Questions- This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Provide the difference in fraternity and sorority in the culture of the universities and colleges.
- Generate the difference of women pursuing the STEM degrees in the American colleges and universities.
Child development programs demonstrate the drastic improvement in growth, survival, social and health productivity. Due to discrimination on the basis of sex, women who pursuing STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) degree from a University face various difficulties (Spodek & Saracho, 2014). In this regard, present essay will demonstrate some major difficulties which impact on growth of children (student). Further programs run by governmental bodies and NGOs for eradication of such issues are also elaborated.
When a young child progress from first seven years of life then there are number of developmental stages occur. During early stage of development behaviour of them affect by various factors. It includes basic desires of children like parental love, recognitions, acceptance and success etc. In addition to this, they also have unconditional or corollary needs for autonomy and privacy. As they complete each stage from childhood to mature, they get experience about several transitions of life (O'connor, Monk & Fitelson, 2014). It involves enter in school, meet with new people, make friends, carry out some new activities etc. Therefore, going out through these stages of life and development, behaviour of them changes vigorously. During child development, the main factor which affects their life is family and societal environment. This would either cause normal and abnormal behaviour, which couldn’t examine in early stage. If children face discrimination on the basis of sex, race, culture, colour and other social factors then it impacts negatively on their growth and development. Some other clues to determine if behaviours of children are abnormal or not, can be examined by some examples. It includes very well behaviour of children with other shows anxiety or level of depression. They want to get more attention, affection or love and always fear from rejection. These children are found to be very cautious, insecure and shy which shows sign of abnormal behaviour patterns.
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In American college and University, increase in efforts for diversify STEM education i.e. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, have significantly enhanced the number of studies. These studies offer insight into the women’s experiences of STEM programs in relatively higher education. These educations are referred to pre-school through higher standards, which has given rise to hundreds of studies. It ranges from recruitment or job employment and retention of female students to the workplace. Spotlight of STEM education have also increased the demand for updated research and information for investigators, professionals, experts and administrators. This would aid college faculties to understand the needs of researchers, students, staff and administrators which support females in STEM in higher education. But it has examined that women in UK are under depressed in this kind of education. The main reason behind that is gender gap which creates various difficulties in front of female students who are pursuing STEM education.
According to views and theory of Walton & et. al., (2015), it has evaluated that male students are better at spatial tasks where as females ones at verbal tasks. Women suffer gender inequalities due to prevailing socio-cultural climate in UK. Due to un-even socio-economic development like difference on the basis of culture and specially sex i.e. given priority to males over females, create various difficulties for women. In societies, it has ascertained that parents always focus more on developing career of their male child. They generally ignore to give equal importance to female child. Therefore, it causes feeling of depression in women which impact on their growth and development. In context with education such as STEM studies, mind of boys are seemed to be equal like women, both can solve a question easily. In fact women concentrate on studies more than males, they are much sharp then boys in mathematics and engineering field. But when women perform a task or face test in specific field then they fail to give effective result as desired. The reason behind this lack of confidence and family support due to which, feeling of insecurity has generated in their mind. Similarly, when women go to take admission in universities like American College then they fail to clear assessment of academic qualification, show interest in specific goals, aspiration and more.
In universities of UK, admissions are given on the basis of standardised tests. Further after clearance of assessment and standardised tests, authorities shortlists potential students and courses which match with their profile (Chisholm, 2017). Along with this, under visa counselling and interview sessions including mock test, students have to give better and effective answers. Thus, undergoes with all such sessions, it reduces confidence level of female student. As they have already less confidence and feeling of inferiority so, it quite looks difficult to take admission easily in STEM studies. Another main issue is under-matching courses where women are more likely to drop out of high school or less likely to complete a degree. Apart from this, to gain competitive advantage and increase productivity of business, organisations give preference to introduce male employees. The reason behind this is high level of confidence, family support, can do work in late night, less restrictions of society etc. Man can do job in more adequate manner as well as they have also not much issues to do job in distant places, late working hours and more. In place of this, female employees have much restrictions and family pressure due to which they face difficulties to do certain job for long run in same company (Wei & et. al., 2014). They take more leaves as compared to boys especially for marriage, pregnancy, menstrual periods etc. Family and children responsibilities as well as societal laws also not allow them to do work for late nights. Due to these, companies give recruitment to male employees as they can give more commitment to achieve growth of business and stay for longer period. All such concerns create negative impact on minds of females and decrease their interest to take STEM degree. To study such difficult subjects like science, technology, engineering and mathematics, demand students to give full time to understand. This would also create difficulties for women in pursuing STEM degree from an affiliated college and university in UK.
To encourage women to take admission in this field, regulatory bodies and universities of UK have run various programs (Corbett & Hill, 2015). They have created a college-going culture which ain women in visualising themselves over such places. Faculties of universities and government give support to each other in developing strategic plans to reach post-secondary aspirations. They also concern on reducing discrimination with women on the basis of sex, culture and other socio-economic factors. In this regard to protect females from inequalities, Government of UK has made various laws and legislations. It includes Sex Discrimination Act 1973, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1975, Equality Act 2010 etc. According to Equality Act, it is strictly prohibited for organisations, universities and colleges to discriminate human on the basis of sex, culture and socio-economic factors. If any institutions will seem to do this then government or any individual can take legal actions against them (Xu, 2015). This would help in encouraging women to enrol themselves in pursuing STEM and other degrees. Similarly IDEA act is an American Legislation which ensures that child having disabilities will provide Free Appropriate Public Education. This serves to meet their basic needs and give them equal opportunity to get education as those people who have no disability. This would help in child development and create equal culture in societies.
One of these programs is the College Ambition Program which includes an effective or broader approach to change high school culture. American College and other universities of UK offer courses for women on less academic fees. But it creates challenges in front of authorities to offer additional support for such type of courses like STEM. It falls outside of remedial courses and curriculum for female students with special needs. They have to change whole criteria of admission process and recruitment practices which often increased costs too.
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It has concluded from this report that due to societal factors, family background and others, behaviour of child much influence. From early stage to maturity, children have passed from many stages which impact on their development either in positive or negative manner. Similarly, in context with their student’s life, there are many factors present that influence them towards career development. If children face discrimination on the basis of sex, race, culture, economic status and more, from early age of childhood, then it generate feeling of insecurity, shy and inferiority in their minds. Therefore, for development of child, societies are needed to change aspects and run programs to eradicate discrimination or such type of issues.
Books and Journals
- O'connor, T. G., Monk, C., & Fitelson, E. M. (2014). Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development–implications for child psychology and psychiatry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 55(2). 99-111.
- Chisholm, J. S. (2017). Navajo infancy: An ethological study of child development. Routledge.
- Spodek, B., & Saracho, O. N. (2014). Handbook of research on the education of young children. Routledge.
- Corbett, C., & Hill, C. (2015). Solving the Equation: The Variables for Women's Success in Engineering and Computing. American Association of University Women. 1111 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036.
- Xu, Y. (2015). Focusing on women in STEM: A longitudinal examination of the gender-based earning gap of college graduates. The Journal of Higher Education. 86(4). 489-523.