This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Evaluate the impact of culture, politics, and power on the behavior of others in an organizational context
- David & co limited provides food and beverages services. Explain how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how to cooperate effectively with others.
- Implement concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior to a given business situation.
Organizational behavior refers to the examination of human behavior and how they interact with each other. It is the study of an individual's behavior during the working environment so as to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their work performance. This report takes into consideration A David & Co Limited which deals in the food and beverage industry, located in the United Kingdom. It deals in rendering production and distribution of fruits and provides a full range of fresh fruits, vegetables, and bakery items on a daily basis to hotels, restaurants, contract caterers, and government contracts. This present assignment defines the influence of culture, politics, and power on team behavior and performance. In addition to this different motivational theories are applied in order to motivate individuals and teams to achieve goals. Lastly, this file focuses on the concept and philosophies of organizational behavior.
P1 Influence of organizational culture, politics, and power on team behavior and performance
Teams are formed in an organization when all the individuals share common preferences and attitudes in order to work towards a common goal. In context to the A David & co limited, coming together is the beginning, keeping together is progress and working together is a success. So in order to achieve successful growth in the future, A David & co limited has formed different teams as per the goal they share so hat they become specialized in their work performance. In context to A David & co limited there are different cultures, politics, and power within the organization which greatly influence the business concern are explained below:
Organizational culture refers to the beliefs, norms, and principles under which the organization members have to perform their respective tasks. In context to the A David & co limited there are four types of organizational culture which are popularized by Charles handy (Amoore, L. 2015): This theory brings a powerful effect on modern management thinking. Handy defines culture as the way individuals live by adopting different norms and cultural practices. Here are the four types of handy culture which are explained below:
In this culture, power is in the hand of very few individuals whose influence spread within the whole business concern. A company with this type of culture can respond quickly to events as well as helps in improving team behavior and performance. For example, the HR manager has only the power to recruit and select the best candidate for the organization. If the HR manager will not recruit and select the best candidate required for the team to accomplish the goal then it will negatively affect the team members and will not be able to achieve the target goal. Thus, it can be said that the power of the HR manager can greatly influence the behavior and performance of the team and individuals.
These types of cultures are supported by each individual within the organization. In the context of A David & co limited, if each individual within the organization has a specific role to play then they are able to accomplish the organizational goals at a specified time. Thus, if each individual plays an effective role it will help in the betterment of team behavior and performance.
This type of culture depends on the integrative power of the unit so as to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the team's behavior and performance. In context to the A David & co limited these types of cultures are formed to address the specific project in order to attain the best outcome for the organization in the form of successful growth in the future. Thus, this culture helps the individuals working in an organization to become specialized in their respective job profiles, as a result, it will help in accomplishing the organization's aims and objectives in a specified time period. In addition to this, it will also help in achieving a competitive advantage in the market.
In context to the A David & co limited this type of culture is an unusual culture. (Saunila, M., 2014) Individuals with personal culture in A David & co limited mainly exist to serve and assist individuals within the business concern so as to improve team behavior and their performance level. Thus, this type of culture affects the smooth working of the different operational activities within the organization. As an individual with this type of culture affects the productivity and the profitability ratio of the organization.
Overall it can be concluded that the HR manager of A David & co limited should adopt a task culture so that each individual gets specialized in their performance. Thus, it will also result in increased productivity and efficiency which indirectly result in getting better output for the company
Organizational politics refers to the activities associated with governing a workplace. It may consist of a set of beliefs and principles under which the organization needs to function. In addition to this politics in an organization is a tactic that one plays in order to improve one's status or it can be said as politics is played by individuals in order to increase one's power in the organization. Moreover when one pursues an agenda of developing self-interest in the administration while having little regard about the effect on company success in accomplishing its goals and objectives. When the workers in the A David & co limited adopts such politics practices then it indirectly becomes a barrier in achieving organizational target aims and objectives as well as it will hamper team behaviour and their performance.(Crowther, D., 2018) In order to improve team behaviour and their individual performance A David & co limited should not adopt such practices. The company takes into consideration equality among each member of the organization in order to motivate them to work harder and to achieve target goal of the firm. The HR manger of the company treat their worker just like their family members so that they get motivated and work towards in accomplishing the goal of the administration. Thus, it will help in improving the performance level of the individual and will also lead in the betterment of team behaviour.
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Organisation power is the ability to influence employees so as to get work done from them in order to accomplish organizational goals. (Emami, M. and et. al., 2012)There are fives types of power given by French and Raven's which are exercise in the A David & co limited in order to improve team behaviour and their performance level and which are explained below:
Reward power: Its the responsibility of the HR manager of A David & co limited to exercise reward power. Like by increasing salary by providing promotion(Schuette, H., 2016) and bonus to their workers etc. Exercising of this type of power is must for the A David & co limited in order to improve team behaviour and to increase their performance level.
Coercive power: This power refers to the practice of adopting illegal way like by punishing or by giving warning letter in order to get work done from team members. In order to increase the team behaviour and their performance level the HR manager of A David & co limited should not exercise coercive power
Legitimate power: This type of power is based on position of the person like the HR manager has the power to recruit and select the best candidate for the organization. The HR manager of A David & co limited have the legitimating power to influence and motivate the individual in the organization to work for achieving company goals. Thus, it will also helps in increasing team behaviour performance level too.
Referent power: This types of power is based on building up of relationship and interpersonal attraction. For example HR manage of A David & co limited possess referent power as he/she is the one in the organization who has to maintain wider interrelationship with internal as well as external member. Thus, exercising of referent power also help in building up of team behaviour and their performance level.
Expert power: One of the team member of A David & co limited must have expert power so that if any problem arises they can sort out it by using their knowledge and expert power skills. This will help in building up team behaviour and their performance level which indirectly result in accomplishing organizational goals.
Overall it can be concluded that A David & Co limited uses reward power in order to retain and motivate individual working within the organization. Reward like promotion, better incentives, appreciation etc. Thus, examining this type of power within the organization will helps in achieving better productivity and profitability ration as compared to its competitors.
P2 Content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques
Motivation is define as an internal state of individual's mind that direct their behaviour and efforts in attaining goals. (Giovannone, M., 2016)Motivation provides a willingness to perform work effectively and efficiently. Main aim of motivation is to influence employees towards achieving goals and objectives of a firm. Generally, leaders play an important role to provide motivation to employees after identifying there needs and motivate them through monetary and non monetary terms. Leaders and managers of A David & Co Ltd. encourage there workers for performing better task and achieve goals and objectives of an organisation in effective and efficient manner.
Theories of Motivation
There are different types of motivation theories which are developed to improve the motivation of employees in a firm. (Harper, H., 2018)Here are mainly two types of motivation theories such as Content Theory and Process Theory which are explained below:
This theory discover to indicate the result of what motivational factors encourage the employees to perform better work in A David & Co Ltd. There are different types of theories includes in content theory. These are:- Maslow's need hierarchy, Herzberg's two factor theory, Alderfer's theory and McClelland's achievement theory.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
This theory was formulated by Abraham Maslow in 1940 and 1950. This theory is categories into five basic needs such as basic physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self esteem needs and self-actualisation needs. (Hutchinson, M. 2015)These needs are fit in series of hierarchy form Complex needs at the top level and basic needs are formed at bottom level. Explanation of these are as follows:-
Physiological Needs: These are the basic need of a person which are necessary to survive on the Earth. It contains different types of needs like food, shelter, clothes, water, sleep, air and other necessities of human life. A David and Co Ltd. have to focus on these requirements of employees and give them salary timely for fulfil their needs. It helps to develop their motivation and firm can achieve their goals.
Safety and Security Needs: It refers to desire of protection and security of a person. A David and Co Ltd have to satisfy the needs (Ritala, P. and Huizingh, E., 2014)of job security, economic security, health insurance etc. after getting safety and security employee feel motivated and work efficiently to achieve organisational goals.
Social Needs: Employees of A David & Co Ltd need love and affection from their superiors. They need attention and support from their seniors, social groups and colleagues. It is the responsibility of a firm to provide love and affection to their employees and eliminate isolation.
Self-esteem needs: In this need a person want respect and appreciation by others. A David & Co Ltd can fulfil this need of employees from two ways i.e. higher version and lower version. In higher version, employees need self respect like freedom and in lower version, employees need respect from others such as attention, status etc.
Self-actualisation needs: This is the final needs of Maslow's hierarchy theory. It refers to the desire of a person to develop and grow their requirements with full potential. A David & Co Ltd have to provide opportunity of growth and development to motivate their employees. It helps in achieving organisational goal and success.
This theory focuses on “HOW” motivation of an individual is occur. A David & Co Ltd has taken into consideration Victor Vroom theory in order to motivate and influence the employees to work harder in order to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Vroom's expectancy theory
In context to the A David & Co Ltd this theory indicates that workers level of motivation depends on the quality of the reward sought and on the chance of the rewards obtained. In addition to this the theory specifies that employees have the feeling that they well receive value from the business concern only when they will render their higher effort towards achievements of organizational goal.(Lancaster, S. 2014) This theory is based on three key aspects which are explained below:
Valence: In context to the A David & Co Ltd this key aspect of vroom theory specifies that workers are give value to the reward system which will lead in the development and achievement of success for the firm.
Instrumentality: This key aspect of vroom theory specifies that workers thinks that there is a close relationship between the objective and the activity they perform. If the worker gives their best they will receive best in the form of reward. So HR manager of A David & Co Ltd should motivate the workers to work harder and to perform best and by giving them reward for their better working performance.
Expectancy: The HR manager of A David & Co Ltd should motivate their employees to work for accomplishing better outcomes. As this key element of vroom theory specifies that there is a close interrelationship between predicted outcomes and the chosen course of action.
Thus, both the theories have their own positive and negative effects upon the organization. If the A David & Co limited takes into consideration the importance of fulfilling the needs of which are specified by Abraham mas low then it will helps in creating positive view point in the mindset of the workforce and they will work toward achieving better outcome for the organization. Whereas if the company just ignore the different specific needs of the individual like social needs, physiological need, safety and security need of the workforce then it will negatively effect the working environment and there may take place increase in the employee turnover ratio. On the other hand if the company takes into consideration vroom theory which specifies that employee feel that their better outcome will result achieving reward performance then it will helps in motivating and influencing workforce to achieve target goal of an organization. Whereas in case when the employees expect ion are not fulfilled by the company then it will negatively impact the organization by increasing employees turnover ratio.
P3 Explanation about what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team.
Team refers to the group of individuals who work together in order to achieve common goals associated with organizational aims and objectives.(Lawrence, P. and Lee, R., 2013) In context to the A David & Co Ltd , team can be categorized as effective and ineffective team and the difference between the two are explained below:
An effective team is one who make efficient use of resources and are fully committed in achieving their common goal.
Ineffective team is one whose goals and objectives are unclear and are low committed towards their working performance.
There are certain factors which create ineffective team within the organization like unhealthy environment, bulling and harassment practice adopted by organization, by not appreciating worker performance,by not rendering some reward benefits on the basis of their performance level. Thus, all this factors creates ineffective team within the organization. So its the prime responsibility of the manager of A David and Co limited to render flexible environment to the workforce so that it helps in creating effective team environment within the organisation. In order to accomplish the organizational goal on specified time schedule its the prime responsibility of the HR manager of A David & Co Ltd, to group their operational activity into different teams like functional team, problem solving team and many more. Some of them are explained below:
Functional Team: The HR manager ofA David & Co Ltd makes different teams as per the functional activities performed in an organization.(Okurame, D., 2012) Such as human resource team, production team, research & development team and many more. This in turn helps in accomplishing company objective on specified time period.
Problem Solving Team:. This team helps in overcoming the issues as well as come up with some skill full ideas which help the company in achieving the target goal on time. Its the responsibility of HR manager of A David & Co Ltd to make problem solving team in an organization
Project Team: The major purpose of project team in context to the A David & Co Ltd is to carry out some specific project program. It consist of expert team members from different department who work together towards their particular project task.
Virtual Team:In context to the A David & Co Ltd virtual team is the one who carry out their project work by communicating online through conferencing technologies. Thus, this type of team help in saving time as well as cost of an organization.
In order to achieve (Lawrence, P. 2013)the target goal on specified time A David & Co Ltd has taken into consideration Tuckman theory which is explained below:
In context to A David & Co Ltd Tuckman model explains the five different stages of team development and behaviour which help(McLeod, H., 2017) in building effective team are stated below:
Forming: This the the very first stage of team development process under which the team member are highly dependent on leaders for guidance and direction. So its the responsibility of HR manger of A David & Co Ltd to make their team members familiar with the working environment.
Storming: After forming next comes the storming stage where the team members start interacting with each other and come up with their opinions and ideas. In addition to this there may arise conflicts too during this stage. So its the prime responsibility of HR manger of A David & Co Ltd to sort out the conflicts that may arise during storming stage.
Norming: At this stage the team members(Moxen, J. and Strachan, P., 2017)of A David & Co Ltd starts resolving disputes, appreciates their strength and respect their leaders. So its the key responsibility of HR manger to appreciate their working performance from time to time in order to get more better outcomes.
Performing: In context to the A David & Co Ltd at this stage team members doesn't rely upon their superiors, they become capable of taking decision on their own. So its the prime responsibility of HR manger of the company to provide them opportunities to take their decision by themselves so that they can develop their skills to the fullest potential.
Adjourning: In context to the A David & Co Ltd this is the last stage of team development where they end up with there respective projects assigned to them. In addition to this at this stage there take place break up of team members when their task get completed.
P4 Concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior
Concept of organizational behavior
The basic concept of organizational behavior is based on two key elements; nature of people and the nature of organization.(Stapley, L. F., 2018) If the nature of individuals working in an organization is good enough then they will result in accomplishing business goal on fixed time schedule. Secondly, if the nature of the organization toward their employees is unfair then it will lead to increase in employees turnover. Thus it will indirectly effect the image of the company. Similarly if the organization treat their worker just like their family member, then it will result in successful growth of the company. Thus, it can be said that positive attitude of the people and the organization towards each other will result in better growth of the company.
Philosophies of organizational behavior
The HR manager of the A David & Co Ltd has taken into consideration one of the philosophy of organizational behaviour name Path Goal Theory which is explained below:
Path Goal Theory: This theory was developed by Robert J. House and is one of the leadership theory which emphasizes on the fact to increase employees motivation and empowerment in order to accomplish the target goal. Its the responsibility of HR manager of the A David & Co Ltd to select the best leader who will best fit the workers and working environment. In addition to this this theory specifies the fact that leader style and behaviour matter a lot in order to influence employees to work harder in achieving target goal. Moreover the leaders should also ensure that they provide better working environment as well as provide reward system to their subordinate for their better work performance. As per this theory leader should be directive, supportive, achievement oriented and of participative type so that employees feel that they are the part of the company not just the machinery for the organization. The HR manger of the company should ensure that the leaders are flexible. In addition to this they can easily adopt the supportive and participative types of leadership style in order to motivate and influence employees to get work done from them.
Situational leadership model: This model was developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. This types of theory specifies that it is based on relationship between followers and the leaders and as well as serve as a framework so as to analyse each situation on the basis of performance readiness. In addition to this it states that there is no particular style of leadership which the company should follow, it all depend upon situation which style of leadership behaviour should be adopted. For example A David & Co limited uses democratic and participative style of leadership when there arise employees turnover which is due the fact that they are being treated just like a machine not as a member of an organization, so the-leader of the company adopt democratic style of leadership by render them flexible environment to the workforce. Thus, it is been proved that adoption of leadership style depends upon situation. Thus, it will helps in increasing the profitability ration of an organizational
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From the above mention report it can be concluded that organizational behavior plays important role in accomplishing organizational aims and objectives. In order to achieve the desired target the manager of the company should focus on the fact that how they can motivate their workers in order to increase their working performance level. Like the manager can apply content and process motivational theories in order to influence employees to work more harder to achieve desired target. (Thoradeniya, P. and et.al., 201)In addition to this the HR manager of the company should also analyze the influence of culture, politics and power so that they can be overcome and can be helpful for smooth running of business concerns. Moreover the HR manager of the company should apply certain concepts and philosophies of organizational behaviour like by applying the Path goal theory manager can motivate and guide them from time to time in order to increase their working performance level. Thus, overall it can be said that proper management of human resources is a must in order to accomplish organizational aims and objectives on the specified time period.
Books and Journals
- Amoore, L. and Piotukh, V. eds., 2015. Algorithmic life: Calculative devices in the age of big data. Routledge.
- Crowther, D., 2018. A Social Critique of Corporate Reporting: A Semiotic Analysis of Corporate Financial and Environmental Reporting: A Semiotic Analysis of Corporate Financial and Environmental Reporting. Routledge.
- Emami, M. and et. al., 2012. Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB).
- Giovannone, M., 2016. Vulnerable workers: health, safety and well-being. CRC Press.
- Harper, H., 2018. Management in Further Education: theory and practice. Routledge.