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Human Resource Development is the framework which is designed to help employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. In this report, discussion has been made on various learning theories and styles and also the designing of the plan for training and development. Further, the ability of the HR manager has been discussed for evaluating training event. Furthermore, this report consist the skills development initiatives by the government.
According to Fleming's model, there are three types of learning styles which can be helpful for the HR manager to design effective training program (Brooks and Nafukho, 2006). For this purpose, HR manager should analyze the learning style of the human resource so that those learning styles can be adopted and employees can be made learnt according to those styles. Three learning styles are enumerated as follows:
Visual: This style uses graphs, charts, pictures, etc. Through these objects people get the learning about the topic for which training session has been conducted. Some employees may grasp the thing easily if taught through these visual objects (Köster, 2007).
Auditory: In this, information can be retained through hearing and speaking. Some employees have the ability of learning through this style (Werner and DeSimone, 2011).
Kinesthetic: Employees who get the learning through practical aspects comes under this category (Wilson, 2005). In this, learning is done by exercising case studies, performing the activities, etc.
Every employee has their own learning styles. Some can learn through visuals, some through aural and some by Kinesthetic. All three styles are similar and different in their own way. They are similar because all three are used for the same motive of learning, if learnt through either style will result in the development of the employees (Ellinger and Ellinger, 2014). They are different because every individual has its own style through which they can learn in lesser time and in easier manner.
Learning curve is a graphical representation of the increase in learning along with experience. This experience turns into efficiency of the employees and leads to increase in productivity (Hassan, 2007). When efficiency level get increased then there will be less cost of production as wastage will get reduced. To increase the curve of learning manager should provide timely training and development programs so that experience and learning of the employees can be increased.
The above diagram depicts the learning curve in aspect of learning with experience. If more and more learning is done then experience of a person will enhance accordingly. This will help the employee to work in a more efficient manner. It is very important to transfer the learning of training session into the work place because this will help in getting the experience if done practically. Through this person will get more and more experience and thus it will help in the overall development of an individual. If this experience is transferred to workplace then the efficiency of the employee will get increased and this in turn will increase the productivity and work performance and reduce the cost of production (Holland and Pyman, 2006).
The discussion about the learning styles and theories have been done in the above questions. To design the effective training program manager has to understand the learning styles and individual behaviours. As it is known that there are three types of learning styles viz. Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. Manager has to analyze the the employees and their preferred learning styles and accordingly (Jain, 2005). When knowledge about the individual style has been gained then manager can divide the employees into groups and provide the session as per their learning styles. This will help the manager in making the training event successful. If learning style is adopted then trainer can make the learner's learn in their style. After knowing the individuals style trainer can make trainees aware about the other styles too so that learner can develop other styles also which will help them in the overall development. For these purposes, trainer should have the complete knowledge about all the learning styles so that they can deliver the lecture in a efficient manner. Thus, training program can be designed in a effective manner if the manager knows the learning style of each individual and the manager itself have the knowledge about all the learning styles. If training is provided according to their style then individual will grasp in a more easier and simplified manner (Khan and Sheikh, 2012).
As it is known that every person has different style of learning that is some employees learn through visuals, some by reading and writing and many by doing the things practical. To make the training programmes effective, it is important that a manager should understand the learning style of every employee. If manager know the learning styles of every employee than it will be easier for them to provide training by using those styles as a medium (Holland and Pyman, 2006). Through this, employees will learn the things in a quick manner and hence, lesser time will be consumed for the training. If the training is provided using the preferred style than employees will grasp it easily and thus, effective performance will be done by them. Thus, it can be said that it is important for the managers to asses the learni9ng style of all the employees in order to ,make the training program effective.
In order to assess the effectiveness of training event manager should follow these methods which are described below:
Feedback: When the training session gets over, trainer can take feedback from the employees by asking various questions related to training session (Gold and et.al., 2013). Through this effectiveness can be known.
Observing: After the sessions, when the employees started doing work that time manager should observe the performance of employees and their attitudes because this will help in knowing the effectiveness of training (Nikandrou, Brinia and Bereri, 2009).
Performance Appraisal: At the year end when the employee's performance are measured, that time managers can come to know about the effectiveness of training event.
It is very necessary to provide or facilitate the training to the employees of the organization at various level in order to bring efficiency in their work performance. For this purpose, need assessment should be done at various level and training need should be identified. Hotel Marriott has been selected and their training needs of various levels are compared.
There are basically two training methods used for providing training to the employees of Hotel Marriott. As per the requirement either of the training method is being used. The two methods are on the job training method and off the job training method. Off-the-job training methods are conducted at a separate place away from the actual job environment (Gold and et.al., 2013). In this, study materials are supplied and there is full concentration on learning rather than performing. Under the on-the-job methods fresher or inexperienced staff members learn or take training by observing peers or managers who are performing their job and trainees try to imitate their behaviour.
Systematic approach to training means the systematic development of a training program for the new hired employees. This approach includes five steps procedure. These are discussed as follows:
Analyze: The first stage is to determine the the need for training. In this case, new employees should be provided training to make them aware about the organization and the job profile.
Design: After analyzing the training need, training and development program should be effectively designed so that it becomes successful and employees can learn in an accurate manner. For instance, which learning style should be adopted and which methods to be used for providing training (Heathfield, 2015).
Development: In this phase materials used for the training should be acquired such as handouts, tests and evaluations should be printed. Slides should be prepared.
Implementation: The climax of the strategic approach can be considered as implementation. It is the culmination of all the previous stages. In this training is actually delivered.
Evaluation: The last phase is to evaluate the training program. It is done at the end of the training to know that training was successful or not. Evaluation can be done by observing the performance of the new employees, by taking feedback from the new candidate about the training program.
Training is conducted in every organization irrespective of the nature of the company. Training plays a very significant role in the success of an organization because when training is provided to the employees than they yield effective performance which leads to the increase in the productivity of a company (Nikandrou, Brinia and Bereri, 2009). On the other hand, training incurs high cost to the company which may reduce the profitability of a firm and moreover, it consumes lot of time of the company which may delay the working of a company. However, the loss is for short period of time but the results of training is beneficial for the longer period of time and effective performance of employees will lead to the better output and thus ultimately profits of the company will get increase. Lastly, it can be concluded that training and development program has a crucial role to play because its results will enhance the profitability of a company and develop the employees efficiency which will reduce the employee turnover and less resistance for the change (Hassan, 2007).
After planning the training program, evaluation should be planned in order to check the effectiveness of the program designed. Plan for evaluation will include the time or frequency of evaluation, this include one during the training session or it can be said that in the middle of the training session by asking few questions to the trainees in order to ensure that learners are getting what they are being delivered at the training session (Breathe In, Live Out, 2015). The other time of doing evaluation will be post training when learner will apply their learning into practical aspect. Two methods can be used for post evaluation plan:
Observation: In this technique, the immediate supervisor will observe the initial performance of the newly hired employees after training session in order to check the ability of the trainee while applying their learning on actual task performing. Observation can be done by the immediate supervisor or the peer groups and feedback can be taken from the coworkers and other supervisors and manager.
Performance Appraisal: This method will be done at the end of a quarter or a year depending upon the company policy. Through this the overall performance of an employee will be checked. This will be done by the HR manager by taking the report form the immediate supervisor (Human Resource Development (International Development) MSc, 2015).
The plan which is being prepared in the above question and in the other former question will be executed (Heathfield, 2015). When systematic approach of training program was made that time analysis was done and then designing was done. In that several techniques and methods of learning were included and other training materials were acquired so as to aid the training program. Those materials and styles should be checked again and should be listed down in order to execute the evaluation plan. Evaluation should be done during the training session by asking questions so that effectiveness can be checked. Evaluation should be done on the basis materials such as handouts, slides, etc. This will enable the trainer to change the learning style on the spot if learners are not getting what they are being delivered. Post training evaluation should be be done in order to check the effectiveness by observing and performance appraisal method by immediate supervisor or the HR manager so that actual performance can be measured (Nikandrou, Brinia and Bereri, 2009). This would aid the manager to know the effectiveness of the employees and training session and changes can be made in the program for future training session.
In order to check the success of the evaluation method the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods should be assessed.
Government is taking initiative and emphasizing to provide training and development to the employees and individuals with the aim of removing the barriers of the employability. The idea of ‘life-long learning’ is becoming the main initiative of the government to create such opportunities to a wide-range of communities and backgrounds. The aim behind the life-long learning is to remove social exclusions which in turn will help to promote employability and active citizenship among the communities (Holland and Pyman, 2006).
Government of UK is promoting the importance of training and development and the life long learning for the individual in order to remove the unemployment and the social racism. For this purpose government is contributing in various training organization such as Industry Training Organization, Investors in People, Business Links, etc. Government is aimed towards the life-long learning so as to:
The firms in private and public sector in UK has started to share and develop knowledge and competency because of the intense development of competency movement. To escape the competitive disadvantages, firms are investing more to improve quality, performance, skills and abilities. One of the leading fashion firm in UK Georgia Armani, it serve the customers in the best way, do the performance appraisal and design effective training programs to provide the best skills to the human resource (Ellinger and Ellinger, 2014). They concentrate on the superior quality which is the competitive advantage for them. They provide friendly and healthy working environment.
Moreover, public companies are involved strongly in improving the human resources to cope up with the development process. They concentrate on building the high performance and make standard and constant output.
Contemporary learning system was introduces by the UK government to bring faster development in human resources of firms of both the sectors. It is a very crucial method for faster learning (Bell, 2012). Depending on the situation of the industry, government offers quantitative and qualitative scope for learning. If the government specifies the areas of improvements and knowledge then it will be easier for the organization to design a good training program. This training initiatives proved to be very advantageous for many firms. As it improved the performance of the human resource and brought the expertise among them. The employees were able to recognize the needs and understood the value of the organization. This learning contributed in overall human development with a faster progress (Brooks and Nafukho, 2006).
After preparing the report on training and development, I can say that I have learnt many things such as through this I can identify self training needs and also earlier I used to learn only through visual style but now I can learn using other three styles as well. The overall development have been done which will be helpful for me during career planning (Köster, 2007). Moreover, I have learnt the application of off-the-job and on-the-job training method in different situations. Along with that, time management skills have also developed in me which have helped me in managing the task during workload (Holland and Pyman, 2006). I would recommend that, every organization should provide continuous training sessions so as to develop their employees for better performance and this program therefore, will act as a motivating factor for the employees.
After the preparation of this report, it has been concluded that training and development is very crucial for the development of human resource. To make the training successful and effective the analysis of training need should be done in a proper manner and then systematic training should be designed. Evaluation of training is most important in order to check the effectiveness of the training program. Now a days, government is initiating and contributing more and more in the training program in order to develop the life long learning in the human and remove the barriers of employability. Many training organization has been initiated in order to provide best training to the individuals and develop competencies among them.
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