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Organisation Behaviour


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Organizational behavior is an effective approach to increasing the communication skills of employees in order to increase business activities for earning more profit in the nation. It also helps staff members to enhance efficiency and performance by utilizing proper management techniques in the organization (Jones and Scott, 2011). John Lewis is a retailer corporation that sells its optimistic retail products to consumers in the nation. It is also one of the best companies in the United Kingdom. The present file represents the relationship between enterprise structure and culture. It also introduces management theories like administrative and scientific theories for the organization. Further, it also evaluates different approaches to management in corporations. It also defines motivational theories in John Lewis.

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Q. 1 Compare the three kinds of organizational structures and cultures.

Three types of organizational structures and culture are defined below the paragraph.

Organization Structure

Functional corporation structure supports job function. For example, manufacturing firms categorise its job functionalities on the base of different divisions like operations, human resources,s and finance (Leon and Garcia, 2011). Generally, the organization utilizes this structure due to better usage of staff members and their collaboration.

Product organizational structure has particular managers. These leaders reports directly their president or head as per product wise in firm. For example, retails organisations utilizes this procedure to carry out its retail operations in every cities. Generally, this structures enables the enterprise for diversification of products and services in the state.

Geographical organisational structure supports area wise operations in the nation. For example, FMCG corporations uses to sell its products in various regions. Enterprise utilizes this method to operate decentralized operations in the different areas (Devaney, 2014).

Organization Culture

In Power culture, few managers provides order to conduct any kind of job in the corporation whose impact spreads the whole firm. For example. Financial organisations are operated on this type of culture to achieve better profit. Corporation concentrate towards on only output of staff members (Biswas, 2015). Company operates culture to consider quick decisions to complete projects very fast.

In the role culture, employees have knowledge about their roles and duties in firm. For example, Software companies utilizes this procedure to decrease chances of risk regarding work. Individual can achieve effective speed in the firm.

Task culture is operated to sort out specific problems or progress projects in the firm. For example, research corporations adopts this kind of culture to accomplish effective study in market. It also aids to design effective personalities and leadership skills in the organization.

Q.2 Represent how the relationship between a firm structure as well as a culture can affect the performance of the business?

Relationship between structure and culture effect on the performance of business in positive and negative manner. It is stated as follows.

Structure Impacts- John Lewis utilizes Tall structure for its operations in the nation. Directors and general managers are there for various departments such as HR, finance, consumer service etc. They manage a small team of employees. This hierarchy inspires the people to perform best work in John Lewis. This method also helps the organisation to increase the effectiveness and performance in the retail market due to proper control and monitoring of employees (Gibbins-Klein, 2011). Tall structures also contributes effective role for store managers and sales assessment to realise their roles and responsibilities in John Lewis. This approach also decreases the issues of cross communication in enterprise which increases organisational efficiency in varied shops of John Lewis present in UK.

Cultural Impacts- Role culture is used in John Lewis where employees have awareness about their duties and can thus work effectively. This approach motivates the employees to perform any type of work in effective manner in JOHN LEWIS. It further aids to fulfil requirements of consumers in store (Khan, Kadir and Wahab, 2010). This method also helps the firm to achieve its goals and objectives in the market. It also attracts the consumers to purchase more products in the JOHN LEWIS. This as employees due to awareness bout there roles are in better position to explain consumers about product and services. This culture also concentrates towards taking effective training and development session for employees so as to increase the knowledge for providing better services in the retail store. These things also helps corporation to enhance efficiency and performance in United Kingdom. So JOHN LEWIS faces less issue to manage its operations as comparison of other firm in nation (Khan, Kadir and Wahab, 2010).

Q. 3 Measure and describe the factors which effect person behaviour at work. Why a manager should interpret individual behavior?

Leadership, work culture and job responsibilities also produces effective environment for sales assistants and store managers in JOHN LEWIS.

Leadership- Leadership is human action which is managed by managers in firm. The management at John Lewis provides effective guidance to its employees in proper manner which help them to complete work in an appropriate way in JOHN LEWIS. Hence, staff members have never faced issues in their job within John Lewis (Caesens and, 2015). These things help to enhance performance of enterprise.

Work culture- Mainly role culture also helps the firm to make employees have awareness about their roles. They thus work properly due to non-ambiguity of job duties. It also keeps them enthusiastic in organisational premises. It aids effectively to enhance the efficiency in job. Management of JOHN LEWIS also considers transparency for its employees to maintain the equality.

Job Responsibilities- Leaders also motivate the staff members to do optimistic work with help of this method in the organization. They also aid the individual to enhance their skills in JOHN LEWIS (Mangadu Paramasivam, 2015). This way, employees also decrease possibilities of work load in corporation.

Manager of organisation also try to interpret nature of person by providing specific responsibilities on the base of efficiency of project completion, punctuality as well as loyalty. These things contribute effective role for managers to complete their job in an appropriate manner. Leaders can measure performance of employees on the basis of working styles in JOHN LEWIS. Punctuality of employees explains its dedication regarding job in firm. Loyalty also reveals honesty as well as sincerity of individuals to operate any type of work in organisation. This way, managers can achieve various kind of contribution to aware about nature of person in JOHN LEWIS.

Q.4 Describe how organizational theory underpins the practice of management and discuss their contribution to management?

Corporation theories also effect positively to conduct job in organization. But firm has to select particular theory to achieve better result. This procedure also aids the JOHN LEWIS to enhance working style of staff members by giving appropriate information in work (Caesens and, 2015). It helps the firm to provide better inspiration and rendering various facilities such as good salary, bonus and incentives for employees. Other theories like neoclassical and modern concept also contribute effective role to achieve organizational goals and objectives in retail market.

Administrative theory can be used by John Lewis. It includes the staff, committees, line as well as functionality of all departments in enterprise. Organization at present uses division of job for the employees. This process also helps to increase speed of the retail operations and managerial work. Scientific theory if employed within John Lewis then it can aid to measure work flow of organization (Van Knippenberg, Van Prooijen and Sleebos, 2015). It may further aid to increase labor productivity so as to improve financial conditions of firm. Theory of bureaucracy further concentrates on two things in the enterprise. This may be fruitful for the company as it obligates the corporation the company to use of hierarchical structures in the nation. In addition, organization and its staff members have to consider legal rules to handle its operations in corporation.

In a crux, it has been found that the organizational theories contribute effective role for John Lewis. These things aid the management to accomplish its goals and objectives in appropriate manner in United Kingdom. Management of JOHN LEWIS has been able to properly gauge its employees as well as work due to use of bureaucratic theory (Cheung-Judge and Holbeche, 2015).

Q. 5. Compare the leadership styles of the two managers and how different/similar they are from?

Generally, a comparison can be made in JOHN LEWIS and Apple in terms of leadership styles of the two managers.

Leadership style of Apple- The firm has been known to use autocratic leadership style so as to handle its employees. It does not associates sales assistants and store managers in meeting to take any type of decisions like technological environment change, development of purchasing and selling strategies in nation (Mathieu and Taylor, 2007). This process demotivates the employees in Apple. It increases turnover rate of staff members in the organisation. In addition, it also decreases speed and efficiency of corporation as comparison of other competitors in the UK.

The leadership of JOHN LEWIS- Enterprise adopts democratic leadership style where top level managers and directors include the sales assistants in the meeting to take any type decision regarding purchasing and selling strategies. This thing motivates the employees in firm (Akintayo and Babalola, 2011). Further, it is enhancing the sales turnover rate in JOHN LEWIS. Hence, efficiency and performance of organisation is increasing in UK. As per consequences, democratic leadership style is effective for organisation.

Q. 6. Evaluate the various methods to management used by the two different corporations?

Mainly, JOHN LEWIS and Apple organisations consider various management methods in the UK. Apple makes use of autocratic style in its day to day operations. This type of management has never inspired workers for doing effective job in the enterprise. It decreases performance of its workforce in the firm. It further obliges its sales assistants to consider many rule and regulations in firm. This enhances divisional conflicts in the organization (Leon and Garcia, M. 2011). Apple is also facing many problems between sales assistants because many employees are come from various countries for the job. So these things are creating cultural and language complexities for staff members in firm.

On the other point of view, JOHN LEWIS uses democratic leadership style for its store keepers and other employees (Luthans and Youssef, 2007). This approach motivates its sales assistants in organization. JOHN LEWIS uses tall structure to handle its operations but gives optimistic autonomy to its employees. These things inspire them internally in enterprise. Hence, corporation is not suffering from department issues to organize its operations. JOHN LEWIS also selects many diversified employees to manage its work but there are no problems among workforce. In addition, organisation conducts regular training and sporting activities in week or month (Hosie and Smith, 2009). This process develops optimistic relations among sales assistant and managers.

Q. 7. Describe the effect of various leadership styles may have on motivation of managers and staff in firm during periods of change?

JOHN LEWIS has been witnessing many periods of change such as technological environment by using new software like Enterprise Resources. If organization considers autocratic method on the sales assistants during the voters of technological change then employees may not give their effective contribution to the managers for execution of new software. These people may not wish to provide their efforts to learn this ERP tool to enhance their efficiency in the JOHN LEWIS during changing period of technology. This method of leadership during period of change may demotivate sales assistants and other employees regarding performing better job in the firm.

On the other hand, if company makes use of democratic style then people will coir fate with management for installing new software in firm during changing period of technology (Ordiz and, 2003). They are likely to be less resistant regarding the training programs in the corporation. Regional Managers of organization can also realizes complexities during installation of ERP tool (Neff, 2006).

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Q. 8 compare the application of different motivational theories?

Content and process motivational theory contains many theories. Maslow, ERG and X and Y theories are come under content theory. Reinforcement, expectancy, equity theories are classified under process theory.

Reinforcement method is categorised under rewards, punishments and Extinction.

JOHN LEWIS can give rewards to its sales assistants and workers who are doing good job. Management of organisation can enhance the efficiency and team work of these members through giving them a reward in form of promotion in the JOHN LEWIS (Martin, 2005). In the same way, it can punish those employees who show a lazy attitude and are not punctual in office. This can help to prevent the behaviour that is not wanted. In the same way, it can fire those who are not working as per the set norms (The Content Theories of Motivation, 2015). Maslow concept is contains five steps such as basic needs, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization. As per this theory, management at John Lewis should focus on provide better motivation to do optimistic job by understanding there level of need (Stotz, 2015)

Q. 9. Asses the usefulness of motivation theories for managers in an organization?

Usefulness of motivation theories provides huge reliability for managers of JOHN LEWIS to perform many retail operations in UK.

The usefulness of Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory also aids leaders of JOHN LEWIS to increase its business activities in the retail market (Dierkes, 2003).

This concept also helps managers to decrease chances of work load because it concentrate to give more extra salary as incentives instead of extra job in JOHN LEWIS.

Reinforcement theory aids the leaders to enhance the efficiency of firm as comparison of other motivation theories by providing appropriate information to the employees in first phase in UK (Cheung-Judge and Holbeche, 2015).

It also contribute effective role for management to enhance the core competencies of staff members which provides better competitive advantages by selling more retail products in market.

The usefulness of Maslow Theory

Maslow theory also helps the managers to hold the employees for sustainable time by giving better salary, incentives, job security bonus and health insurance in JOHN LEWIS. It also increases relationship between sales assistants and store managers by providing these services in corporation (Rahman and, 2015).

Maslow theory also contribute appropriate role for managers to increase honesty and loyalty in sales assistants by including them in meeting to design various type of strategies for purchasing and selling materials in JOHN LEWIS. This procedure also aids leaders to realize value of staff members in enterprise.

This approach helps the managers of JOHN LEWIS for utilization of ideas and concepts to enhance the customer rate in the store by considering proposals of employee's in meeting (Santhosh and Baral, 2015).


From the report, it is found that organization structures and culture are aiding the JOHN LEWIS firm to improve its working style in the United Kingdom. Administrative theory are also helping the corporation to organize its retail operations in a appropriate manner. Further, management of enterprise is providing better rival advantages to collect more revenues as comparison of its competitors like Apple in the UK. In addition, democratic leadership style is giving effective advantages to implement ERP tool in the JOHN LEWIS. It can be concluded that motivation theories is aiding enterprise to motivate its sales assistants and other employees regarding organizational work.


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  • Biswas, S. N., 2015. Organizational Behaviour Research in Rural Producers’ Cooperatives A Neglected Domain. International Journal of Rural Management.
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