- What is influence of culture, politics and power in Unilever
- Evaluate methods to motivate individuals in Unilever.
- What are the ways used by Unilever to co-operate effectively.
- Apply different concepts and philosophies used by Unilever
Organisational behaviour is used to analysis and evaluated behaviour and nature of various individual as per working environment of organisation. It is conduced primarily to know about behaviour of particular individual while performing specific roles within company. Effective organisational behaviour promotes growth and success of enterprise in the environment through motivating employees to work hard so that company can achieve its objectives. This report is about Unilever that is large organisation in UK operating its business worldwide to provide qualitative products and service to large number of customers. This report is an analysis of influence of culture, politics and power on behaviour of different individual that are performing their function in the organisation. It also evaluated various motivation theories that can be used firm to influence employees and helps in understanding of importance of cooperative efforts.
Influence of culture, politics and power on behaviour of individual
Unilever is large organisation having number of employees working together to perform different function and activities so that company can gain competitive advantage in the market. Therefore different people have specific tradition, culture and preference and social behaviour because they live in particular society (Ahmad. and et.al., 2018). Unilever has use effective and innovative culture to motivate employees to work hard for achievement of common objectives. Culture of Unilever help in improving performance and productivity of various employees can be stated through use of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture theory such as:
- Power distance Index:It explains about extension of power and inequality with organisation such as high power index shows that there is high level of inequality and difference in power. Thus, top level management is responsible for taking decision of company whereas in low power distance state that top management encourages view and opinion of other people while taking accurate decision. Unilever has low power distance which helps in brining equality in the culture and motivates employees to work hard through encouraging active participation in decision making.
- Collectivism and Individualism:Unilever mostly focus on collectivism strategy that means common goals are given priority as compared to individual goals for well being of other employees and effective operation of business (Hadi, Abdullah and Atshan, 2019). Goals of individual are coordinated with organisational goals so that needs of employee can be satisfied and company can gain competitive advantages.
- Uncertainty Avoidance Index:Company has open, flexible laws, rules and regulation so that it can easily adapt to various changes of environment and expand its business across worldwide. Thus, it helps in enhancing ability to take risk, faced uncertain situation and avoid confusion, ambitious for maximum utilisation of available resources.
- Masculinity and Femininity: Unilever objective is not only to earn large amount of profit but to provide qualitative services and products to customers. Therefore it focuses on quality of life and provides equal opportunities to both male and female so that they can grow and develop their knowledge and skills.
- Long term and short term oriented: Company emphasis on long term growth and sustainability of organisation rather than short term goals so that it effectively manage quality of products and services. It plans method to train and develop knowledge of employees and find innovative method to motivate employees to retain their satisfaction and loyalty. Manager of Unilever also formulate effective strategies and provide good working environment so that employees can easily perform their different function and activities. It helps in retention of employees within organisation for longer period of time and reduces chance of employee turnover so that Unilever can grow and sustain its business.
- Restraint and Indulgence: Manager of Unilever follows indulgence culture that means reward and recognises effort of each individual in order to motivate people to enhance their performance and productivity (Tokay and Eyupoglu, 2018). Restraint is avoided in company as needs and requirement of individual are not suppressed by manager of firm to prevent employee from de-motivation and ensure effective performance of employee towards desired goals.
Digitalisation has lead to effective connection of different individual through use of innovative technology such as social sites. It reduces chance of miscommunication and conflict among employees for effective performance of various functions. Employee’s efforts are recognised and reward through use of social media thus motivate and influence employees to work hard.
- System theory:Unilever has a definite organisational structure and system that helps in effective performance and coordination of employee’s effort towards organisational goals. Effective system and procedure to perform various function helps in smooth operation of various activities and achievement of goals. System theory is also helps in effective communication and coordination between employees so that they can work as team towards desired common goals of firm (Coxen, Van der Vaart and Stander, 2016). It helps in completion of task within limited time and efforts as systematic and appropriated techniques are used that lead to reduction in wastage of time and efforts of individual.
- Network theory: Every individual in the organisation are closely monitored and supervised by senior manager so that best output can be gained from minimum input. Unilever has use innovative technology such as social media, social sites and information technology to maintain strong and effective network in the environment. Company by use of social media is able to effective connect employees that are working in different office across various countries. Unilever has made its own official website so that customers can easily choose particular products and service and make their shopping online. Thus, digitalisation has pace effective networking and connection between employees and customers that are residing across various countries in the world. Sky can also be used by stakeholder and top management to conduct meeting and take crucial decision for growth and expansion of business.
Power state ability and capabilities of various individual to take decision within organisation and order other people to perform different function as per guidelines stated by individual. Unilever has delegated power to take decision among various employee and manager so that it can deliver products and service within limited time and gain competitive advantages. Delegation of authority and responsibilities helps in creating new leaders and successful employee that are highly dedicated and determined to put their best for achievement of organisation goals (Giessner, 2016). Distribution of power within organisation can be analysed and evaluated through French and Raven’s Power Types that states there are five types of organisation power such as:
- Coercive Power: It is such power where an individual is forced to perform specific roles and responsibilities beyond its will so main objective of this theory is compliance. Employees of Unilever need to follow all rules and regulation of firm while operating different function with organisation. Top management may use its power to threat and scold ineffective employees to improve their performance in order to work with organisation. But such powers are avoided in Unilever so that better working environment can be provided to employees to satisfy their need and wants (Alziyadat and Ahmed, 2016). Leader and manager of Unilever cannot use their power to dismissal or demote employees on unfair basis thus helps in promoting equality and justice within organisation.
- Reward:Manager are given power and authority to reward and recognise performance of employees that are working hard for achievement of Unilever goals. Such rewards and recognition helps in influence employee to put their best of their capabilities and skill so that desired objectives can be gained.
- Legitimate Power:Some people get power to make decision and order other people through transfer of position so that they have power to punish and reward employees on basis of their performance within organisation (Griffioen, Doppenberg and Oostdam, 2018). Top management and manager of each department of Unilever have power to delegated responsibilities and authority at the same time punish, reward employees for proper functioning of organisation.
- Referent Power: Leader and manager that are mostly liked by different employees due to attractive personality, charming attitude and positive behaviour. There are certain leader that have get power to take decision because of their high knowledge, skill and charming attitude to work effectively.
- Expert Power: Unilever has high skilled and knowledge employees but among them some of the employees are specialised and expert in particular field. Thus, there are given authority to take appropriate decision and can easily pursued other employees to work in particular manner for accomplishment of task.
Some of the employees in order to get superior power and position within organisation play politics that adversely impact working environment. Manager of Unilever tries to avoid politics within organisation for health and effective working environment to motivate people. Existence of politics in Unilever can be understood through Chanlat’s Politic model such as:
Politics has an negative impact on various team member and individual that are working in the organisation as they play game in order to negatively competitive with each other. So it may result in mental, physical and emotional pain to other people and effect adversely on work culture (Forssell, 2018). Therefore manager of Unilever continuous supervise and monitor performance of employees so that no politics can be played within firm and all individual are provided equal opportunities. It also impact on structure and direction that need to be followed by particular individual while performing different activities.
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Evaluation of Motivation on individual and team performance
Motivation is required by each and every individual so that it can work hard and maximum utilise its capabilities to achieve desired goals. It helps in effective performance and productivity of individual within minimum wastage of resources and time thus promote growth and success of Unilever. Therefore different theories of Motivation are used by manager of Unilever to enhance productivity and performance of employees (BakotiÄ‡, 2016). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two types of motivation that influence individual to put their best efforts. Intrinsic motivation explained internal needs and wants of employees or individual likes to perform activities because of high level of interest. Extrinsic motivation is that when individual is motivated through external factors such as rewards and recognition for working to hard for common goals.There are two types of motivation theories such as contented and process that are used by manager of company are as follows:
Content theory emphasis on internal needs and requirement of individual or identify various factors that influence people to work. It is further classified into Maslow’ needs Hierarchy theory, Herzeberg's motivator-hygiene theory and Alderfer's ERG theory.
- Maslow’ needs Hierarchy theory:This theory explained various level of satisfying need and wants of people due to continuous changes in environment demand of people also changes as per situation so they need to be analysed by manager (Grobler and Du Plessis, 2016). It also stated that one basic need are satisfied individual can be motivated to put extra effort through satisfying preceding needs.
- Physiological Needs:One of the most basis need that are required by each and every individual to survive its life on earth are food, clothe, shelter and proper sleep. Therefore Unilever provide appropriate monetary benefits in term of compensation and incentive so that employees can easily meet there basic need and are motivated to work hard with more energy and determination.
- Safety Needs:It is second stage after satisfying basic need an individual can be motivated only through fulfilling safety requirement. People want security and safety of themselves and their family in case of uncertainty and better future. Unilever has taken steps to ensure safety and security of employee through providing insurance, medical benefits and taking various measures so that they can be protect while working in the organisation.
- Love and Belongingness Needs: Most people likes to interact with each other’s and share their feeling, view, opinion to one another. Manager of Unilever tries to build strong relationship among employees and provide good working environment that have enough technology and resource. So that employees can easily perform its roles and responsibilities with minimum wastages of time and efforts in searching tools (Motivation theories, 2019). Definite structure and allocation of roles to particular individual promote effective communication and coordination of employees towards common objectives.
- Esteemed Needs: After fulfilment of all above requirement individual expects dignity and self respect with firm as it has work hard for so many years for growth and survival of organisation. Manager provides respect and dignity to people that has high knowledge and experience in the field through providing them opportunity to take decision.
- Self- Actualisation:Employees of Unilever that have specialised knowledge are further provided different opportunities so that they can learn new and creative thing and able to perform various function independently.
Process theory explains the behaviour of individual is depends upon situation and circumstance in which they work. Behavioural and psychological process influences behaviour of individual to act in specific manner so that company can gain competitive advantages. Vroom, Adams, Latham and Locke are some of the process theory that can be used by leaders and manager to motivate employees.
- Vroom motivation theory:It explained that individual react in particular behaviour on basis of its psychological expectancy about outcome of desired results. There are three main components which are stated in theory such as valence, instrumental and expectancy.
- Valence: individual need to be motivated on basis of their expectance from desired outcome such as if an person is influence by high rewards and recognition rather that monetary benefit. It is final value of performance of various activities that can positively and negatively motivate employees (Expectancy Theory, 2019). Therefore, manager of company need to identify such needs and find way in which they can be satisfied so that maximum output can be gained. Maximum valued to be provided to employees so that they can work hard and actively towards company goals.
- Instrumentally:In this stage individual evaluates and analysis various method that it can use to receive particular outcome or set targets. Therefore person judge various factors such as relationship between reward and performance, its belief in rewards and clear decision regarding achievement of set target. Suppose an employee within firm expect that if it will perform better than other employees then he will promoted higher in the organisation. Thus, manager of Unilever analysis expectancy and method that are used by person to achieved desired goals.
- Expectancy:Manager of Unilever set various monthly targets that need to be achieved by different individual in firm for their personal growth and development. Every employee expects that if it will work effectively toward set goals than will hit target and meet its expectancy. Such expectancy are meet by manager on continuous basis for retention of employees within organisation.
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From the above report it can be concluded that culture, politics and power within company influence behaviour of different individual. It can also be stated that manager of Unilever has provide health and safety working environment to employees so that they can be motivated to work in team for accomplishment of common task. Various theories of motivation are used by both leaders and manager for influencing employees to act in particular manner so that desired goals can be achieved. It can also be concluded that employee’s plays most important role in growth, success and sustainability of Unilever in the industry.
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