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Introduction to Leadership

According to author Martin Luther (2006) - “A real leader is not a searcher for consensus however a molder of consensus” (Fandel, 2006).

Leadership theories

In the present competitive and changing era of business, there are two leadership theories which can be best fitted to any organization, such as “Situational theories” and “Participative theories”.

Situational theories

  • Leaders can use different styles of leadership on the basis of prevailing situation.
  • The initial factors of determining how to adapt are commitment and competence assessment of followers of leaders.
  • The factor’s assessment determines if leader should use supportive or directive style.

Participative theories

  • It tells that ideal leaders takes the others inputs into account.
  • They encourage contributions and participation from members of group.
  • It support group members to feel more committed and relevant to the process of decision making.
  • The right to allow others input in final decisions is retained to the leaders.

Merits of Situational theories

  • Allows leader to change their leadership style on the basis of circumstances.
  • The model is easy to understand and implement.
  • It develops the relationship.
  • Helps in completing work without wasting time on much discussions.

Merits of Participative theories

  • Supports in increasing the productivity.
  • Enhances job satisfaction of employees.
  • Motivate staff members.
  • Improve quality of work.
  • Reduces costs of production.

Weaknesses of Situational theories

  • No distinctive line drawn within management and leadership.
  • This theory does not mean to make decisions but is only for change the directions and inspired action.
  • It also over-emphasizes what the person in command does.
  • In different situation applying different behavior is nothing but trifling facts of life.

Weaknesses of Participative theories

  • Security issues, as employees may loose the important information of company to outsiders.
  • Involvement of many people slows down the process of decision making.

Relevancy of theories in today’s working environment

By employing situational leadership model, a manager would have the capabilities to deal with many people and thereby develop a more innovative and employee centric organization. On the contrary, in the today’s complex business environment where retention of employees is vital for the leader, participative style helps in increasing interest of individual’s, as company respect their views and remain them committed with the firm.


  • Sadler, P., 2003. Leadership. 2nd ed. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Northouse, G. P., 2010. Leadership: Theory and Practice. 5th ed. SAGE.
  • Schyns, B. and Meindle, R. J., 2005. Implicit Leadership Theories: Essays and Explorations (HC). IAP.
  • Fandel, J., 2006. Martin Luther King Jr.: Great Civil Rights Leader. Capstone.
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