Questions- This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Tesco is a UK based retail supermarket. Provide the explanation on group development and behaviour in the organisation.
- How motivation plays important role in organisation.
- Define the role of power, politics and organisational culture in the context of Tesco.
Organisation behaviour is important aspect in managing internal affairs of company in order to generate desired output. Present report deals with listing theories of management from topics such as Motivation to work Theories, Managing change Theories and Leadership Theories. From each of these topics, two theories each will be discussed. Furthermore, theories applied in Tesco PLC will also be explained by giving concrete evidence.
1. Defining chosen topics as enumerated by authors
Motivation to work is termed as set of energetic forces which encourage individuals to effectively initiate work-related behaviour. Maslow's has provided with the need hierarchical theory which has several needs individuals strive for achieving it and generate motivation towards work and personal life. It means that motivation is required to be accomplished by the people so that they may be able to attain efficiency in work and generate desired productivity in effective manner.
McGregor has also provided participation theory involving Theory X and Theory Y in which both have different perspectives towards employees (Beare, Caldwell and Millikan, 2018). Leadership theories are also provided by two authors such as Great Man Theory by Historian Thomas Carlyle and Trait theory are forming part of it. Great Man Theory states that leaders are born and not made. This means that certain traits are inherited in them. While, Trait theory is an approach for studying human personality including behaviour, emotions and thoughts up to a high extent.
Managing Change Theories such as proposed by Kurt Lewin's change process and Kotter's 8 step model are widely used change theories in effective manner. Lewin's change process provide how change in organisation can be initiated and group goals can be accomplished in a better way (Burrell and Morgan, 2017). On the other hand, Kotter's 8 step model provides managing change in firm in order to attain desired objectives with ease. Thus, all these theories are essential for enhancing overall organisation behaviour for increasing efficiency and productivity as a whole.
2. Explaining two theories for each selected topic and outlining relationships
Motivation to work Theories
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Maslow's Needs are divided into five segments which highlights that individual strives for attaining one need and when it is fulfilled, they strive for achieving next needs until all are fulfilled. These needs are as follows-
These include basic needs of human such as food, shelter, clothing and other necessities of life. Such needs have greater influence on humans and when they accomplish it, move to next hierarchy for attaining higher level needs.
When physiological needs are fulfilled, safety needs are exerted. It involves economic security, protection from physical dangers by which individual work more for achieving it. It becomes inactive once satisfaction is attained (McGrath and Bates, 2017).
Social Affiliation Needs-
The social affiliation needs involve affection from friends, society, belongingness that are required by humans. Individuals prefer to work in group and thus, they are able to accomplish social needs.
As the name suggests, it refers to self-esteem and self-respect which is desired by every individual. The needs include competencies, knowledge, development and confidence. The self-esteem needs are satisfied in a better way. Inability of esteem needs leads to feeling like helplessness and weakness.
This is the higher level of need in which individual provides way to enhance level of lower, middle and higher needs which are all achieved by persons in effective manner.
McGregor's Participation Theory
The McGregor's Participation theory has been divided into two parts ie Theory X and Theory Y and relates to workers' participation in achieving group goals. Theory X has negative way and has following assumptions listed below-
- People does not like to do work by their nature only. In order to make them work, they have to be punished for bad work and reward for good work.
- Individuals lack ambition and not like taking responsibility and are dependent to get direction from others in effective manner.
- Individuals are by their nature gullible and are nor sharp for achieving stated goals.
- People are self-centred and do not put their own efforts for providing benefits to company-wide.
While, Theory Y has positive approach to workers' participation and assumptions are as follows-
- People are capable for directing towards own behaviour and can succeed organisation to achieve objectives (Dubey and et.al., 2018).
- People have to trained and motivated in order to make them achieve efficiency.
- Individuals are not by nature resistant to accomplishment of group goals
Thus, both theories from dual perspectives are analysed. It can be assessed that it is change in environment which directs individual to achieve goals and properties are set accordingly.
Managing Change Theories
Kurt Lewin's change process
Kurt Lewin's change process theory can be explained in a better way by following three elements such as unfreezing, changing and refreezing. These elements or steps represents understanding of change process. As directed by Lewin, change is needed and then moving towards new level of behaviour and adapting the new behaviour as a norm. The steps are followed below-
It is the first step in which people will resist adapting to change. In order to be successful, status quo and reason for applying change must be conveyed to them (Brones, de Carvalho and de Senzi Zancul, 2017). The shortcomings such as old behaviour, beliefs, way of doing work, processes must be examined so as to communicate how important is change in organisation for creating better avenues for achieving higher productivity.
The next step is changing which is accomplished when employees are with organisation so that group goals can be achieved in the best way possible. It is a mark of change being initiated by people when they begin to accept change. New processes, way of thinking and way of doing work is made leading to evolve fear among individuals.
It is an act of reinforcing and solidifying new state after change. The change is initiated and employees have adopted the same for meeting organisational goals with ease. Lewin found refreezing stage to be extremely crucial to make sure that individuals in a group do not revert back to old thinkings or way of doing work which were done prior to implementation of change (Bishop and Connors, 2018). The efforts must be guaranteed and cemented in company so that positive outcome may be achieved continuously in the future.
Kotter's 8 step Model
The eight step as directed by Kotter are as follows-
- Highlighting potential threats and repercussions
- Request involvement of stakeholders
Building powerful coalitions-
- Identifying change leaders
- Examining opportunities for working
Developing vision and strategy-
- Evaluate core values and strategies for change
- Leaders should convey to employees so that they can understand
- Convincingly communicate change
- Issue handling of people
- Organisation process and structure should be aligned
- Meeting and reviewing targets
- Feeling of victory by achieving short-term wins
- Rewarding people for accomplishing goals
- Successful stories by continuous improvement
- Improving upon work by individual experiences
- Discuss success stories and ensure change become part of organisation
- Ensure support from all existing leaders for achieving goals
Great Man Theory
People are born to lead is what emphasised by the Great Man theory. It can be analysed in a better way that leaders such as Alexander The Great, Queen Elizabeth I, Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Gandhi and many other personalities are born leader as they all differ from ordinary human beings in several or numerous aspects. Great Man Theory has the assumptions that leaders are born and not made as they all posses certain traits which are inherited from their ancestors. Great leaders are generally arisen due to great needs (Great Man Theory of Leadership. 2018). Necessary attributes are possessed by individuals and such traits make them differ from another people.
Leader is termed to be as a hero accomplishes goals against all odds. People that are in power are well-deserved at their position because of extraordinary talent or endowment held by them. The traits remain same and also across different groups. Thus, it suggests that people regardless as to when and where these people are born posses same characteristics and no change is observed with one leader and another one.
The trait theory of leadership provides clarity that leaders are born and to this belief, they all posses traits, qualities which are suited as per the leadership (Gold and Schleper, 2017). In simple words, characteristics such as emotions, behaviour and attitude are studied which are found common in leaders. This theory aims to evaluate human personalities up to a high extent. It clearly describes that leaders are born and have similar traits in comparison to other one and as a result, leadership can be fruitful for organisation so as to achieve group goals within stipulated time.
It can be said that traits such as cooperative, decisive, dependable, dominant, persistent, energetic, adaptable to changing environment and self-confidence are some of the traits which are found common in leaders up to a major extent. For longer period, inherited traits were kept aside as acquired ones in place of it, situational factors were considered as more real in nature in comparison to inherited traits.
3. Giving concrete evidence of how organisation have applied any two of the theories
Theories discussed above gives complete analysis that organisation can achieve efficiency in a better manner by incorporating motivational, managing change and leadership theories for up scaling business up to a major extent (Sahito and Vaisanen, 2017). Tesco PLC which is a giant in retail sector in UK has implemented Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory and Kotter's 8 step Model for accomplishing efficiency.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
The Maslow's need hierarchy theory has been followed by Tesco PLC for effectively motivating employees up to a major extent. The five needs with reference to firm is provided below-
It can be assessed that basic human needs which provide individual relief fall under this head quite effectively. Tesco PLC provides place of work, offers monthly pay to employees on regular basis. Apart from monetary benefits, necessary facilities are also provided by it such as restaurant, lockers facilities for keeping personal belongings. Thus, physiological needs such as food, shelter, home and work are offered to workers of Tesco PLC satisfying their needs with ease.
The needs involving safety from any type of danger falls under it. Safety and security needs are required so that people may be able to achieve efficiency with ease. Tesco PLC provides individuals with security of jobs with letter of contract employment is imparted. Along with it, pension and sickness schemes and option for joining in union provides people as a sense of belonging up to a high extent (García-Sánchez, García-Morales and Bolívar-Ramos, 2017). This ensures health and safety in the firm meeting security and safety needs in effective manner.
Social Affiliation Needs-
The social affiliation needs are to be fulfilled by employees in order to achieve higher level of needs in effective manner. It means that social belongingness, affiliation and affection should be provided and workers strive for accomplishing this. Tesco PLC exercises team and group workings at various levels. The firm Steering Wheel assesses individual and group work and enable staff to effectively work as a team in the best way possible. The friendly working conditions and homely work ethos encourages long service by team members and social needs are fulfilled.
This is another higher level of needs which every employee in Tesco PLC aspire to achieve with much ease. Company emphasises on providing self-respect to each and every individual employed in firm. Moreover, appreciation for hard work and self-assessment is also done (Motivational theory in practice at Tesco. 2013). For measuring performance in a better manner, 360 degree feedback and system of appraisal in implemented in order to recognise contribution of individuals and effectively celebrate their achievement for motivating them for continuing increasing productivity for benefiting firm.
The self-actualisation needs are also important needs as lower, middle and higher level of needs are segregated in a better way. Tesco PLC imparts Personal Development Plans (PDP), recognising talents, skills and capabilities and gives opportunity for attainment of promotion. Moreover, it provides way to effectively achieve goals by implementation of career progression program. Career discussions are applied in Talent Planning meetings of business. Options fast-track management programme has also been implemented by Tesco PLC leading to provide route to people for progressing towards higher level. Hence, Tesco PLC applies Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory in practice to keep their employees motivated in a better manner.
McGregor's Participation Theory
McGregor's has identified two main ways of managing employees at the workplace. Theory X is of main assumption that employees are required to be managed as they are lethargic by their very nature and loves not to do work. They require some sort of punishment so that they may give fear of losing job in effective manner (Secchi and Adamsen, 2017). The threat of losing job if not properly working as per the assigned job role could lead to termination of employment from Tesco PLC.
On the other side, Theory Y provides clarity that people likes to do work, only they need proper direction up to a major extent leading to higher productivity. They like doing hard work as they will be rewarded in a better manner. In present scenario of Tesco PLC, it uses one or mixture of both the theories for managing employees work. It can be analysed that employees work hard for overcoming their fear of losing out job and might be replace by other people. On the other hand, for some employees, it could be demotivating and productivity may be hampered leading to higher employee turnover rate. If Tesco PLC implements Theory Y and management is lenient with employees, then they think work cannot be achieved by applying the hardest efforts. This leads to reduction in productivity and as a result, it is a main reason for slowing down production.
It can be analysed that for accomplishing efficiency and higher productivity of employees, Tesco PLC largely adopts Theory X and make sure that productive work may be initiated by employees and laziness must be eradicated quite effectively. It is implemented as job roles offered to workers are not highly skilled and with UK's high unemployment rate, there is much scope that individuals can be replaceable with ease (Urban, 2017). In relation to this, it can be said that people must work hard in order to secure their jobs in firm else they may be fired in event of lower productivity. Thus, with this mentality, Tesco PLC implements Theory X more than Theory Y so that people may accomplish production in an desired manner and meet needs of Tesco PLC stated objectives within stipulated time.
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Hereby it can be concluded that organisation behaviour is important aspect in firm in attaining stated objectives in effectual way. The theories from management such as Motivation to work Theories, Managing change Theories and Leadership Theories provides clarity that it is required to implement such theories for enhancing organisation culture, structure and behaviour. Tesco PLC will be able to achieve goals by implementation of such theories. Thus, higher productivity is attained by Tesco PLC by implementing McGregor's theory and Maslow's theory of hierarchical needs.
You can also check out:-
Books and Journals
Beare, H., Caldwell, B. J. and Millikan, R. H., 2018. Creating an excellent school: Some new management techniques. Routledge.
Bishop, P. and Connors, C., 2018. Management, organisation, and ethics in the public sector. Routledge.