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Organisational Behaviour

Introdution

Organisational behaviour is related to the individuals behaviours and activities in the organisation such as – predicting, understanding, etc. It is all about employees working in the organisation – how they act or behave, how they perform daily operations and how they deal with different situations at workplace (Bolino and et. al., 2013). Marks and Spencer which is a British international company established in 1884 has been taken in this report. Impact of organisational, culture, power and politics on employees and overall structure is also explained. Further, content theory and process theory of motivation to motivate individuals is described in this project. Effective team and how it is better from ineffective team is also mentioned. Philosophies and concepts on organisational behaviour in administration is also explained.

TASK 1

P1 Influence of organisational power, politics and culture on organisation

Culture, politics and power play an important role in any organisation, as all these components impacts daily operations and regulate the environment within the workplace. Impact of politics, power and culture instantly affect the structure of organisation. In context to Marks and Spencer it affects components of organisational structure which are – centralisation, chain of command, decentralisation, work specialisation, span of controls and departmentalization.

Organisation culture

In every organisation there is different culture. Different types of employees have different backgrounds, values, beliefs, customs, traditions, etc. Organisation culture refers to the assumptions, beliefs and values which determines how individuals act at the workplace. In context to Marks and Spencer – the company has unique culture which gives outlines and guidelines for the activities of individuals in the organisation. To define culture in Marks and Spencer Handy's typology has been used which is explained below (Carpenter, Berry and Houston, 2014).

Handy's typology

  • Power culture:- In power culture individuals and their performance is judged on the basis of result of their work done by them. Power is given to few people in the organisation and all decisions are taken by them, which can be both pleasing and adverse for the administration. It is strong culture and can quickly turn toxic.
  • Task culture:- Task culture takes place in an organisation when group of individuals come together or a team is formed to solve particular problems of common projects and to complete it. Task is very crucial, so power in the group will frequently change depending on the unit members and project status (Chance, 2013). Task culture will be effective if, individuals work together with good skills, leadership and personalities.
  • Role culture:- In role culture organisations are based on regulations. They are controlled by everyone in the administration identifying about their roles and obligations. Power in this type of culture is defined by an individual's position in structure of the organisation. Having role culture in the organisation will make business bureaucratic.
  • Person culture:- In person culture individuals feel themselves superior instead of organisation. They are concerned with their own feelings and work at the workplace. Having person culture in the organisation is actually just aggregation of individuals who go on to be working for the identical organisation.

In context to Marks and Spencer task culture will be mote effective as it help in performing assigned projects or task by working together and solving issues related to that task. It also help in identifying individuals with good skills and knowledge.

Organisational power

In an organisation power refers to the ability which influence individuals and overall working of the administration. Power is advantageous in Marks and Spencer when managers provide different task to individuals and encourage them to complete those assigned projects. It is their responsibility to guide and provide directions to them, for achieving organisational goals (Fisher and To, 2012. French and Raven's five types of power are explained to describe power in the organisation.

  • Reward power:- It is the common power among different powers. Reward power refers to the ability to provide something in return of their work or performance of individual or asking them about their requirements for the desired work. It involves incentives, bonuses, appreciations, new opportunities, etc. for good work done and sometimes punishment for poor work. Providing rewards to employees in the organisation will motivate them.
  • Expert power:- Expert power refers to skills, knowledge and qualities of an individual which is required by someone else in the organisation. Having expert power in the organisation will help in completing different tasks which requires various skills and qualities.
  • Legitimate power:- Legitimate power refers comes from any title or position given to an individual in the organisation. It includes persons having positions like – CEO, Owner, Executive and other higher positions in the organisation.
  • Coercive power:- It is just opposite to the reward power. In this power individuals are forced to do work without their wishes (French and Holden, 2012). Having coercive power will demotivate employees in the organisation.
  • Referent power:- People having referent power are liked by others and have many qualities like – good skills, knowledge, attributes, attitude, behaviours etc. Having referent power in the organisation will influence everyone.

In context to M&S referent power will be effective as, it has great influence on the overall org

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