This assessment will cover following questions:
- Evaluate how to plan a small-scale health education campaign which is appropriate to local or national health strategies.
- Generate how the social context may influence the ability of health education campaigns to change behaviour in relation to health.
- Elaborate three different approaches to health education.
Health education can be refer to as education which is basically designed for individuals to provide them knowledge about health. As health is a central element for human well-being and happiness because it makes a crucial contribution to economic progress of the country. Thus it is important to teach individuals regarding mental, physical, social and emotional health. It encourage students to enhance and maintain their health conditions, eliminate risky behaviours and prevent diseases (Galiatsatos and Hale, 2016). The following report is going to cover various approaches to health education. Furthermore, it will focus on development of a health education campaign. At last, different ethical issues involved in the health education campaign will be evidence.
a) Explain three different approaches to health education.
Health education is basically a domain of health promotion which contributes to educate people about good health by giving valuable advice and enhancing their knowledge, skills and affirmative attitudes towards health. There are many approaches of health education. Three of them are discussed here.
Social marketing approach REFERENCES
It is an approach for utilizing commercial marketing tools and concepts in programs that are developed to determine person's behaviour in order to enhance their well-being in a society. Thus, it is generally a way to promote health by means of psychological marketing.
Role of mass media
It is an effective approach as it helps care workers to induce target audience for adapting new behaviours and to provide them crucial information by means of radio or television. The particular approach helps to keep the population up to date regarding various immunization campaigns occurring in their areas (Park and Lee, 2016).
This specific approach try to reach out individuals in a local area. The community approach utilizes regimes and programs for helping a particular section of people like those who are suffering from a disease or those who are homeless and help them by resolving their issues.
b) Explain how to plan a small-scale health education campaign relevant to local or national health strategies.
In order to develop a health education campaign, the first step is to manage the process of planning. The main purpose of this step is to create plan with the involvement of stakeholders, staffs and clients in a meaningful manner. It is important to decide a clear timeline for developing a work plan (Sebastian, 2017). The next step is to conduct a situational analysis. Th major objective of this step is to utilize various sorts of data, sources of data and methods to collect data such as interviews, surveys, focus groups and many more. The third step is to develop a health education campaign to analyse goals, outcomes and objective of outcomes. Fourth step is to analyse activities, strategies, resources and process objectives. Furthermore, development of indicators and review of program plan is conducted in order to clear the involvement of each component of work plan.
c) Assess how the social context may influence the ability of health education campaigns to change behaviour in relation to health.
Social context of people refers to the surroundings where they work, live and survive and how such settings impact on their health and behaviours. However, there are number of issues that arise while looking at how such social determinants may impact on the ability of health education campaigns (Simon, 2016). One of these issues is financial problem. This particular issue can pressurize population to fulfil and try to lead a healthy lifestyle. As many of them are not able to afford high quality of food such as fresh vegetables and fruits. Thus, health education campaigns help public by providing information regarding how to make healthy food at home which is affordable. Change for life is such campaign who's prior objective is to restrict individuals to become overweight by motivating them to eat healthy food.
a) To design
As a leader, I have decided to organise health education campaign related to reduce habit of smoking among target population of individuals below age of 16 years and pregnant woman. It has a purpose to make people aware about side effects of smoking so that they can understand about the necessity to avoid smoking. However, the well skilled and experienced team members are selected on the basis of desired goal and other resources like posters, leaflets etc. The campaigns will be organise in the public place where mostly people can participate which is favourable to gain positive outcomes of health education. The event is organise by considering all the ethical and legal regulation where possible during the whole program.
b) Produce resources for the campaign
The resources for amping includes team members which are selected from care professionals working with patient suffering from respiratory problems due to their habit of smoking. They are much capable to provide more accurate and effective information to target population which impact positively on respective outcomes. Other resources are gathered by efforts of team members like preparation of poster and leaflets to make complain more effective and efficient to convince people for avoiding habit of smoking. The plan of health education campaigns is given here.
Purpose and Aim
The purpose of the campaign is to focus on the effects smoking on individuals lie under the age of 16 years and on pregnant women. The aim is to provide awareness regarding negative impact of smoking on health.
Resources which were used was questionnaire, cards, posters, leaflets and booklets.
The campaign involve around seven members in a group. Each individual perform his/her own specific duties. Such as some of the individuals helped in producing a questionnaire on word document which was more or less 10 questions regarding the issue. Others provide leaflets, posters and booklets. Just about two to three individuals were indulge in counting how many females an males have answered the questions and divide them.
The implementation of campaign was done in order to spread awareness about negative effects of smoking and to help children and women to quit smoking. The campaign was implemented in a smoking zone of a local area.
Models of behaviour change
Health belief model, theory of planned behaviour and stages of change model were used.
c) Implement the campaign
The plan of respective health education campaigns implement through considering all the aspects mentioned. It includes the utilisation of effective poster and leaflets because they are helpful to make people understand about smoking related problem in detail. However, use of posters have potential to convince target population for avoiding severe health problems which are caused by smoking.
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a) Explain ethical issues involved in the health education campaign.
Ethical issues are the problems that requires an individual to select between alternatives which might be evaluated as right or wrong. While developing a health education campaign regarding smoke there are certain number of ethical issues that could be arise. One of the most common issue is privacy. It is necessary to clear that all the information which has been collected through questionnaire will remain confidential and should not be disclosed to anyone. Other ethical issue which is involved in the campaign Informed consent which means individuals will only participate in the campaign if they are provided with necessary information of the campaign and its benefits. Another ethical issue is transparency which means care workers of the campaign must be honest with the respondents regarding the purpose of campaign and its benefits over their health.
b) Discuss how ethical issues that arose were addressed.
The ethical issues which were arose during the health education campaign were address in a significant manner. It has been promised to the participants that confidentiality will be maintain throughout the campaign and the information will remain in a room only. Respect and dignity of the participants has been retained and they were treated in a proper way (Videto and Dake,2019). Other than this, Informed consent was an issue which is solve by providing all the crucial information about the campaign and its positive impact on health of individual. However, they were not forced to provide personal information it was up to them only. Transparency was also well-kept in the campaign by being honest with the participants. Considering, my own health education campaign, it includes the ethical issue of informed consent because of of busy schedule I was not able to provide evert detail about the campaign to team initially. But every single information was discussed with people involved in organisation health education campaign to address the raised ethical issue.
a) Explore a recent national health education campaign.
'Alcohol awareness week' is a recent campaign which took place from 11th to 17th November 2019 in UK. The main focus of the campaign was to highlight the negative effects of alcohol on human body. The theme for the campaign was Alcohol and me. According to the campaign, alcoholic plays a vital role in lives of number of individuals. Thus, a small change in their drinking behaviour can result in development of a healthier and a happier life and would reduce the risk for occurrence of various diseases such as mental illness, cancer and liver diseases (Turunen and et.al.,2017). Respective resources through which information was shared among people was fact sheets, posters, social media images and many more in order to motivate individuals to look for help if they need. All the crucial information about campaign was shared in an effective manner by presenting posters on different topics like Alcohol and your body, Cut down to cut your risk, Get support and Alcohol harm in UK which help in to spread awareness among people.
b) Explain two models of behaviour change that have been used in the recent national health education campaigns.
Models of behaviour change are developed to explain the reasons behind change in behaviours of individuals. However, different behavioural change models are used in health education campaigns in order to understand the behaviour of individuals and to bring some changes in their existing behaviour in an effective way. Some of the models used in the campaign are discussed here.
Health belief Model
The model was developed to determine and predict obstructive health behaviour of individuals. According to this model, individuals are most likely to take suggested health action when they are finding any affects of certain behaviour or action (Faccio and et.al., 2017). The model help them to understand that if they continue to live with their unhealthy lifestyle then there are no chances of leading a healthy life. Key concepts of the model are discussed as follows:
- Perceived severity: It is based on a belief of individuals if they think that there could be negative impact of their illness on health.
- Perceived Susceptibility: It can be refer to as probability of an individual to get ill.
- Self efficacy: It is basically a confidence of an individual to follow a specify behaviour.
- Barriers to taking actions: It is based on a person to be rely on a reward in order to take action.
Theory of planned behaviour
According to this theory, behaviour of human beings comes from a sense of control and social pressures rather than their own individual attitude (Kasemsap, 2017). It is made of of two things which is time required to perform a task and difficulty. It proved that individuals are able to perform a task if the time required to complete the task is shorter and with less number of difficulties.
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c) Justify the proposed approaches and methods in their health education campaign, relating them to models of behaviour change.
The various methods and approaches used in the Alcohol awareness week are discussed here.
Role of mass media
Mass media can be define as process of providing necessary information to number of individuals at a time. It could be done by using leaflets, posters, online websites, newspaper advertisements and social media. Alcohol awareness week use this approach for spreading information regarding negative impacts of alcohol on health of individuals by means of posters, fact sheets, leaflets and many more. They allow people to gain knowledge from these posters and use them to provide information to lead a healthier lifestyle.
Social marketing approach
This particular approach help care workers of the campaign to provide necessary information regarding negative effects of alcohol on life of an individual. The approach makes use of number of tools and materials in order to deliver crucial information regarding campaign and to spread awareness among individuals (Doyle and et.al., 2018). They try to help people to reduce the amount of alcohol consumption in their daily life by means of various tools and with the help of social media.
Campaign has utilize number of methods to gather crucial information from individuals regarding their drinking habits by means of questionnaire, surveys and focus interviews.
d) Make recommendations for improving their health education campaign.
Alcohol awareness week could be more effective by making certain improvements in their campaign. It has been suggested that the campaign should include more impelling tools and approaches rather than just providing information by means of posters and facts-sheets. It has been recommanded that the campaign should include a section where care professional could suggest and communicate with individuals where they could suggest some healthy lifestyle habits to individuals who are visiting the campaign as it would be more impactful and individuals get to know about negative effects of alcohol in a better way (Abdolkarimy and et.al., 2017). It has been recommanded that campaign must focus on individuals who are aged under 16 as this is the stage where they began to indulge in intake of harmful substances due to peer pressure. Campaign should develop some effective strategies for this particular section of people in order to make them understand in an improved way.
From the above study, it has been concluded that promotion of health education is very essential in order to educate individuals regarding mental, physical, social and emotional health. Various approaches for health education has been discussed in the study such as Role of mass media, Community approach and Social marketing approach. A health education campaign has been designed in order to spread awareness about negative impacts of smoking on life of individuals.
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- Abdolkarimy, M., and et.al., 2017. Health promoting behaviors and their relationship with self-efficacy of health workers. Iran Journal of Nursing. 30(105). pp.68-79.
- Doyle, E.I., and et.al., 2018. The process of community health education and promotion. Waveland Press.
- Faccio, E., and et.al., 2017. What works for promoting health at school: Improving programs against the substance abuse. Frontiers in psychology. 8. p.1743.
- Galiatsatos, P. and Hale, W.D., 2016. Promoting health and wellness in congregations through lay health educators: A case study of two churches. Journal of religion and health. 55(1). pp.288-295.
- Kasemsap, K., 2017. Promoting health literacy in global health care. In Handbook of research on healthcare administration and management. (pp. 485-506). IGI Global.