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Explain The Functions & Purposes of Human Resource Management In Marks & Spencer

University: University of Manchester

  • Unit No: 6
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 30 / Words 7558
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: HRM325
  • Downloads: 625
Question :

Topic- Strategic leadership and human resource practices

Questions- This assessment will cover following questions:

  • Explain the functions and purposes of human resource management in marks and Spencer.
  • What are the contributions of human resource management activities in order to achieve organisational objectives.
  • Marks and Spencer are a fashion brand.  Develop a change management implementation plan.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


HRM is the practice of recruiting, hiring and development the organisational employees for gaining potential outcomes from them. The organisational HR department is accountable for the building, putting the effects by overseeing the policies to governing workers and kingship in between organisations and its employees. The major functions of Human resource Management includes the Recruitment, job analysis and design, performance appraisal and many more that helps in achieving organisational goals and objectives. There is a close relationship in between the Strategic HRM and organisational performance as strategies helps to gain organisational goals and objectives in proper manner by managing human resource activities. In an organisation there are major scope of staffing, development and compensation that helps to provide organisation the one of potential workforce that contributes towards achieving competitive edge. Respective report is based on Marks & Spencer which is a major British multinational retailer headquarter is in London. Respective organisation is specialising in selling the high quality clothing, home appliance and food products. The company was founded in the year 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. The company aims to make high quality products available to the customers. The main competitors of Marks and Spencer are Aldi, Tesco, Asda and Macy's.

Company Profile

Marks and Spencer is a multinational retailer that is headquartered in London, United Kingdom. The company was founded in the year 1884 and is widely known for offering a wide range of clothing as well as household products. Most of the products that are sold by the company, are under its own brand name. Marks and Spencer is one of the first premium brands of the United Kingdom that has been able to survive in the market all these years by offering high quality products and constantly innovating its services. the company operates across different geographic locations and thus, has a large customer base. The main competitors of the company include Topshop, Edcon, Wilko and Argos. Marks and Spencer aims to build a sustainable business through constant growth in order to make sure that it acts responsibly in meeting the needs of the stakeholders. The current HR objectives of the company include hiring qualified as well as experienced candidates who can help it in achieving organizational goals as well as objectives.

Aims and Objectives of Report

  • To understand the concept of strategic leadership and human resource practices.
  • To analyse the main purpose and functions of the HRM in the organisation.
  • To analyse application of various leadership theories and models for organizational management.

Significance and Contextual Relevance

Staffing, Development and Compensation include different activities that help an organization in achieving its goals as well as objectives in an effective manner. the different activities that are undertaken in staffing include estimating the requirement of manpower, selection, recruitment, training and develop as well as placement and orientation. When employees are provided regular training, they are able to perform more productively and therefore, contribute to the overall increase in the company’s performance. On the other hand, development and compensation are other important components within the organization. They also include certain activities such as bonuses and benefits, complete budgets as well as rewards program. All these activities contribute to the company in attaining the organisational goals and objectives.

Literature Review

PC 1.1 Critically analyse the main purpose and functions of the HRM in the organisation

In an organisation the main purpose and function of HRM is all about gaining services of manpower, develop their skills and talent, work on maintain motivation of them by ensuring that they continue to carry out their level of commitment in direction of organisation (Bagheri, 2016.). In context of M&S that one of leading organisation in clothing, home appliances in whole world possess the strong HR department in order to remain competitive that are as follows:

Functions of HRM: The major functions of Human resource department are as follows:

  • Recruitment and selection: Recruitment is the chain of activities that includes the captivating, screening and selection one of most qualified and potential candidate based on the specified criteria for specific job role (5 Major functions of Human resource management, 2019). In context of M&S they possess the full-fledged process of recruitment of employees and their criteria for choosing for a candidate vary from job to job. The major benefit of opting respective function in organisation as it reduces cost of mistakes by engaging incompetent, unmotivated and under qualified employees within the organisation so that potential outcomes can be achieved within the organisation. 
  • Orientation: The another major function of Human resource management that provide full-fledged information about organisational work practices, environment, hierarchical criteria and many more aspects. Respective function of HRM is one of most fundamental step to assist new employees to adjust in new environment and within the new job so that organisation frequently can gain potential outcomes from them (Bailey and et. al., 2018). In context of M&S they conduct the orientation program for newly joined employees by setting long and short term goals and objectives by assigning them job description, job role, relationship in position to the other kind of position within the organisation.

Purpose of HRM:

The major purpose of HRM are as follows:

  • Compensation: Fair kind of payments is one of major concern for the employees. In that regards the HR personnel’s examines and put efforts to make effective kind of changes in organisational structure by accumulating data and statistics related to compensation trends in corporate world (5 Purposes of the Human Resources Department, 2019). In context of M&S they by evaluating the minimum wage rate prevails in market and pay higher as per the skills and competency of employees in order to remain competitive in marketplace. Respective purpose of HRM helps to organisation to motivate and enhance rate of retention within the organisation. 
  • Law compliance: The major purpose of HR Department is to provide safe environment and behave in equitable manner with employees by applying legal compliances in organisation (M&S People principles, 2019). In context of M&S they treating employees in equally in regards of age, gender and colour and ethnic to gain potential outcomes out of them.

PC 1.2 Review the Scope of staffing, development and compensation HRM activities in chosen organisation

Staffing, development and compensation are important HRM activities that can help an organization in running its business operations smoothly. In an organisation there are various kinds of roles and responsibilities of HRM in order to gain potential outcomes. The scope of staffing, development and compensation is discussed below in context to Marks and Spencer are discussed below-


Scope of staffing function is very much wider in organisational context not mere in acquisition of personnel (Bratton and Gold, 2017.). It covers the various chain of activities from developing the executives till providing fair kind of compensation to retain in organisation for long time. In context of M&S they use respective activity in planning of executives and their level of performance with their appraisal in order to gain potential outcomes from them. With the help of competent staff member’s organisation can gain competitive advantage as it is rare resource that enhance the profitability and sustainability within the marketplace. Effective staffing has helped the respective company, Marks and Spencer in hiring right candidates for right jobs.


Organisational development refers to the complex integration of the various system in the organisation. Such as understanding of the organisational theories and structures so that by acknowledging it employees can give one of their best efforts. The major activities related to development of organisation are establishing relationships with key personnel. Evaluate various systems in organisation to examine the dysfunctions and goals in the system of organisation. In context of M&S they by understand the dysfunctions in among various departments in an organisation to gaining potential outcomes from them. Marks and Spencer provide various development opportunities to its employees to enhance their skills and provide them a chance to develop new skills.


Compensation management is the one of most important act in regards of distributing some kind of monetary value to the employees in exchange of their work by means of organisational policies or procedures to enhance motivation level of employees. The major scope of compensation as it helps to attract one of most talented personnel in the organisation. Also it assists to retain and reward employees as per their work and contribution in organisational development (M&S, 2019). In context of M&S they by using performance management tools by it they can be able to evaluate the employees performed in best way. Also, the company offers the compensation to its employees which is based on their respective job role.

So it can be said that staffing, development and compensation are one of major activities of organisation that helps in organisational sustainability such as in M&S they known for their commitment towards fair and transparent payment practices by not compromising on either the quality or relationship with their suppliers and able to maintain the competitive stance in regard of price.

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PC 1.3 Analyse the contribution of HRM activities in achieving organisational objectives

In an organisation HRM activities put one of their best efforts in order to achieving organisational goals and objectives. In context of M&S they use various kinds of HR activities that responsible for building strategies by overseeing their upcoming projects in marketplace that promote the productivity of organisation in worldwide level that are as follows:

Training and development:

Training and development is one of most important HR activity that conducted by respective department after find out major gaps to perform specified work and a project. In context of M&S they creating the training programs to strengthen the quality and quantity of work within their organisation. The major results occur after availing respective HR activity that enhances the organisational profitability as it saves time and cost by curtailing mistakes.

Facilitate change management:

Change is very much potential for an organisation, but changes bring some kind of hindrances in organisational works and activities. While changes placed within the organisation people feel resist towards it (Brewster, Gooderham and Mayrhofer, 2016.). So it is the accountability of management to provide adequate knowledge and information to the people regarding importance of change for individual as well as organisation so that they can give one of their best efforts. In context of M&S they provide opportunities to people to contribute in program of change by accessing their competency level. In recent times it is found that M&S having the low level of productivity due to their extra expenses on kinds of non-related items such as partnership with Oxfam in accumulating the old unused kinds of clothes and stopping land filling up. Their strategies also marketed on their websites and various paid places to gain finance from stakeholders.

Ensure effective administration:

The HR activities helps to organisation to facilitate the smooth kind of operations of organisation, by maintaining the accurate and inclusive kind of data and statistics in regards of individual employee (Buckley and et. al., 2019.). In respective data and analytics includes the performance reports, terms and conditions of employment, Training attendance records and many more. In context of M&S they record precise information that are necessary for them to maintain legal regulations such as national minimum wage for smooth functioning of various works and activities. 

So it can be said that HRM activities and actions are very much important for an organisation as it provides assurance on various basis such as creating awareness, equality, harmonious work environment and provide empowerment within the employees in order to gain sustainability and profitability within the organisation.

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PC 1.4 Critically discuss the paradigm shift in various perspectives on strategic HRM affecting the contemporary HRM issues of organisation

Today's market is very much competitive and environment of business is very dynamic, in that respect organisation need to recruit the highly skilled and talented personnel in order to deliver and sustain in competitive business world positively (Chan, 2018.). There are some crucial kind of challenges that faced by organisations so it is very much necessary for them to shift paradigm towards the strategic HRM. SHRM is a general approach for the attracting, developing, rewarding and retaining the employees for advantages in context of individual as well as organisation. In order to ensure that HRM activities can be Strategic in nature, the management of the company should have a good understanding of its goals and objectives. Once the goals are analysed, HRM practices can be implemented effectively. Strategic HRM activities, if implemented effectively, can contribute to the overall success of the organisation and help it in improving overall performance.

There are some major concerns appears in contemporary HRM to resolve respective concerns organisation have to move towards the SHRM in order to remain competitive that are as follows:

Compliance with rules and regulations:

Keeping with the changing employment laws and regulations is one of the most struggling part for the business owners (Chowhan, 2016.). In that regards some choose to ignore employment laws but it creates many kinds of problems with the organisation. In that context the role of SHRM is to build strategies and tactics after identification of the environment that helps in evaluation of opportunities and threats that prevalent in the external environment. In context of M&S they by using SHRM make sure that organisation have in local, state and federal labour laws in every aspect such as hiring practices, wage payment and many more. 

Management changes:

In today's competitive marketplace changes are very much important, but due to various kinds of threats come along with changes so it is very essential to apply the SHRM in the organisation to comply with them in positive manner. In context of M&S they use SHRM which plays very important role in strategy implementation by using business plan. To comply with changes SHRM helps to depict the education regarding importance of changes for organisation and individual so that they can give one of their best efforts in positive manner. 

In context of M&S to resolve the newer issues and to find out one of most creative solutions using SHRM which speaks the e language and operates all e related systems and platforms in order to remain competitive in business environment in positive manner. 

LO 2

PC 2.1 Critically discuss the link between the HRM activities and organisational performance

Human resource management can be defined as the process of recruiting, selecting, training and developing, appraising the employees within an organization. The human resource department in an organization is also responsible for deciding the compensation of the employees and providing them various benefits as well as encouraging healthy employer-employee relationships in the company premises (Greer, Lusch and Hitt, 2017.). On the other hand, organisational performance refers to the output an organisation is able to generate against its inputs. It includes outputs in specific three areas, namely- financial performance, stakeholder return and the market performance of the organisation's products. Both these aspects are linked and work in coordination with each other.

The global financial crises have called an attention for various organisations to focus on new and innovative ways of making themselves more competitive by keeping the costs as minimal as possible. Factors like employees' salaries, implementation of technologies, skill set of the employees, benefit programs conducted by the organisation etc. directly impact the performance of an organization. High salaries of the employees and use of latest technology within the company drive the performance of an organisation.

According to an article by Muhammad Hamid and, 2019, the main objective of any organisation is to enhance its performance and there are mainly three areas that help enhancing the performance of the company, namely- compensation management, organisational citizenship behaviour and employee development (Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance, 2019). Organisational performance can also be increased by providing various learning opportunities as this will enable the employees to enhance their overall skills and develop new ones in order to perform better and give better outputs. Therefore, having a concrete human resource management system in an organization helps in improving the performance of an organization and if it is not strong enough it will result in low profitability and a low market share of the company leading to an reduced and poor organisational performance.

PC 2.2 Apply critical analysis of contributions of HRM activities to the organisational performance outcomes in organisation

All businesses have an important aspect of focussing towards achieving high levels of performance and competency by gaining a competitive advantage against their competitors (Liao and Huang, 2016.). And of this depends on the human resource activities that happen in the company premises that contribute towards the profitability, increased market share, goals and objectives etc. Some of the HRM activities that contribute towards the performance of the organization are explained below:

  • Talent Management - Talent management is one of the key factors that contributes the success of the organization. Marks and Spencer views effective management of the workforce as a priority and has a specific system that identifies individuals who are highly potential through a set of processes like training, development, mentoring activities that will help the company in competing for the best talent in the market.
  • Performance Management – Performance appraisal is among the most important components of performance management that helps in the improvement of the organization. The information that is obtained helps Marks and Spencer in recruiting and selecting new candidates, training the existing staff, and maintaining as well as motivating the employees to deliver quality work. Inappropriate use of this component can result in a gradual decline in the organisation performance.
  • Knowledge Management – Marks and Spencer associates its information systems with knowledge management. Knowledge management is essential for the company as it helps in maintaining appropriate structures for incentives of the employees, maintaining personal relationships and sharing goals as well as vision (Lopez-Cabrales, Bornay-Barrachina and Diaz-Fernandez, 2017). All human resource activities help in the development of strategies and policies to ensure that the issues regarding development of the employees are addressed systematically that in turn help in improving the performance of the organisation as well as increasing its overall productivity.

PC 2.3 Discuss the impact of HRM on organisational development

Human resource management involves various practices that are used by the managers of a company in order to manage the workforce in the company (Mayfield, Mayfield and Wheeler, 2016.). These practices can include hiring, selecting, providing training, deciding on the compensation of the employees etc. All human resource management activities impact the development of an organisation in some way or the other. The impact of these activities is explained below -

  • Promotion of positive behaviour – Successful organizations like Marks and Spencer have a positive work culture and environment which assist in keeping the employees happy as well as productive at the same time. Having a positive environment in the company promotes a work and target oriented behaviour among the employees. The company provides various rewards and benefits to its staff in order to encourage them to work towards the organisational goal.
  • Development of employees – Marks and Spencer has various HRM practices that ensure employee satisfaction as well as motivate them to work more efficiently in order to contribute to the growth of company. This also helps the employees in improving their performance wherein all the necessary resources are provided by the company. If the employees don't make use of these resources effective, then the organisational performance is directly impacted.
  • Flexible workplace – The new generation of employees expect a more flexible working environment for them at the workplace as they come from different regions and backgrounds. Marks and Spencer after considering this, has modified itself into an organisation that is concerned about its employees in order to retain them and reduce employee turnover (Miles and Van Clieaf, 2017.). This includes practices like work from home, flexible work hours, composition of teams and their structure, communication methods, organisational structure etc. This has helped the company retain its employees and also increase its workforce.

LO 3

PC 3.1 Evaluate a range of Leadership theories and models of organisational management

Leadership theories explain how and why do certain people become leaders. These theories describe the various characteristics of leaders while some explain the ways that people can adopt in order to build and improve their leadership skills (Nankervis and et. al., 2016.). Organizational management models describe the overall organisational structure of a company and these structures can range from simple to very complex ones. Some major leadership theories and organisational management models are explained below -

Leadership Theories

  • Trait theories – Trait theories resume that certain people have traits of leadership that can help them become leaders. The theories often describe particular traits like extrovert ism, courage, self-confidence etc. that are often found in leaders. However, possessing these traits does not mean that a person will be a leader.
  • Behavioural theories – These theories pay attention to the behaviour of leaders like if they involve their subordinates while making decision or do they dictate the team members etc. After many arguments, leaders were categorized into three types, namely- Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-faire leaders. The behaviour of leaders in an organization affects how an organization works.
  • Contingency theories – These theories try to address many questions like when quick decisions are to be made, should leaders be more people oriented etc. These theories are majorly based on the fact that leaders are made and not born.

Organisational management models

  • Line Model – These models are the most simple and usually have the CEO who monitors different directors in he organisation (Noe and et. al., 2017.). Various area managers who then have many executive teams working under them which makes this a hierarchical structure.
  • Functional Model – This model is similar to the line model, the only difference being that the team members or the subordinates report to two or more managers rather than reporting to only one. This helps in keeping the organizations agile in the times of change.
  •  Line and Staff Model This model also works in similarity to the line model except that manager at each level has his own staff working under him. For example, the directors report to the CEO but only through his own staff and not directly.

PC 3.2 Explore and discuss application of various leadership theories and models for organizational management

The application of the various leadership theories and models for organizational models are explained below -

Leadership Theories

  • Trait theories – These theories provide useful information regarding leadership. The theories can be applied by any organization and at any level (Rees and Smith, 2017.). The management can make use of the information by applying the theory to understand and examine their position in the company and how can they make it even stronger. The theories not only make the managers aware of their strengths but also their weaknesses.
  • Behavioural theories – There are various organizations that have implemented behavioural theories in their premises. They help in promoting a participative behaviour in the organisation and in developing teams along with supporting the needs of individual employees and therefore aligning the objectives of the group as well as individuals.
  • Contingency theories – The leaders in any organization must understand the importance of implementing contingency theories and that they can have positive implications on the organization like they provide solutions in specific situations, they allow a macro overview of an organization and also assist in increasing managerial discretion.

Organisational Management Models

  • Line Model – Organizations that follow the line organizational model have a more flexible organisational structure as compared to large and complex businesses. The structure is such that the all the employees of the company focus towards achieving a single objective (Renz and Herman, 2016).
  • Functional Model – This model is generally used by hotels, small scale companies, clinics etc. This organisational management model helps the employees who have specialised skills to work more efficiently and reducing the amount of mistakes. This also helps the organizations to focus on a particular product and service as the performance can be maximised.
  •  Line and Staff ModelOrganisations that use this type of model are usually insurance companies, law firms, regulatory agencies etc. The organizations having this kind of model usually have a unity of command and discipline as compared to other organization and the organisations are suitable for expansion and growth. There is a scope of improvement and development of the employees with a lesser burden on the officers and there is sufficient amount of time available to make various decision.

PC 3.3 The most suited leadership styles for the development of organizations

Marks and Spencer follows Transactional leadership style. Transactional leadership style wherein the leaders of an organization assume that the subordinates are not motivated enough to complete their tasks and hence need supervision for this. Marks and Spencer has transactional leaders who help in guiding and motivating the workforce in order to make to them work efficiently and work towards achieving the organisational goals and objectives. The leaders in Marks and Spencer are highly directive and result oriented (Rogers and et. al., 2016). As a result, the employees are motivated to achieve their goals and are evaluated from time to time for their performance on whether they meet the requirements defined by the company in order to generate results. The company has only one leader in a group and not more than that. The employees are rewarded by their leaders if they perform well and to the desired level. Marks and Spencer usually uses incentive based programs etc. help in motivating the employees.

The company is focussed on group organization and has a clear chain of command wherein the leaders share a relationship of exchange with the employees. Therefore, the leaders at Marks and Spencer provide constant feedback to the team members regarding their performance in the company. This not only helps them improve their performance but also increase productivity and give better output (Semuel, Siagian and Octavia, 2017.). This type of leadership style is most effective during situations of crisis and when the main focus is on accomplishing tasks. The team members within the company are aware of the fact regarding what is expected from them in terms of output as well as performance.

The leaders at Marks and Spencer are expected to set specific goals and provide direction to the employees about what is expected of them and how will they be rewarded for their work. They are also expected to provide constructive feedback to the employees regarding their performance and also focussing on ways as to how can the productivity of the employees be improved and respond to any kind of deviations that come up during the process and therefore identify the corrective measures that must be opted for. The leader of the team has the ultimate power to control his employees and providing them incentives as and when needed.

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LO 4

PC 4.1 Critical analysis of the factors driving change in the organisation

Organisational change is referred to the process of change in the strategies, processes, culture, technologies, political and legal changes, market conditions etc. of the company as well as their impact on the overall functioning of the organization (Srivastava and Dhar, 2016.). There are a number of factors that drive change within an organisation. These factors can either be external to the organisation or internal to it. Some of the factors are explained below -

  • Technological changes – Organisations have to adopt to new technologies from time to time as not adapting to new technology will lead to a weak position of the company in the market. When a new technology is introduced, the work structure of the organization is impacted like adopting for technologies like AR and VR have resulted in positive outcomes for Marks and Spencer.
  • Social changes – Social changes like customers' expectations, their needs and wants, age, levels of disposable incomes etc. significantly impact the production as well as the manufacturing processes. Marks and Spencer constantly evaluates the need of customers, their preferences and expectations etc. and designs and markets its products accordingly. Social changes can be a result of many reasons like education levels of the customers, international influence because of new information sources etc.
  • Nature of the employees – The nature of the employees has changed overtime due to various work values and generations (Stewart and Brown, 2019. ). The attitudes of the workforce today have become very complex and this has become a challenge for the managers to drive them into achieving goals and objectives. Companies are also facing the problem of employee turnover which has increased over the years and has impacted the working system of the organisations.
  • Marketing competition – Since almost all organisations export their products, they also have to face tough competition in the market as various organizations are opting for various unique and innovative ways of marketing their products to the customers and attracting them (Subramony and et al., 2018). These ways include using social media effectively, opting for multiple ways to promote the products and advertise them, innovative methods of positioning their products and services in the minds of people etc.

Therefore, it can be said that a change implementation plan significantly contributes to the overall strategic growth of the company to a great extent. This is because the plan helps in managing the process of change and also minimizes its overall impact on the business, its employees as well as other stakeholders. The plan also guides the company in achieving its goals and objectives in an effective manner. As a result, there is an increase in the overall performance as well as profitability of the firm.

PC 4.2 Evaluate the change management theories and models.

For an organisation while implement change to use various kinds of change management models and theories that are as follows:

Lewin's change model:

Respective model of change is very much potential for an organisation as it helps to understand the organisational and structured changes which majorly consist in three stages that are as follows:


In first stage of change in which management prepares people for the change and by educating respective changes and their importance for individual as well as for organisation (Valickas, RaišienÄ— and ArimavičiÅ«tÄ—, 2017.). In respective stage the most crucial aspect is to elaborate why existing changes needed promptly. In context of M&S while changes occur in their organisation they by using respective stage educate their employees.


In respective stage the real kind of transition takes place, in respective stage people spend time and enhance their level to easily embrace changes in regards to new happenings, developments and occurances.


In respective stage of change people embrace and accepted the changes as organisation properly communicate with them. In context of M&S by using respective model define the significance of new culture for organisation as well as individual.

ADKAR Model for change

It can be referred to as a change management model and ADKAR is an acronym for the five tangible outcomes that people need to achieve in order to ensure a lasting change, such as awareness, desire, knowledge, ability as well as reinforcement.

Goal 1 – Create awareness of need to change

This is an important goal wherein the company will create awareness about the change and in order to ensure that the employees are aware about the change, the company will provide explanation and brief its employees regarding the same.

Goal 2 – Foster Desire

This is an important goal wherein the management of the company should start designating change leaders. This will show that they support the process of change but also they will be able to connect with the people within the company who will get affected by the same.

Goal 3 – Providing knowledge on how to change

All the employees in the company should have the knowledge about the change that is the company should provide knowledge to the employees so that they are able to adapt themselves to it effectively.

Goal 4 – Employees should have the ability to make the change

Employees should have the ability to make the change and they should be encouraged to share their ideas and thoughts. At this stage, effective training should be provided to the employees so that they are able to work productively.

Goal 5 – Reinforce the Change

In order to reinforce the change, new technology can be installed and the managers should direct and guide their team members in order to help them perform effectively.

Bridges's Transition Model:

Respective model of change which concentrate on the transition not so much on change. Transition is something which happens with people while they come across with changes (Vekeman, Devos and Valcke, 2016..). In context of M&S while they bring change in their culture they focus on respective model to find out the reaction of people while change occurs in step of Ending, losing and letting go. In next phrase which is neutral zone in which people is in confusion, chaos so education about changes is very prominent. The last phrase which is the new beginning in which M&S by using guidance and training that help people to embrace changes in positive manner.

So by using respective stages of change organisation can be able to educate people about significance of it so that they can put one of their best efforts.

PC 4.3 Develop the change management implementation plan.

To develop the change within the organisation it is very much crucial to plan and implement in the organisation in effective manner (Volz-Peacock, Carson and Marquardt, 2016.). In context of M&S while changes occur within the organisation they plan in very much effective manner that are as follows:


Activities and plan

Define change and align with business goals

The first and foremost step of change management implementation plan states that organisation firstly have to define about change and its importance for both organisation as well as individual. In context of M&S when they bring changes in their culture they elaborate necessity of it and defines that it helps to gain competitive advantage in positive manner. 

Determine impacts and those affected

While communicate in effective manner the changes within the organisation it is very much important to share the objectives such as to enhance product portfolio, gaining growth and way it affect the organisational structure (Xing and Liu, 2016). In context of M&S while they imply changes all stakeholders affected by it by giving proper education they gain positive responses from them.

Develop communication strategy

In respective stage the best communication strategy should be framed by setting timelines and by using key messages, channels and mediums to remain competitive. In context of M&S they use specific goals and internal communication by change curve that observe the denial, commitment, resistance and exploration of employees while change implemented.

Effective training

While changes implemented it is very effective to provide training session for employees so that employees not feel resist in accepting changes. In context of M&S by conducting training sessions to acknowledge the areas to learn for accomplishing objectives.

Support structure

Respective stage proved beneficial to adjust people in emotionally and practical manner as organisation provide them support system by which they can ask questions to gain potential outcomes rapidly and curtail cost of accomplishing project in proper manner. In context of M&S they use mentorship and open door policy to communicate in effective manner.

Measure change process

In respective stage organisation measure the impact of changes and ensure continue reinforcement opportunities to gain proficiency level. In context of M&S they after changing in their corporate culture able to gain higher level of profitability and sustainability in market.

PC 4.4 Plan how to communicate the change implementation plan to organisational stakeholders.

In an organisation while implementing changes it is very crucial to communicate in effective manner with stakeholders, in context of M&S the major steps that adopted by them while communicate that are as follows:

Find out stakeholders:

In it organisation evaluate the individual who majorly affected by change and influence over the change and keep interest in change. The major stakeholders are Board of directors, current staff and general public.

Understand stakeholders:

In respective stage organisation tried to understand the reaction of people in regards of change and way to communicate in effective manner with them.

  • BOD: Respective stakeholders positively response while changes occurs in organisational culture as it helps to enhance their productivity and sustainability in marketplace. The major pain point that they can be effectively manage the change or not (Xing and Liu, 2016).
  • Present staff:

In that aspect it is the major responsibility of management to understand the effects of change on their life and livelihood.

Communication with stakeholders:

In respective stage of communication with stakeholders involves the planning regarding the importance of plan, purpose of it and strategic objectives, measurable attributes to gain potential outcomes. Give proper education to scope of change, necessary steps and internal chains to reach at desirable objectives. Further elaborates the tools needed to implementation changes and many more (There is No Such Thing as Too Much Communication During Change, 2019). In context of M&S while changes occur in their culture the people affected is present staff, tools required is Training, objectives are gaining higher productivity and motivation of employees. By conducting training and meetings they depict importance of new culture within the organisation.

PC 4.5 Critically analyse strategies to overcome from resistance. 

For an organisation changes are very much potential but people always feel resist to accept the changes in positive manner. One of the main task for mangers to facilitate changes smoothly for that various strategies and tactics can be used by organisation that are as follows:

  • Setting challenging, achievable and engaging targets:  The first and foremost strategy in front of an organisation is to set goals and objectives regarding changes that are challenging in nature to raise level of confidence of employees while they achieve it (Bailey and et. al., 2018). In context of M&S they build team of diverse individuals so it proved very much challenging to work on their change and gain effective kind of results out of it. So it is very crucial for them to set goals and objectives that are challenging in nature that enhance spirit of employees to accept it.
  • Learn to be more open and flexible: To overcome from resistance to change it is very much important for organisation to provide training session in which employees can overcome from fear that resides in them. It is very much crucial to provide more flexible and provide rewarding approach to employees so that they can happily embrace changes by controlling activities so that effective outcomes should be achieved in organisation. In context of M&S they provide one of most flexible work environments in which they can solve their queries and make comfortable oneself as per the environment.

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Application of Understanding and Knowledge

The respective organization aims to offer high quality products to its customers in order to gain their loyalty. Therefore, different HRM activities are conducted such as staffing, development and compensation etc. This is because it will help the company in attaining its goals as well as objectives in an effective manner. The HR activities of the company are contributing to the overall performance of the company because the employees are qualified and well experienced. Also, they are able to adapt themselves to change.

Recommendations and Conclusions

From the above report can be concluded that, the human resource management department within an organisation as several functions and roles that impact the overall functioning of the company. Also, the department contributes in enhancing the performance of the organisation and therefore help it reach its goals and objectives in the specified time. It is to be known that the organisational performance and the human resource management activities are linked together and work in coordination with each other in order to generate the desired result. The respective company is recommended to provide effective training to its employees in order to ensure that they acquire new skills and are able to enhance their existing knowledge about the latest trend in the market. These HRM activities can also impact the performance of the company either in a positive or in a negative way. There are various leadership theories and organisational management models that organisations implement to work systematically and co-ordinately. Various factors like technological, social factors etc. are responsible for bringing change in the organisation. Thus, there are a lot of components as well as factors that influence the functioning of the organisations. It can also be concluded that by implementing appropriate strategies of human resource management, an organization can enhance its overall performance and thus, gain a competitive advantage in the market. A change implementation plan guides the company and helps it in implementing the change in an effective manner as well as identify any potential threats or risks that can impact the performance of the company in a negative manner.


  • Bagheri, J., 2016. Overlaps between human resources’ strategic planning and strategic management tools in public organizations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 230. pp.430-438.
  • Bailey, C. and et. al., 2018. Strategic human resource management. Oxford University Press.
  • Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2017. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave.
  • Brewster, C., Gooderham, P. N. and Mayrhofer, W., 2016. Human resource management: The promise, the performance, the consequences. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance. 3(2). pp.181-190.
  • Buckley, M. R. and et. al., 2019. Research in personnel and human resources management. Emerald Publishing Limited.
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