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Human Capital Management and Leadership

University: Oxford University

  • Unit No: 6
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 17 / Words 4288
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: HRM531
  • Downloads: 406
Question :

Description of Assessment Necessitate:

As a Human Resource Management Consultant, select an organization to advise them on the expectation of taking the HR practices to the next level to compete effectively within marketplace. In specific the Board of Directors want you to address the following:

Task 1

Demonstrate models of HRM, analyse the formulation of the firm to the management of its human resources. (900 words/20 marks)

Task 2

Present the HR functions of organisation’s (such as recruitment & selection, HRD, motivation, performance) in context to strategic human resource initiatives. Form relevant recommendations on how it could be improved. (1800 words/40 marks)

Task 3

Assess the HRM software programs that are approachable off the shelf and measure which one of these programmes of software can be advantageous to the administration. (650 words/15 marks)

Task 4

Cover the characteristics of effectual leaders considering all the issues known in the previous tasks. Display applicable models to justify analysis. (650 words/15 marks)

Task 5

Presentation, citations and referencing

General guidelines:

  • Investigating must be in proper academic literature and provide clear evidence of critical evaluation.
  • It is an individual written project and worth 100%
  • Submit work either report or essay format.
  • Attach reference list.
  • Application of theory to practice will be taken into the consideration.
  • Maximum Words (4000)

Assessment Criteria

You will be assessed on the following criteria:

  • Quality to determine strategic HR issues applicable to the whole performance of the organisation (10%)
  • Coherence and depth of investigation of issues identified (20%)
  • Quality to measure issues facing by chosen company in context to applicable theoretical models. (20%)
  • Utilise applicable evidence based on personal research (20%)
  • Knowledge to accomplish a personal synthesis through relevant conclusions or making recommendations and assessment of facts (20%)
  • Display referencing methodology, length, quality and quantity of references used. (10%)

Further Guidelines:

The submission should be in order and clearly structured in a report or essay format


Maximum word length allowed is 4000 words.


This project is worth 100% of the final assessment of the module.


Student is required to submit a type-written document in Microsoft Word format with Times New Roman font type, size 12 and line spacing 1.5.


 Harvard Referencing System.


Plagiarism should be avoided. It is a form of cheating which is taken very seriously.

Report Structure (if used)

Table of Contents



Discussion/Literature Review




Answer :
Organization Selected : Tesco


Human capital management is the process of managing employees of the organization to increase share of performance to achieve the organizational objectives and increase the quality of business. Employees are the human capital and every business organization should have effective strategies to manage them as they are responsible to increase the productivity to compete in market and achieve competency. There are several techniques which help business to increase potential of their employees to decrease cost and increase profitability. Human resource manager is responsible to formulate policies related to employees of business.

Human resource management is the process of discovering and implementing of strategic policies for employees to ensure the healthy work environment and help to achieve the goals and objectives of business organization. It is also responsible to ensure the potential of employees matched with the culture and vision of business firm. Human capital and Human resource management both have be coordinated and strategize to increase the efficiency of the outcome and it will also have to provide effective platform to transform the organization. This is responsible to analyse all the changes in the internal and external factors of business environment.

This report has a detailed study about Tesco which was established in 1919, London, UK. Tesco is a retail stores giant in UK and provide groceries and household materials for customers. Company is focused on Customer satisfaction and also provide better quality of products. In addition, this report have objective to analyse the different strategies for effective employees and leader of Tesco.

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Human Resource Management Models

Tesco have to analyse effective human resource model of the company to increase the effectiveness of employees and motive them to achieve objectives of organization. Model will also help to provide guidance to implement effective framework and maintain healthy work environment of Tesco (Baum, 2016). Human resource managers are responsible to analyse all the internal ad external factors of business environment which will help them to conduct training programs to increase skills and knowledge of employees. Human resource management model also help to provide support to organization structure.

The Fombrun Model

This is the first management model for human resources and this model has only considered four basic functions of to make business effective. That have also increased the efficiency of company due to ineffective function consideration have also decreased the quality of human resource performance. This model is very simple in implementing and understand all the employees activities to increase the understanding of all functions. Selection, development, Appraisals and Appreciation are the four functions which are focused in this model and provide a very easy working for managers to increase the quality of Organization. This model is also ineffective in understanding the external environment as it does not focus on other functions other than the four. This also make the model very easy to understand and it can be used in emergencies to solve issues and problems. Tesco can adopt this model when employees are new in the organization and also do not have much knowledge about work culture of company. This will also help new employees to get motivated and increase their willingness to do work in stores.

The Harvard Model

(Source: Human Resource Management Models, 2020 )

This model is more advanced and focus more or other factors which impact the operation of Tesco. Focus of This model is on Stakeholders interests, Cultural values of employees to integrate with objectives of company, governmental laws and policies, HRM policies, HRM outcomes, future consequences (Barnes and Adam, 2017). This all factors will help Human resource management to analyse the effective strategies to increase the potential of employees and increase the motivation of the to achieve the objectives of company. Tesco also can use this model in complex functions as it is very complex process and it also helps human resource manager to understand all factors and procedures of employees to increase quality of environment of company and decrease the disputes to increase the ethics and values of employees which will also help to respect all employees to increase customer satisfaction.

The Guest Model

This is modern model of human resource management as it focuses on the Human resource strategies, Human resource practices, Human resource outcomes, behaviours, efficiency, Financial (DeCenzo, Robbins and Verhulst, 2016). As in this model employees are motivated with the financial basis to increase their efficiency as the financial stability of employees is based of strategies and strategies are dependent on practices of employees and attitude of employees will be dependent on it. As this is the cycle and every function is depended on next function which will also help to determine the financial status of employees of the company. Tesco can adopt this model only when they have to increase the retention power of company and increase customer loyalty tom increase the performance and in return they will have to increase financial position. But it can also be ineffective at some situation as it is not possible to identify all the factors which will also decrease the efficiency of employees.

The Warwick Model

This model was more focused on internal and external factors of business environment to formulate effective Human resource strategies. This model help to understand all the human resource management factors which are present in business. This model helped to adopt the change which is fluctuating according to current market trends like customer's behaviours, tastes, preference, rivalry. Tesco have to adopt this mode to increase the efficiency of employees in order to implement the change in business as this will also help to improve the quality of performance and help to achieve competitive advantage in the market. With the high performance workforce it will also very easy for Tesco to formulate marketing strategies increase the market share to increase profitability (Dhir, 2019).

Student may also like to read: Customer Value Management of Homebase

Approaches of Human Resource Management

Tesco also have to analyse the different types of approaches of human resource management to effectively implement the effective strategies and increase performance of employees of company.

Strategic Approach

Human resource management also have to analyse potential of employees as they are asset of business and support it to grow effectively. This approach focuses on the employees development and training which will help them to increase their skills and knowledge to achieve the goals and objectives effectively and also decrease the cost of the company (Bratton and Gold, 2017). Tesco have to adopt this approach to increase the efficiency of their employees and make them more productive in taking their own decisions to increase the quality of task. This approach will also help the employees to increase their value for company and it will also help to attract more customers and satisfy them effectively.

Commodity Approach

In this approach employees are treated as commodity and measured as value of money, which means if the employees is not effective in performance they will be burden for the company and company will fire them. The main factor of this approach is financial in nature and all the operations of employees are measured in monetary values. Tesco have to adopt this approach in order to identify the performance of employees and it will also help company to justify their pay.

Proactive Approach

In this approach human resources are also very effective in promoting the values, vision, mission of company so that it can also help employees to integrate with the and increase their performance (Reiche and, 2016). Tesco can also adopt this approach to implement long term and short term strategies this will also help the company to motivate employees to achieve their goals and objectives.

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Discussing organization's function of HR in relation to the important human resource initiative. Along with that making recommendations-

Human resource department handle many essential function of the particular business. It is helpful in rendering record keeping, training and hiring, law compliance of labour, relational assistance, compensation and helping with performing specific performance issue. These function of HR plays a major role in company thus they will not be able to meet essential need of management and staff itself. Some functions could be described below-

Recruitment and selection-

Recruitment and selection is the core function of HR department. It is very essential for them to hire an appropriate talent for the company so that they could be productive for growth and development of company. First step in selection and recruitment process is sourcing candidate. It is done through inviting the candidate by newspaper, social media, TV etc., This recruitment process is known as external recruitment. The internal recruitment is done by TESCO, they internally promote employees. Many of the organizations use both of recruitment process. But they could use external recruitment process. In which applications are tracked by Applicant Tracking System (ATS) which is extremely helpful for employers. Then the interview of applicants are to be taken and if candidate pass that criteria then they are taken for written test, skill test and practical test etc., as per the needs of organization. And after that final interview has been conducted by HR department with document verification. So that the appropriate and suitable candidate can be selected for the specific post (Brewster and Söderström, 2017). Selection process is to be done without any biasseness so that appropriate talent must be selected for company. TESCO could use the external recruitment process so that they had wide range of candidate for selection from huge talent pool and can recruit the suitable talent for company. For selection process they must have skill test in it which is helpful for them to optimize whether the candidate is capable for dealing with TESCO's operational and functional activities or not.

Training and Development-

It is the most essential part of HR department. They must render training and development program to their employees. TESCO doesn't concentrate on providing training to their employees they provide training to them on yearly basis if they fill it is needed. Training is to be given to new candidates so that they could effectively teach and instructed for technical knowledge which is related to their job. Its focus is on teaching employees that how they can use particular machine and how a specific task could to be performed for enhancing efficiency. The development refers to overall educational and holistic growth of individual in the managerial position. Training and development program are designed as per the needs of company, type and skill of employee which are to be trained, goal for providing training and job profile of employee. These program can be divided into -On job programme and Off job programme. Various training are rendered to employee at several level. TESCO could use different training methods that are particular job training program, technical trainings with live demo, Internship training etc., People in managerial programmes are given training through management game for developing decision-making, several programs for identifying potential executive and different program for enhancing communication, managerial skill and human relation (Kim-Soon, Ying and Ahmad, 2016). This will be helpful for TESCO to increase productivity and enhance motivation in employees so that they positively work for attaining goal and objective of company. They could also feel valued and recognized by company and further they are encourager to retain with them for long term.

Performance appraisal-

Performance appraisal is the function of HR department that monitors overall functioning of employee among the organization. It is essentially done so that they each and every individual's performance towards task could be monitored efficiently. In TESCO no performance appraisal is given to their employees so there employees are demotivated and so there is less employee retention in company. HR department to analyse performance of individual and how they are performing their job role and rendering them rewards if its needed. The best performer in company must rewarded so that all other employee also get motivated to give their best in favour of company. The rewards could be monetary and non-monetary it depends on the HR department of company. But whereas if any employees is lacking at same where after the performance appraisal then candidate must be given with proper training so that gap could be filled up. And then performance of that individual candidate could also be enhanced (Foiji, Hoque and Khan, 2019). It is very essential for TESCO to implement this in their organization so that they could monitor working and performance of each individual employee of their company. If workers performance is good then they must be appreciated by the HR department and management and if someone is lacking then they must be provided with training so that they could further improve their performance. By this TESCO could motivate and encourage their employee for working ahead to gain organizational goal and objectives.

Managing employer-employee relation-

It is the crucial function of HR is to manage the employee relation. If there are any disputes or misunderstanding among employee or in manager and employee, the HR department mediate the situation and solves problem. Employees are major pillar of a company. If employee relationship is managed then it fosters good relation among employee. They should organize activity that would helpful for company to know their employee at personal and professional level. TESCO had maintain well-planned employee relation which is helpful for promoting balanced and healthy relationship between employers and employee. If there is healthy relation among worker and employer then employees are motivated and encouraged for working for company's growth and development. Employees are also feel valued and thus enhanced to work with company for long term (Arora and Hanumante, 2017). It could be promoted among TESCO by regularly communicating with employee on regular basis and solving the problem if any one of them is facing further. So that conflicts and misunderstanding could be easily solved by the HR manager and thus employee could work effectively in company and could give their best for company's progress and development. Each and every company must maintain healthy employee relation there employee could work productively. Thus, company could gain huge success and could effectively compete with rivals in marketplace.

Health and safety at workplace-

It is essential function of HR to maintain health and safety at workplace. They must render a healthy working environment to their employee so that they could work their without any harm to their physical health. TESCO ensure that their workers must be provided with proper drinking water, clean and hygienic workplace. Under Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employer are obliged for rendering safe work environment to the employees. So the HR department of TESCO provide safety training and maintains federally mandatory log for the workplace fatality and injuries. This will be helpful for an organization to maintain health and safety of their employees at workplace (Azeem and Yasmin, 2016). They could also provide proper guidelines to employee how they can handle machinery safely, safety hazards to their workers, first aids and medical if any of their employee god injured at workplace during its working hours. They should also provide training to their employee that how safely they can operate and handle machinery at the workplace. If employee have safe and healthy work environment they will be convened to work with company, and they also feel safe there. This fills up employee with positive attitude so that they could for achieving organizational goal and objectives.


Rewarding employee for their good work is the main function of HR in an organization. The reward could be monetary or non-monetary which is provided extra along with employee salary. It is rendered to employee so that they could be motivated and feel recognized for the good work which is done by them. The company could review employee's performance and the best performer must be provided with reward so that they feel encouraged. It is helpful for company to enhance employee and their performance, work towards achieving organizational goal and objectives. By this function of HR department TESCO have potential employees for their company. Employee feels positive if they are recognized for their best performance and thus enhanced to retain and work with company for long term. It allows company to maintain a good relationship among employee and employer (Velmurugan and Rajan, 2018). TESCO could reward their employees on quarter basis so that every employee work for giving their best and thus company could gain huge revenue and profit if their employee are positively work for the betterment of company. Company further could motivate employee by giving them monetary benefit that could be profit sharing, bonus, merit pay, commission and stock option etc., Whereas they could also give non monetary benefits to their employee in the form of food coupons, promotion, flexible timing, life insurance policy and healthcare benefits etc.

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Human Resource Management Software Programs

Human resource management software is a systematic approach which are used with the help of technology like computers to run the software. It is the management information system which help to provide information about all the employees and their activities. Tesco have analysed the different HRM software already available in the market and also have similar functions which is required by the company to evaluate the effective software which can be used to increase the information technology. This will slop help the company to regulate effective database in the company and motivate employees with accurate strategies. With off shelf Software to is also very important to identify the key functions of the company and also match it with the software productivity to decrease the cost and increase productivity. Tesco is a retail Giant and also need to identify the performance of their employees in all the stores which will help to motivate them and make effective policies.

BambooHR Software

This software has the functions to convert the manual spreadsheets of information into Human resource Information system which will help the mangers to save the rime and cost of transferring the data on system (Nguyen, 2017). This will also help the managers to increase the effectiveness of retention and loyal employees with the help of effective information of all factors. This also offers a very different price range according to the features required by the company and this will not charge extra for every feature as it has the option to block that option from the software. Tesco can use this software as it help to keep a track of the employees which are diverging the products to customers and this will also analyse the time consumed to diver the products and what is the price of products deliver to estimate the profits. This software will also provide a centralized database for all the stores which decrease the inaccuracy of accumulating all the data annually.

GustoHR Software

This software provides time tracking and attendance management of employees which will also help the employees to be on time and also help to evaluate the per day working hours of employees. Employees if working late every day then with the help of this software HR manager will strategize effective training programs which will help to increase the efficiency of employees to complete their work within working hours leave at time. GustoHR also have more detailed functions for employees which will help top formulate effective analysis of each employee and improve the quality of employees. This software also provide performance charts and security system which will help to analyse all the security policies of employees. This software also help the company to manage the salary details and evaluate all the payments of employees (Armstrong and Taylor, 2020).


This software will help the company by providing recruitment process and also help to provide effective features which help to stabilize all the information of candidates. It has effective features which help to provide information and easy under interface helps the manager to understand more efficiently and create an effective strategy in the company. This software will also help to increase new potential talents with the help of analysed data of current employees. This application also help to understand the requirements of skills and knowledge for a particular job and help in recruitment process.


Tesco have the employees which are distributed all over world and for the Human resource manager need to adopt Gusto HR Software as it provides better quality of information and also provides three price ranges for the services required by the company. This will help them to increase the quality of operations and it will also help to motivate the employees with effective information (Vardarlıer, 2016).

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Characteristics of Good Leadership

Leadership characteristics plays a great role in managing human resources (Oke, 2016). One of the characteristics of leaders is to effectively communicate with the team members. The team members must be highly positive and cooperative with each other. For this purpose it is very essential that each employee must be aware of their roles and responsibilities. It assist in resolving team conflicts and to deliver high performance outcomes. The effective communication from the leaders assist in helping employees to understand their roles and to work in collaboration with each other. When leaders are good at communication then it also help in identifying the strengths and weakness of each employee so that their problems can be solved and a better work culture can be developed. Another characteristic of efficient leaders is their ability to inspire others. The efficient employees are vital for the organizational success. Thus leaders must be capable of motivating their team members so that each individual can provide their full participation through positive attitude towards work. The communication and inspiring nature of the leaders is helpful in enhancing the professional excellence of the employees and to increase the work productivity.

Tesco have also analysed That effective leader also have creative thinking which will help them to develop effective strategies to increase their efficiency with the help of motivation it will also help them to influence them to achieve objectives and personal goals to increase the efficiency company. Effective leader also have characteristics to be true and fair with the employees which will also help the employees to become more truthful in the company. It will also help the employees tom learn this skill which will help them to communicate.

Types of leadership styles

Tesco have to analyse the different types of leadership styles which will help the HRM to influence them and increase their willingness to achieve their gaols and become more effective (Stewart and Brown, 2019). Leadership styles also help the employees to motivate in different situation and according to the behaviours and factors of employees.

Democratic Leadership

This leadership style help the manager to understand the employees and take decisions with interference of employees and managers. This will help employees to be motivated as their decisions are taken into consideration it will also help to understand and it will help to provide the quality of employees.

Transactional Leadership

Tesco have to adopt this leadership styles which will also help to motivate their employees to get incentive and commission of very huge sales the employees convince people to da in a particular time. The employees will be rewarded with money and this will also increase them efficiently to achieve their gaols and perform more effectively (Wehrmeyer, 2017).

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From the above assignment it has been summarized that there are various kinds of HRM models that can be used for analysing approach used by the company for managing their resources. It has also been analysed that there are various kinds of functions that are performed by HR department that helps an organization to achieve their goals and objectives. In this assignment a HRM software has also been analysed with its benefits that can be used by the organization for various kinds of beneficial purposes. Lastly in this report various characteristics of an effective leader has also been analysed with the help of an appropriate leadership model.


Books and Journals

  • Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2020. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Arora, R. and Hanumante, A., 2017. Reinventing HR Functions with the Use of Information Technology. PARIDNYA-The MIBM Research Journal. 5(1). pp.101-107.
  • Azeem, M.F. and Yasmin, R., 2016. HR 2.0: linking Web 2.0 and HRM functions. Journal of organizational change management.
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