This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Implement important concept and terminology in the HRM and generate their relevance.
- Evaluate the impact of flexibility and the diversity in the context of Marks and Spencer company.
- Marks and Spencer are a UK based clothing brand. Provide critical awareness on the theory on employee motivation, sourcing and engagement in organisation.
Human resource management can be defined as a term that is being mainly used for administrating resources related to employees that are working within an organisation. In present business world, firms that are doing business needs to maintain quality of staff members so that working process can easily be developed at workplace. On the other hand, human resources plays an essential for every single business firm which may help in developing sustainability, success, accomplishment of set targets and establishing standard in front of their competitors. In this report, firm which has been chosen i.e. Marks and Spencer which is one of largest retailer dealing in clothing, food and other sectors and are doing business in all over the world. Assignment is going to be enclosed with two different areas of HRM and these are, training & development, flexible hours and compensation. On the other hand, report is also going to be enclosed with argument and counterarguments related to these two elements of HRM. Lastly, assessment will keep is focus on two models related to high performing working teams within the organisation.
Strategies used by HR professionals for creating high Performing working teams within organization with the help of two models
Marks and Spencer is most successful British Multinational organization by having its retail headquartered in the city of Westminster, London. Main objective of the company is to sell clothing, household goods and luxurious food items to their desired customers. Basically, this association was identified in almost 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds. However, company started to sell branded goods which are preferred by rich people. However, M&S is having around 979 stores across the UK from which nearly 615 are involved in selling food items. In 1998, this organization get succeeded in becoming British retailer for making a pre-tax profit of almost £1 billion. Recently, sales of its clothing have minimized whereas food products are selling more and more. It means, company have expanded across the international marketplace by analysing global marketing conditions in order to generate large amount of revenue as well as motive is to establish their strong brand position in distinct foreign marketplace (Cummings and Worley, 2014). As a result, this will be beneficial for future success of an entity by gaining competitive advantage with the help of domestic as well as foreign customer support. In order to attain their set targets and objectives, company have taken number of steps and initiatives such as; focussing on their team development, employees performance, managing business operations, hiring skilled and talented staff members for dealing with complex situations. Along with this, trying to enhance their marketing strategy by using modern method of promoting products and services over the seas.
By considering various facts or figures such as; emergence of various competitors like TESCO, ALDI, IKEA, Sainsbury, fluctuation in external and internal factors, company have decided to focus on their team development. Majorly association believes in enhancing performance of staff members because employees are responsible for dealing with end users and engaged in offering products to them also. Therefore, an outstanding team is really indispensable for the success of M&S because they have to deal with several complications which might occurred at marketplace while handling customers. In fact, goodwill of an enterprise is also based on their cooperative team because users always get attracted by the environment of an enterprise. For example; a lady comes for buying her cloth and sales executive have attended him very politely then pass her requirement to other middlemen instantly and then immediately she get her product because of proper coordination amongst employees. Hence, this behaviour of marketing team of M&S always seeks the attention of large number of customers. On contrary to this, if a person have gone for purchasing at store but ignored by sales executive as he/she might busy in enjoyment and none of the employees are listening to each other comments then this action influence customer in a very negative manner (Buller and McEvoy, 2012). As a result, company get failed in seeking the mind of end users that will influence on their sales volume as well as image at marketplace because feedback from customers has a major impact on other members.
Consequently, by analysing this above situation, it has been understood that managers or higher authority of M&S needs to focus on their team development for improving their performance which will automatically aids in maximizing organizational productivity also. However, three major areas which is selected for highlighting high performance of working teams are ; through training and development, compensation and flexible hours. These three areas are playing crucial role in showing growth of overall team of M&S because employees gives their best while attending training, for acquiring compensation at workplace or to gain some flexible hours. In fact, these three factors is also beneficial for individual as well as team performance in various manners (Anderson and Anderson, 2010).
For instance; large enterprises conduct training and development programmes for teaching their newly hired employees or for grooming whole team in order to accomplish their assigned job in much better manner. It means, by attending training programmes entire team can automatically improve their performance because classes of this events are attend by experience person and their main objective is to develop a learner from internally and externally. On the other hand, compensation act as a motivational factor for entire team because this element is all about appreciating a person for his/her performance at workplace. Thus, for gaining this appreciation whole team member do their best efforts for acquiring compensation in front of distinct team members (Bailey and et. al., 2018). Lastly, flexible hours means that whole team will get an opportunity to enjoy their free time for few days or hours such as; might attend entertainment programmes, got a refreshment, authority to gain holidays or any other things whatever they want to use for reducing stress level. Hence, every member try to attain their set objectives or goals by giving its best at workplace for enjoying their flexible hours.
Throughout the examples, it is analysed that these three key areas are really playing eminent role in maintaining high performance of whole team within an enterprise. Along with this, this overall process will aid M&S in attaining their set objectives in a minimum time period. However, it’s a technique of encouraging competition amongst distinct staff members as well as support in enhancing their performance in proper manner. Apart from this, there are number of scholars and authors are determined who have express their views and opinions on team development (Farndale, Scullion and Sparrow, 2010). In fact, all of them are having their own way or technique for enhancing group performance but somehow difference from each other. For example; Tuckman Model, Belbin, Rubin Plovnick, the Katzenbach and smith model, the Hackman model, Lencioni model and many more scholars who are having their own way of developing team. Mainly, two models which are used for developing team of M&S are Tuckman stages of group development and Hackman model (Hogan and Coote, 2014).
Tuckman stages of team development within the organization was initially proposed by Bruce Tuckman in almost 1965 for suggesting appropriate path to various associations about the technique of developing team. In other words, this approach is also known as forming-storming-norming-performing model of team development and states that these phases are really indispensable as well as inevitable for growth of team. In fact, shows the path for facing challenges, tackling major issues, identifying best suitable solutions, planning work and delivering best results (Bratton and Gold, 2017). Therefore, various stages of team development which is designed by Bruce Tuckman are-
Forming- Initially, various members comes closer to each other for getting aware about the various opportunities and challenges that is emerging at marketplace. Then all of them need to agree on set goals for tackling the tasks. However in this phase members of team might behave quite independently. Every individual usually on their best behaviour but fully concentrate on themselves whereas mature or decent group started behaving appropriately at their early stage also. Apart from this, surrounding of meeting also plays a significant role in modelling the starting behaviour of every individual (Werner and DeSimone, 2011). Mainly, foremost task are also concerned with orientation. Additionally, discussion centre will explain various elements such as; scope of task, technique of approaching and various other similar concerns.
Storming- In the second stage of team development, members of group started to solve itself and trying acquire trust of each other. Basically, beginning of this phase occurs when all the members come closer for sharing their views and raising voice to express their opinions in front of each other. As a result, there might be chances of conflicting situations between team members because status and powers are assigned in this phase. Apart from this, in a group every individual started working together and able to learn about individual styles of working as well as team also. Furthermore, also determined several hierarchy of status of positions within the groups (Tuckman and Jensen, 2010). Apart from this, atmosphere of group is somehow becoming polite and positive because every individual are becoming more pleasant to each other. Along with this, having distinct feelings of excitement, curiosity and positives whereas few members are afraid from the situation and feel anxiety. After that , leader of whole team will going to discuss the task of individuals and described the distinct behaviours of group as well as suggest an appropriate path for handling complaints. Sometime, this stage of development becomes very much destructive for members and lowering the motivation. Thus, leaders or supervisors are too much accessible and remain directive for other decision making process and professional behaviours.
Norming- Third phase of development is all about resolving disagreements and clashes which get incurred due to distinct personalities of members. However, this situation occurs when the whole team are fully aware about the competition and sharing a common goal. In fact, now every members are having their own roles and responsibilities as well as becoming ambition towards work for attaining success. As a result, all of them started tolerating each other for maintaining cooperation amongst diverse people. Moreover, members of team started accepting each other as per their terms and conditions and make an effort for moving on (Riebe and et. al., 2010). Additionally, most dangerous things of this stage is that members begins controlling conflicting situations which might create a possibilities of reluctant to share controversial thoughts.
Performing- At the end, by considering all the necessary norms of groups and roles set by supervisors every individual come closer to accomplishing their assigned job in order to attain set common objectives as well as aiming to reach at unexpectedly high level of success. It means, in this phase every individuals are motivated and become more knowledgeable. In fact, now teammates have ready for competing, autonomous and ability to handle complex decisions process without having support of supervisors. Apart from this, leaders of team also participating in this phase but still necessary decisions are made by team members.
Furthermore, there are some development in this model such as; in almost 1977 Tuckman have joined with Mary Ann Jensen and added fifth phase to the fourth one that is adjourning which engaged in completing the task and break the team. Basically, adjourning is a situation where team will further joined for such project but this situation is uncertain because project groups are exist just for fixed time period (Seck and Helton, 2014).
Consequently, by analysing above development procedures which is set by Tuckman Model M&S can easily enhance the performance of its group members by giving them suitable training programmes because training will help an individual to get exist in this above phases. Along with this, motivation for gaining flexible hours because as per this approach team member can complete their project in suitable way by following each and every stage which resultant into attaining of set target in a defined time frame (Morrison, Goldfarb and Lanken, 2010). Additionally, members of team get succeeded in improving their performance with the help of these five stages which help them in attaining compensation by giving their best during whole process because each and every stages are showing ability of a person in various manners.
On contrary to this, The Hackman model is also one of the most suitable approach from six models of team effectiveness which are playing most eminent role in maintaining high performance of employees within team. In fact, it’s an appropriate strategy that might be used by M&S for developing their team of distinct branches which are situated in several nations. Basically, the Hackman model was established by one of the famous author named as J. Richard Hackman in almost 2002 in his book Leading Teams; setting the stage for great performance which mainly circulated around five major conditions which maximize the possibilities of team effectiveness (Colombini and McBride, 2012). However, Hackman study of analytic groups in U.S confirms by intelligence community that these five situations did indeed encourage effectiveness of group and develop the capabilities of members across the time.
First step is to being a real team for opposing nominal team which means that an appropriate groups are having some boundary that clearly delineates that who is a part of group, individuals who are interdependent and the membership needs to be moderately stable (Maynard and et. al., 2012).
Secondly, needs to have a compelling direction from which every person work towards which means that it’s time for set a clear goals or objectives. As it helps in directing individuals by motivating them toward clears vision and encourage to face challenges together (Han and Harms, 2010).
Thirdly, requisite to have enabling structure which allows for teamwork and structure of team which conduct the style of its organizing work and all the task, For instance; only single individual gets an opportunity to approve the work of another 30 people then the structure of team effectiveness then automatically get hampered.
Fourthly, requisite to have supportive context within an enterprise which permits the team for work efficiently. It means that group receives adequate resources, rewards, data and coordination as well as support for accomplishing work.
Lastly, having expert coaching as well as guidance available for team. This means that team members must have access to mentor and coach who can support another individual while resolving several issues (Ali and et. al., 2014).
Hence, it has been understood that above steps support HR professionals for establishing high performing working teams at M&S and easily grab the market opportunity by satisfying customer needs and demands. However, selected firm have got engaged in number of projects which are of distinct nation such as; expansion of M&S in Thailand, US, Wales, New South Wales and so on. Therefore, all these project requisite for adopting these models by focussing on three main key areas such as; training and development programmes, compensation and flexible hours in order to attain set objectives or goals in a defined time frame. In fact, these three areas are really useful for entire team of M&S in improving its performance with the use of training sessions because this factor also plays a crucial role in developing knowledge of each or every individuals (Hackman and et. al., 2015). On the other hand, few members believes in giving their best for enjoying some flexible hours whereas some are just to gain additional compensation. Hence, main objective of the assignment is to focus on three key areas for understanding the technique of enhancing team performance within an enterprise.
In present context, there are approximately six models of team effectiveness which may help HR manager of Marks and Spencer to develop effective strategies to create high performance working capacity of a team. Here, Rubin, Plovnick, and Fry's GRPI Model of Team Effectiveness could be used by the company which works on four different sections and these are goals, roles, processes, interpersonal relationships which may help in enhancing working capacity of a team in working hours. On the other hand, The Katzenbach and Smith Model is enclosed with three parts and these are commitment, skills and accountability which may lead firms in gaining competitive advantages, Apart from this, T7 Model could also be used by Marks and Spencer which consists of both internal and external team factors. Including these, there is another approach or model named as LaFasto and Larson Model that consists with team behaviour, relationships and leadership majorly stays involved when staff works at retailing stores of Marks and Spencer. From all of above one of crucial model is The Hackman Model of Team Effectiveness that is enclosed with five conditions do indeed promote team, HPW, and growing team capabilities over time. One and the last model in present situation i.e. The Lencioni Model which consists of dysfunctions like no trust, conflicts, less commitments, accountability and inattention of desired objectives which could help Marks and Spencer in enhancing profit margins of the company through creating high performance working
Students also read about: Development of Individuals & Teams in Marks and Spencer
Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
After completing the essay, through discussing the strategies which could be used by human resource management to create high performing working teams within the organisation. It has been analysed by me that HR department of a business company stays stressful, but it is also required for this department to keep on working and finding the ways through which high performance working capacity of a working group could be enhanced. With the help of developing the essay which helped me out in gaining appropriate knowledge related to all over corporate process of an organisation. I have understood the various concepts that help an organisation to train employees and develop their skills. This aid them in sustaining within a company for a longer period of time.
This project helps me in understanding human resource management practices through Tuckman and Hackman model. I got to know about different stages of Tuckman model which team members follow in order to attain high performance in their work. These stages are forming, storming, norming and performing. It assist or show path in solving problems, dealing with challenges, creating or finding out solutions and in preparing plan for achieving results in desired results. As an HR manager this will help me in dealing with different cultural aspects of employees and in developing overall team by overcoming all obstacles. Hackman model gives me understanding related to the motivation of employees. Motivation plays an important role in performance level of staff. As per this model being an HR manager I should focus on task of employees as it acts as biggest motivational factor for working staff in an organization. This model explains five characteristics related to the job of employees, these are skill variety, task identify, task significance, autonomy and feedback. There are three key areas or strategies like training, monetary or non-monetary compensation and flexible working hours which I have considered as a HR professional. These help me in increasing the high performance working of team members. As it increases motivation level by increasing or enhancing their skills and knowledge by providing required training and development. Compensation in monetary or non-monetary form motivates team to perform higher and providing them flexible working hours will increase engagement, morale, commitment and will decrease absenteeism rate in the enterprise. Thus, overall it will help in creating teams with high performance working in org