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Leadership and management


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Introduction to Leadership and Management

In the competitive market, for attaining success in the market, leadership and management approaches play a crucial role. The rationale behind to carry out the study is to evaluate the attributes of the leadership and management strategies and their role in high promotion working and identified service provided by NHS (Herman, 2011). As per the present case scenario, NHS has been taken due to its high performance working culture. At the end of the report, for satisfying the needs of patients, investigator applied capacity planning and queuing model effectively.

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1.1 Significance of effective leadership

Leadership can be defined as the art or process of influencing people to perform assigned task willingly at stipulated time. Different types of leadership styles are followed at different level of enterprise to carry out the operations and attain desired aims and objectives of firm properly (Blanchard,  Zigarmi and Zigarmi, 2008).

Significance of leadership at strategic level:

Strategic leader plays an important role in order to provide quality of  health and social care services to the patients and provides direction and vision to the staff-members of an organization. In dynamic changing environment, for managers and employees of NHS, it is essential to better understand the needs of patients and solves their queries at right time. By doing this, health care enterprise would be able to develop high performance working culture and maintained feasible environment for their patients and employees associated with the firm as well.

At strategic level, leader of NHS can be applied autocratic leadership because this kind of leadership approach will help firm to control and manage complex work and solve issues regarding healthcare (Deveau and McGill, 2014). Feasible tactics and strategies can be developed by increasing involvement of senior manager of firm in future expansion activities such as latest equipments and machinery to boost up the efficiency and effectiveness of health care services at the workplace .

Significance of leadership at  managerial level:

At managerial perspective,  democratic leadership approach is most suitable because it helps healthcare practitioners  in implementing the strategies developed at strategic level and accomplishment aims and objectives of firm at right time (Mastropieri, 2006). On the other side, for understanding the needs of top level managers and increased their contribution in achieving vision and objectives of NHS. For managers, to attain desired goals and objectives, two way communication between them is very helpful in the context of increasing their contribution in success of enterprise (Rumbold, 2008).

Significance of leadership at Operational level:

At operational level, effective leadership is required to accomplish vision and objectives of enterprise at stipulated time by effective use of healthcare firm resources. Moreover, for creating high performance working culture and achieve organizational goals in a proper manner, active participation of operation managers are essential (West, Ramirez and Bernardo, 2012). By applying appropriate leadership style, healthcare practitioners and manager would be able to create high performance working culture and get better work from their subordinate.

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1.2 Critically review the theory, principles and practice of High Performance Working (HPW)

In healthcare industry in regards to attain desired results and outcome at stipulated time, different authors proposed various theories and principles of high performance working within health care enterprises like NHS. According to O'Halloran (2012) in order to attain desired sustainability and creating high performance working appropriate decision making and execution of daily work are essential. Through emphasizing on employees engagement and increasing involvement of healthcare managers and leaders in decision making process, NHS would be able to execute business activities and achieved dedicated goals at right time (O'Halloran, 2012).  In regards to healthcare sector , shared value and guiding principles of high performance working are beneficial as compared to other rigid policies and principles. By applying leadership theory and principles, leader and senior healthcare practitioner can encourage their subordinate and colleagues to enhance their contribution in growth and success of NHS (Brunton, 2005).

However, in the absence of dedication and coordination among employees of firm, manager and leaders would be unable to create high performance working culture at the workplace. In addition, equal chance provided to an individual, top level management and leaders  can be motivated to perform their work effectively. According to  Adams (2003) without providing quality of services to the patients and provides freedom to their employees, firm will fail in order to develop and apply practice and principles of high performance working within the company (Smircich and Morgan, 2011). Along with this,  motivational factors can encourage employees to give their best at the workplace and enhance their skills and ability to offer better treatment to the patients.

1.3  Major leadership theories, models and frameworks in the context of leading and managing healthcare services

Two important leadership theories include  behavioural and contingency theories are beneficial in terms of leading and managing healthcare services in the same sector effectively. Behavioural theory of leadership concentrates on the behaviour of leaders. Autocratic, democratic and Laissez faire leadership styles are followed by healthcare organizations in the context of the  effective management of healthcare services. Leaders takes decision by consulting with other in democratic style (West, Ramirez and Bernardo, 2012). While in Laissez faire leadership style, freedom is provided to the employees regarding decision making. In autocratic leadership style, all power in the hand of centralize person and decisions are taken at time without any delay.

As per the given case scenario, autocratic leadership style is appropriate because  in this approach, all major decision are taken by leader which helps firm  in providing quality of services to patients and serving people effectively and efficiently (Smircich and Morgan, 2011). There are certain situations that are arising for healthcare practitioners and doctors during working in a hospital such as emergency condition and patient treatments etc. In such kind of circumstance, autocratic style will lead leader of NHS to take immediate actions in regards to carry out business functioning effectively. Situational leadership style would be helpful for the leaders and manager of NHS in order to take effective decision at stipulated time (Mastropieri, 2006).

Certain models include John Adair's simple Action-Centred Leadership model: It would be beneficial for NHS in the context of the leading and managing healthcare services at the workplace. According to John Adair's simple Action-Centred Leadership model, leaders of healthcare firm are responsible for identifying aims and vision for the group and monitor and maintain overall performance against plan (Deveau and McGill, 2014).

Managerial grid: As per the present case, managerial grid model will be beneficial for NHS in order to understand the needs and wants of interns or nurses and creating high performance working environment so that better outcome can be produced at right time (O'Halloran, 2012). It also helps enterprise in the context of offering quality of healthcare services to the patients at time.

Framework: Senior practitioners of NHS can use different types of framework in different situations such as political, structural, human resource and symbolic framework in the context of leading and managing healthcare services or organisations (Brunton, 2005).

1.4  Attitudes, behaviours and  capabilities required for effective leadership at NHS

For effective leadership,  attributes, behaviours and capabilities are required within leader of healthcare enterprise to carry out their tasks and operations appropriately. If leaders of enterprise has positive attitudes towards their jobs then other team-members of firm will also follow them and well treat with their patients. At operational level, behaviour of leaders helps them to take smart and corrective decisions at stipulated time so that employees of firm will fully committed towards healthcare organisation (Rumbold, 2008.).  Participative behaviour of healthcare practitioners are required at management level in implementation of organizational strategies and tactics framed by top level management. At operational level, participative behaviour of employees and capabilities in leader are required in the context of the maintain high performance and tactics framed by top level management in feasible manner at NHS.

1.5 Appropriate leadership actions and styles for a given scenario

Employees of healthcare organisation are facing various situation in their working process. In different situations, healthcare practitioner followed different strategies from different perspective. As per the given case concerned, autocratic leadership style is helpful because in any serious situation all decisions taken by doctors and senior healthcare practitioners without consulting with other (Herman, 2011). While on the other side, bringing change within NHS, participative leadership style is more applicable which  will assist managers and employees of firm in bringing change in feasible manner at the workplace to attain best possible outcomes.  In case of R&D field, laissez faire leadership style is beneficial in which freedom is provided to employee regarding to take decisions and share new ideas  and open discussion with colleagues within  the firm (Rumbold, 2008).


2.1 Critically explain the strategies and models for managing capacity and demand in healthcare

Operation capacity in healthcare helps NHS or health system to manage its resources such as staff, equipment, physical space and infrastructure etc. According to several different patient types or segments, demand for capacity at any unit level within healthcare enterprise has been made (Deveau and McGill, 2014). System level model will be helpful for enterprise in order to create and deploy effective capacity strategies that affects capacity usage for the healthcare system. By using this model,  managers of NHS would be able to develop database of patients and provide the best healthcare solutions as per their expectations at stipulated time (Green, n.d.). However, without set-up proper infrastructure and appointing talented staff to mange database of patients and healthcare practitioners would unable to implement strategies and model for managing balance between capacity and demand in healthcare sector.

2.2 Examine the impact and management of waiting lines to improve on customer relationships and healthcare service deliveries

In today’s hyper-competitive market,Waiting time is considered to be an important determinant of patient satisfaction. According to Yeddula (2012) patient satisfaction tends to decrease with waiting time increases. However, healthcare enterprise like NHS can overcome such kind of issues at the workplace through using of prominent  feedback collection  technique. Better relationship[ with customers are essential for doctors and healthcare practitioners in the context of improving various factors such as  customer retention, value, safety, litigation, and reputation etc. By  taking appropriate actions regarding waiting lines and managing better relationship with customers, NHS would be able to attain growth in financial terms and increase customer base as well (Sridhar, 2002).

Queuing model which is a mathematical approach and it is useful in term of reducing waiting time and queuing problems within the hospitals. By using this model, NHS can be able to deliver safe, efficient and smooth services to the patients at stipulated time and increasing demand of quality as well (Yeddula, 2012). Waiting line problem can be solved at NHS by using queuing model.

2.3 Critically evaluate strategic role of capacity planning and queuing models in the management

According to Yeddula (2012) due to advances in technology and telecommunications, several key reimbursement change are arising in healthcare system. It motivates healthcare enterprises to adopt new emerging technologies for different purposes such as  synchronization of work among service stage, constant system monitoring and scheduling of resources between doctors and nurse etc. (Adams, 2003) By using queuing models, health enterprise would be able to overcome waiting line and other kinds of issues such as minimize total costs, offers type and level of services needed and emergency room arrivals facility for the patients etc.

With help of queuing model, senior managers of NHS, would be able to provide adequate amount of time for getting treatment and appropriate services to patients at stipulated time. Capacity planning plays an important role in order to depth analysis of the patients arrival and the scheduling system (Sridhar, 2002). However, for getting appropriate results from queuing model and capacity planning, identification of one or more delay measure is required (Mastropieri, 2006). It is difficult for healthcare practitioners to identify the capacity is needed to achieve a specified service standard because it requires a data collection effort  to estimate time of the entire process which takes lot of time and effort.


Leadership and management aspects are very helpful for NHS in the context of providing quality of services to their customers at right time by effective use of enterprise resources. From the result of the study, it is found that queuing model and capacity planning are essential for healthcare organization in order to reduce waiting line queue and room allocation problems effectively.  In the context of taking appropriate decisions, it is necessary for senior manager to apply model and theory ef

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