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Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour in A. W. Holding

University: University of Leeds

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 15 / Words 3857
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: ORG20003
  • Downloads: 28
Question :

The assessment will cover following questions:

  • Evaluate the impact of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of others in the context of A.W. Holding company.
  • Explain how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a objectives.
  • Develop an understanding of how to co-operate effectively with others.
Answer :
Organization Selected : A. W. Holding company

INTRODUCTION

Organisational behaviour is the study of the behaviour of an employee in the organisation. It is the process of studying the behaviour and the way of employees interacting with each other, interaction off employees with the organisation. It helps the organisation to create more efficient business environment for the employees. The present report will help in understanding the importance of organisational culture and behaviour. The report will help in understanding the importance organisational behaviour in SA. W. Holding company to improve the efficiency of the performance. The present study will discuss the influence of organisational culture, power and politics on the performance of team and on individual. Further, the report will help in understanding different content and process theory of motivation with different motivational techniques. Moreover, the report will discuss the characteristics of effective team and ineffective team. Furthermore, the report will help in understand different concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour in different business situation.

MAIN BODY

1. Analyse how an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance of A. W. Holding company.

The organisational culture can be defined as a set of expectations, experiences, philosophies and all the value that helps in guiding the employees behaviour and the way of working in an organisation. In an organisation, its culture, power and politics in the workplace plays a significant role in maintaining and improving the performance of an individual and overall team.

  1. W. Holding has set a guidelines for its employees to work accordingly. It helps in setting the company' s culture which helps in increasing the productivity and performance of the tea, and an individual in the company (Mohr, Young and Burgess, 2012). The power and politics is also an important determinant which can either increase or affect the performance of the company.

Organisational culture:

Every organisation has different culture which defines a set of rules and the way of interacting with each other and with the company. The theory of Charles Handy, Handy' s model or organisational culture can well defined the culture in organisation. According to the Handy' s model, there are 4 types of culture in an organisation.

  • Power culture: In an organisation, were some employees are having power are called power culture. They are given these power based on their performance, qualification. These employees are given responsibility of taking decisions, they enjoyed the privileged in workplace as they are the decision maker (Carlström and Ekman, 2012). They can delegate the responsibilities and task to other employees. Because of the power culture, employees has to follow the instruction strictly. The employees feels and freedom to express their view and ideas. It can affect their performance and hinder the efficient productivity of the team.
  • Task culture: in organisation, where a team is formed to solve or perform a specific task or or have task culture. The team is formed with a target to achieve. In such organisation, the employees who possess the same qualification , interest , skills and experience come together to work for a common goal. It encourages the employees to work with extra efforts in order to achieve the goal in most productive manner.
  • Role culture:It is a culture in an organisation, where employees are assigned the roles and responsibilities according to their skills, specialization and educational qualification. It helps the company to take out the best from the employees. In such culture the employees feels motivated in doing the task or role by accepting all challenges. In such work culture, the employees are held responsible for their job.
  • Person culture: the organisation where its employees feels more superior to themselves in front of the organisation are following person culture. In such culture, employees feels that they are important than the organisation. Employees works for accomplishing their personal goals and not for the organisation (Handy's Model of Organisational Culture ,2018). They came to work just for the sake of money. In such work culture, organisation suffers as employees are not working efficiently for achieving the goals of organisation.

Organisational power:

As discussed earlier in Handy' s model of organisational culture, power in an organisation is when a some individual are assigned specific po ewers in hand of few people. They are authorised for making certain decisions and power to delegate task or responsibilities to other employees. Power culture in an organisation is important, where the employees can use their power for motivating other employees and instruct them to perform their job in order to achieve the organisational objectives. It also includes rewarding and praising the employees for their performance. Positive use of power helps in increasing the productivity of the employees and give quality output to the company (WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE , 2018). In contrary to that, negative power will give threatening to the employees in order to perform their task. It will demotivate the employees and create a negative impact on the performance of the employees.

Organisational Politics: 

Politics in organisation is the use of power and social networking in order to achieve some benefits or power in organisation. it is considered good to have a political culture in an organisation, as it helps in increase the productivity. The employees who are involved oin politics are more productive than those who are not. It is because having a clear policies and chain of communication is not so effective than having a non formal communication. Politics helps in making flatter structure in company, which makes it easier for employees to communicate to each other. But using a politics in negative manner can leads to increase in conflicts between the employees. Employees using negative politics, like engaging in dishonesty and unethical behaviour can leads to decrease in personal performance and affect the overall productivity of the company.

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2. The content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an A. W. Holding company.

Motivating an employee is very important to increase the quality of their performance and encouraging them to accomplish the goals of the of the organisation. There are various theories on motivation and different motivational techniques, that will help A.W. Holding company to motivates their employees.

Content Theories:

This theories focuses on the factors that will help in motivating the employees. This theories are also known as need theory as they they help in determining what are the factors that will motivate an employee in the organisation (Nuttin, 2014). Following are the content theories of motivation:

Herzberg' s two factor theory: This theory is developed by Fredrick Herzberg' s , this theory is the undated version of Marlow's hierarchy need theory. In this theory, the motivation are divided in two main factors that helps in evaluating this satisfaction and dissatisfaction in job. These factors are motivational factor and hygiene factors.

Hygiene factors: these are those job factors which may not motivate the employee, but these are essential to satisfy employees from their job (Latham, 2012). A. W. Holding company should analyse the factors that helps in satisfying the employees and help in achieving their short-term goals. These factor includes:

  • The pay or salary should be appropriate as according to the employees job.
  • The company's administrative policies should be clear. Which includes the working hour, dress codes etc.
  • There should be fringe benefits provided to the employees for their health care, benefits to the family members.
  • The working condition of the organisation should be clean, safe and hygienic. proper safety measures should be there in case of emergency.
  • There should not be discrimination in the company. The relationships between the employees should be healthy ans maintained.
  • The company should provide the job security to their employees.

Motivational factors: These are the factors helps in motivating the employees, these are the factors that helps in satisfying the employers from their job (Park and Ryoo, 2013). These factors encourage the employees in improving and enhancing their performance not only to achieve their goals but for the accomplishments of the organisational goal also. The motivational factors that helps A.W. Holding company in encouraging their employees includes:

  • The employees should be proud of their job and have a sense of achievement from their job.
  • The company should give recognition to the employees for their success and great performance (Huczynski, Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013).
  • The employee should have an interest in the job they are doing, they should provide enough challenges to encourage them.
  • The company should provide a chance of promotion and growth to the employees.

Process theories:

This theories influences the behavioural processes that motivate an individual (Al-Zawahreh and Al-Madi, 2012). Process theory states that how employee's needs and influences and help in driving their behaviour.

Adam's Equity Theory:

This theories emphasis on the general give and take concept. Equity theory states that, with an input of skills and efforts from employee , they expects an equal outcomes that are expressed in terms salary, status, recognition. it helps in creating an equal ratio of input to output which also compares between others input and output ratio (Lajoie and Derry, 2013). The employees began to create a perception of the fair balance of their job by comparing the situation with colleagues, friends and partners.

The Adam's equity theory will help in understanding the A. W. Holding company, the perception of their employees are affected by the changing situation off others in establishing their point of view of the fairness or equity in their working (Miner, 2015). If employees of the company feels that their inputs are being paid off with sufficient output they will be motivated in their work and will work productively which will help the company in achieving its goals and objectives.

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Motivational techniques:

There are some motivational techniques that should be adopted by A.W .Holding company in order to motivated its employees:

  • Intrinsic motivation: It is the factors that are driven by the internal rewards or the personal rewards that can help in influence the behaviour of the employees (Lichtenberg, Lachmann and Fosshage, 2013). These motivation are arises from with in the individual because it is naturally satisfying a personal desire and needs.
  • Extrinsic motivation: it is the factor where an employee are motivated to perform a behaviour or task to earn a reward or in order to avoid the punishment of not completing the task. In this techniques. Employees are not motivating because of the job satisfaction. But because of getting some rewards in return or not getting something unpleasant.

3. Explaining what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team.

In organisation, in order to fulfilled a task or to perform a job a team is being made. A team is formed of two more people that work together to accomplishing the target and goal of the team. The team is being instructed and supervised under a leader or an employee from among them. Each team member has to perform their task and role with full productivity that can make the team an effective one. An effective and ineffective team in depend on the performance and interaction of individual team member with each other.

An effective team helps in increasing the performance and productivity of an employee which helps in increasing the quality of the team output. In an effective team all the members of the team are focused towards their job (Mitchell and Golden, 2012). The main characteristics of an effective team it has communication among all the team members. They make formal and informal meetings regarding various issues of the task. They do healthy discussions and all the team members participate the management of A.W. Holding company should ensure that the team are communicating with each other. It is very important for a team to have clear picture about the goal and target for which they are working for. Goals helps in uniting the team member for which they have to work in order to achieve it.

An ineffective team is one which fails to posses the characteristics of effective team. They don't have any unity among them which shows a negative side of a team that making it an ineffective team. The team that lacks in the proper communicating makes an ineffective team. Without having a proper communication, the are having a chance of conflicts between the team members (Wheelan, 2014). The team which suffers from the lack of purpose or where, there is no proper communicating of the goals are making an ineffective team.

Its important for A W. Holding company to develop an effective team in order op achieve the business goal efficiently. Following are the theory which helped the management of A.W. Holding company in making an effective team.

Tuck-man's group development theory:

 This theory focuses on the different ways in which team can handle the given task from the initial level of formation of the team to the completion of the project. This theory emphasis to the challenges that a team faces during its development process. Following are the group development stages :

  • Forming: it is the first stage, where all group members are gathered to form a team. In this stage the team member are highly depend on the guidance from the leader. The team member are unaware about their role and team target. This stage takes time in planning, collecting information and bonding.
  • Storming: In this stage, the members start discussing about the process to complete the task. Every team member may have different ideas and each idea should be evaluated carefully (Zijlstra, Waller and Phillips, 2012). This the stage where the relationship is built as well as broken. There can be arguments over the difference in idea, the leader has to carefully manage the situation, as this stage can be very destructive.
  • Norming: in this stage the team will start to perform their task with the agreeing on the rules and values by they have to operate. In this stage, the team began to trust each other and started giving their contribution in the team. In this stage, guidance from the manager or leader is less required as team member have trained effectively about the goal of the team. The risk in this stage is to loose the creativity of the team members.
  • Performing: in this stage, the team members are ware about the process of their role and task. The team has a vision and a mission of the achievement of the team goal. In this stage, the team members take the decisions even without the help of the leader (Fransen, Kirschner and Erkens, 2011). The team member have increased their performance level.
  • Adjourning: it is the final team, where the team has broken up as the objective of the team has been achieved successfully. each team member can move to their new purpose in the company.

4. Applying concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour in A.W Holding Company Limited.

Organisational behaviour is studying the behaviour of employees in organisational atmosphere. It is psychological study of hoe workers are interacting with each other, with organisation and to the organisation itself. It is one of the main goal of A. W Holding company is to applying the proper theories and concepts of organisational behaviour in company to understand the behaviour of individual in the working culture of A. W. Holding company (Kitchin, 2017). There are various concepts and philosophies of OB that can be applied in company are:

Path goal theory:

This theory states as a process a leader in an organisation has to choose a specific style so as to best suited for the employees and the working environment. It will help the leader to motivate and lead their employees through a specific path so as to dome their daily operations efficiently. The goal of the leader in A. W. Holding company is to motivate their employees, empowerment of employees and their satisfaction so as to increase their productivity in order to achieve the organisational goals. As per described under the theory, the leaders behaviour refers to the situation where a leader in an organisation, where a leader communicate to the employees about their operations and instruct them to achieve their task (What is Path-Goal Theory? , 2018). The behaviour of leaders also sets a situation where an employees are assigned by a challenging job or responsibility so as to increase their productivity in their performance.

The path goal theory also states that a leader changes his behaviour to participative in order to engage the employees in decision making process and asking them for their feedbacks. The leaders in company adopt a supportive behaviour which will helps in satisfying the employees as per their need and preferences. The path goal theory assumes that leaders in the company is flexible enough to change and adapt different leadership[ style as per the situation in company.

Situational Resistance:

This theory is depends on the situations along with different types of leadership and strategies that are best suited to the task or job. As according to this theory, effective leaders are those who can adopt ant leadership style as according to the changing situations in the organisation. The style of leadership varies as according to the employees behaviour, depends on the changing of tasks, job or functions that needs to be accomplished. The leadership style in situational resistance is characterised in four behaviours, directing, coaching, supporting and delegating.

The directing style of leadership , the leaders direct their employees whoo are lack in some specific skills, they direct their subordinate about the task and instruct them the effective method to fulfil the task (Pauwels, Svensson and Hirtenlehner, 2018). The coaching style off leadership implies that the individual are more able to the task even if they are not satisfied with the job or task. The supporting style will implies that the employees perform their task but without the self confidence or willingness to take the responsibility. The delegating style of leadership will help the employees in performing their task and job with full confidence.

Socio Capital Theory:

This theory of organisational behaviour comprises of three dimensions for socio capital and they are categorised in structural , relational and cognitive. In the context of structural social capital, it refers to the presence or network of a people and resources. It is an intangible relationships, roles and rules in A. W. Holding company. While rational and cognitive relates with the capabilities with which the resources of company can be exchanged. On the basis of the theory, the dimensions can bee improved with access on other quick factors and it can be enhanced via numerous flexible structure.

The cognitive dimensions can be explained as a resources that are developed via interpretations, feelings and visions of the company and its workforce. The organisation structure of A. W. Holding company has to be cooperative to fulfil the demand of collaborative behaviour of the employees (Burrell and Morgan, 2017). In context of rational dimensions of social-capital-theory, it give emphasis on importance of relationship and arguments that relates to the obligation and determination which would help in developing organisational assets of A. W. Holding company.

Contingency theory:

This theory is closely related to the situational approach of the leadership. This theory gave emphasis on the importance on a leaders personality and the situation in which he operates. In the context of A. W. Holding company, it is Important for the leader to understand various external and internal situation and factors that can affect his leadership style and behaviour (Craig and Campbell, 2012). It will help in understanding the different situation which a leaders has to deal in with his leadership style. The contingency theory states that the action to be taken by leaders will be decided by the situation in the company.

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CONCLUSION

By summing up the above report, it can be concluded that organisational behaviour is crucial in understanding the most important resource of an organisation, its productive workforce. Organisational behaviour is an important concept for a company which helps in understanding the behaviour of employees in interacting with each other and to the company's culture. The present report has concluded the importance to A. W. Holding company of efficient organisational behaviour in workplace culture. The present report has included how company's culture, workplace politics and power can affect the performance of employee and team with the help of a theory. The report has concluded various content and process theories which helped understanding the motivational techniques to increase the productivity of the employees. The report has also concluded the difference between effective and ineffective team with the help of different theories. At last, the report has included various theories of organisational behaviour's concept and philosophies by applying different theories.

REFERENCES

  • Al-Zawahreh, A. and Al-Madi, F., 2012. The utility of equity theory in enhancing organizational effectiveness. European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences, 46(3), pp.159-169.
  • Burrell, G. and Morgan, G., 2017. Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Routledge.
  • Carlström, E. D. and Ekman, I., 2012. Organisational culture and change: implementing person-centred care. Journal of health organization and management. 26(2). pp.175-191.
  • Craig, T. and Campbell, D., 2012. Organisations and the business environment. Routledge.
  • Fransen, J., Kirschner, P. A. and Erkens, G., 2011. Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning: The importance of team and task awareness. Computers in Human Behavior. 27(3)0. pp.1103-1113.
  • Huczynski, A., Buchanan, D. A. and Huczynski, A.A., 2013. Organizational behaviour (p. 82). London: Pearson.
  • Kitchin, D., 2017. An introduction to organisational behaviour for managers and engineers: A group and multicultural approach. Routledge.
  • Lajoie, S. P. and Derry, S. J. eds., 2013. Computers as cognitive tools. Routledge.
  • Latham, G. P., 2012. Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Sage.
  • Lichtenberg, J. D., Lachmann, F. M. and Fosshage, J. L., 2013. The clinical exchange: Techniques derived from self and motivational systems. Routledge.
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