledge of students in their own country.
As per the point of view Patrinos, Psacharopoulos and Tansel, (2019), it has been analysed that globalisation has adverse impact on the development of countries. Due to globalisation, the students did not experience similar culture, education as the way they get in their own country. It is not essential that all countries win the race of skill and knowledge production globally. Due to globalisation, a country currency fluctuate and might effect negatively on the development of economy. Students keep travelling in order to get higher education that increases the chance of Terrorist attack. It develops a fear in citizens of foreign countries due to which they did not trust on their neighbours also. Moreover, globalisation integrate various cultures that leads students to not follow their own country customs and traditions as they take their culture as primitive. Globalisation affect negatively on economy as students like to prefer to work or job on foreign countries rather than their own country. It also raise fear on insecurity among students regarding their jobs sue to which their skills and capabilities is not developed properly and they did not focus on their work and growth as well.
2.2 Globalisation as a World System
There are many of the scholars and economists has said that higher education system directly supports a country in growing in much more effective and in efficient manner. But, they have also said that for the nations like Mozambique and Bangladesh, it is not that easy to consider these without developing a specific approach. This is where, globalisation takes place so that to improve the processes of economic conditions of a business firm. Mainly, it is said that many of the low income based along with the postcolonial nations have utilised economic dimensions of globalisation and accompanying market forces (Vietnam is a good example of it). At the point when globalization normally alludes to the advancement of social and financial relations over the world, it assigns a monetary measurement. In the event that one of the key parts of globalization is the development of a world framework, as mentioned by Immanuel Wallerstein in 1974, the world shaping of a solitary social request, at that point the build obtains one more new measurement—an idea guide of a world framework, separated into stratified zones, in light of inconsistent relations between the centre, fringe and semi fringe nations. Including this, it is also accept that private enterprise is at the core of the world framework and endeavours to clarify the ascent of Western Europe to world matchless quality in the fifteenth and sixteenth hundreds of years.
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3. Theoretical Framework for understanding the influence of global processes on local, national and international education policies
In present time, there are ample number of approaches along with the theories that are available within the market that can be utilised to develop the local, international and national education policies and these are: Typological approach, political approach questioning the transformations of governance of education systems. Along with this, econometric approach is also developed considering the impact of accountability in relation with adjusting the academic performance. There is another approach i.e. sociological which can also be implemented to improve local policies.
3.1 Typological approach
If it is critically analysed then it can easily be said that typological approach would directly lead the higher education system of Mozambique to become much more systematic, but it can also create empirically rigorous situations as well if the state of affairs are carrying dynamic nature of the country. Therefore, researchers has mentioned that considering the typological approach would not lead sociological performativity to get improvised as change among state of affairs would lead to go through number of issues. Under this, it is said that globalisation is being considered as one of the crucial factor that could effectively stay connected with higher education system, because offering all the citizens of this country (Paus, 2019).
3.2 Political approach
This is being considered as one of the crucial approach, political approach can be utilised by normative political theory is concerned about how the Bangladesh needs to focus when exploring number of values that are directly linked with appropriate transformation higher education systems (Teodorczuk and Morris, 2019). But, it has been found that there are number of elements like lack of professionalism along with the skills among teachers has raised various questions on universities that are offering higher education to students of Bangladesh, this led and raised low quality products. Therefore, within Bangladesh getting a PhD degree in their respective disciplines is considered as the highest form of professional development, and university teachers are seldom trained further regarding pedagogical skills. But, if it is critically analysed then it can be said that due to less opportunities within the low income nation like Bangladesh it is hard to deliver training to every single teacher as it would directly enhance the expenses, and a low income based country cannot afford it, as it will become hard for them to survive.
3.3 Econometric approach
Another crucial approach i.e. econometric methods could help both the nations like Bangladesh and Mozambique could effectively enhance or improve the use of various economic theories along with the statistical tools as well, as this would lead to improvise the overall combination of the overall estimation that the parliament has developed in relation to the economic variables and to forecast the intended variables (Stevenson, 2019). Away with this, it can be said that econometric model would be placed with a system of simultaneous equations. Econometric approach is also developed considering the impact of accountability within the relation linking and adjusting with the academic performance. If it is critically analysed then it can be said that both the nations Bangladesh along with Mozambique directly needs to adopt this type of approach, as this would lead them to hold or develop higher education system with the help of globalisation.
Based on the above mentioned report, it is being concluded that all the nations are looking forward to take into consideration of globalisation in their education system as well, because through this nations like Mozambique and Bangladesh could effectively gain positive results in a short span. In order to develop or grow, countries has effectively made high range of investments in modernising their institutes, to deliver higher education to students along with the citizens as well. On the other hand, higher institutes of learning in world countries like Bangladesh along with the Mozambique do not act with serious urgency, they would be on the wrong side of the rapidly widening knowledge and technology gap.
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- Busemeyer, M. R., & Garritzmann, J. L. (2019). Compensation or social investment? Revisiting the link between globalisation and popular demand for the welfare state. Journal of social policy, 48(3), 427-448.
- Davis, E. R., & Wilson, R. (2019). “Not so globalised”: contrasting media discourses on education and competitiveness in four countries. Journal of Asia Business Studies.
- Ho, W. C. (2019). Citizenship education and music education: exploring the crossroads between globalisation and localisation in Taiwan. Music Education Research, 21(3), 228-242.
- Montana-Hoyos, C., & Scharoun, L. (2019). Cross-culturality, interdisciplinarity and globalisation in design education. In Cultural Spaces and Design: Prospects of Design Education(pp. 92-110). Librum Publishers & Editors LLC.
- Patrinos, H. A., Psacharopoulos, G., & Tansel, A. (2019). GLOBALISATION AND GOVERNANCE: Returns to Investment in Education: The Case of Turkey (No. 1903). ERC-Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University.