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International Healthcare Policy

Introduction to International Healthcare policy

Heath care policy can be determined as the plans, decisions and actions that are undertaken to accomplish specific health care aims within a society. There are different categories of health care policies, including personal, pharmaceutical policy and policies related to public health (Bakar and Mustaffa, 2013). This report discusses about the various approaches to health care policy formulation. The main focus of this research is to evaluate the international health care applications are developed and attributes are discussed on various conditions. The report also gives priority on international health care applications that can be implemented in the global scenario.

Task 1 Health Care Policy Formation 

Lo 1.1 Approaches to health care policy creation

It is very important to develop and formulate health care policies in the country. But in Australia, government does not have too much involved in such policies. Rather than providing definite health services to users, it is much of a funding agency for the industry (Brooks, 2010). In order to working in the industry and managing operations, government provides finance to the public organization. It controls health care systems and offers private health insurance to the local community. Thus it point out that government is the source of finance, it has important state in the formulation and execution of health care policies in the country.

This can also supported by National Health Reform Agreement (NHRA) 2011 as it demonstrates the role of government attributes and other legislative factors also play an important role. . In UK, National Drug Preference Alliance (NDPA) is the other organization whose function in formulation of health care policies is being examined (DiClemente, Crosby and Kegler, 2009). The main motive of this corporation is to help in people towards self medication approach. It plays a vital role in the expansion and execution of various health care policies in relation to consumption of medicines in the country.

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Lo 1.2 Assess the influence of funding on policy formulation.

The government of UK pays a lot of attention to health care services and systems. Government and other regulatory bodies support every industry in terms of finance (Fawcett and, 2000). National health care industry has become most famous all over the world because of many strict rule and regulations adopted in the country. These policies have been updated by 2013 so that they made an attempt to give new direction and new dimensions to the industry. To accomplish this target they pay more attention to Research & Development, so that they achieved new achievements in this sector through which users get better care and services (Frederiksen, Mäenpää and Hokka, 2008). They are being developed in a form that helps in to minimize overweight and people suffering from obesity problem in nation. Formulation of health care policy of the country requires finances and monetary support. If there is any deficit in the funds while formulation, then it can lead to make a critical situation. The government formed NHS, which looks after the industry and created different rules and regulations (Healy, Sharman and Lokuge, 2006).

Lo 1.3 Critically evaluate health care policy

To control self medication in the country NDPA (National drug prevention alliance) plays an important role, which is formed by government to support those people who are addicted to drugs and help them to leave this habit. It develops strict rules and regulations, and the government has declared consumption of non-prescribed drugs is prohibited. If anyone found to be using them has to pay a fine along with imprisonment for a fixed period (Jones and Genao, 2003). According to the survey by NDPA, there are lots of accidents take place in the recent times and results acquired in states that around 50% of road accidents occur due to over consumption of drugs.

The outcomes derived also reflect in that there is a need to bring in changes and design so that more strict norms can be implemented. NDPA support the government as well as the local community to overcome with this issue and make the world healthy (Liu, 2012). The organization works under the assumption that almost all of the inhabitants take drugs. This way it can function even more efficiently & effectively. Most of the people consume un-prescribed drugs and believe that it is a status symbol. In order to improve their position in the society they think that they need to take drugs, and this can make good image in front of other people.

Task 2 Understand the social and cultural context of health care

Lo 2.1 Impact of culture on health care

Culture states in about the behavior and ideas shared among society or individual (Nothhaft, 2010). In this fast moving and globalised world culture plays an important role and it is changing from area to area. In every nation there are so many people who are from different cultural background, traditions and cultures. In UK there are people from all around the world have made their resident. With increasing population and various cultures in the country it become hard for healthcare organizations and bodies to develop such policies that can treat all the people according to their culture. If the country gets success in developing such policies so it has a positive impact on health care policies (Sambrook and Stewart, 2013).

Majority of population of UK are from outside or from other country, in which most of them are working in hospitals and various other health care organizations. Due to this reason, it is very difficult for such businesses to train them about different aspects of healthcare and policies in the country.

Lo 2.2 Impact of society on health care

Apart from culture, society is another factor which has a very major impact on healthcare practices in the country (Varey, 2000). Healthcare policies and societal norms are inter-related or linked with each other. It is very much crucial for different service providers so that adequate action can be taken by users, as their health condition is a main factor that decides the development of any society. If the people are healthy and fit, they will work hard and thus help the culture to grow. UK is a developed country but then also large amount of drug is consumed by people which can lead to make it one of the unhealthy nations. To overcome with such issues the health care organizations have to work hard so that they stop this habit (Borland, 2010). In order to influence and restrict individual to consume illegal drugs they have to develop even more strict rules and regulations.

Lo 2.3 Attitudes towards healthcare

In order to influence the attitude of people government and NHS has to work together with proper measures. The users can only be influenced when service providers improve their way of taking care especially for children and senior citizens. On the other hand they also have to understand the behavior of drug addicts and encourage them to overcome with this habit (Bartholomew, 2006). There are different racial communities in the country, each and every has a diverse opinion towards healthcare organizations and practices. In order to take care and improve their physical condition they follow different set of rules and regulations. So it is very important that the staff members of such firm have the specialization and identify the proper way to perform their duty in an efficiently and effectively manner (Cozens, Firth and Booth, 2003).

Go through this related sample Managing Health Care Finance

Lo 2.4 Impact of culture and society on healthcare

Health is a cultural concept because society outlines how individual distinguish the world and own experiences. Healthcare in UK is extremely affected by the culture and society. Both have a significant impact on the working of an organization. In a research it was noted that working of firms such as NDPA (National drug prevention alliance) mainly depends on the culture of society and attitudes of people (Fallon and Hausenblas, 2004). It mostly operates on the basis of what the current standards which are being followed by so many societies in the country. While go through different cultures and traditions, the organization has to work hard to improve its working pattern which can help them to perform well.

On the other hand, it also assists the body in understanding why people are addicted to drugs (Fertman and Allensworth, 2010). So it can attain the ability to get rid of consumption of drugs right from the root. The culture also helps to determine how health care providers and users view health and illness. It also affects the heath in other ways such as: acceptance of preventive or health promotion measures and use of communication either directly or indirectly.

Task 3 Understand Healthcare Provisioning

Lo 3.1 How healthcare policy is translated into practice

The government of Australian has to face many problems when they translating healthcare policies into real practice (Glasby, 2012). But when they work hard so they get positive response and can effectively take care of the people and help them to live a healthy life. It is also a very critical course, as if these legislations are not taken into consideration or implemented in the real world, then such organizations will not be able to tend to health related requirements of the people. All service providers are required to offer health service in fulfillment with all providing legislation and policy. Businesses need to examine all the features of policy implementation and ensure that they do not have any negative impact on this process (Jabnoun, 2009). There are so many different sources in which the organizations can transform policies into real practices such as training and development of the staff members, clinical pathways, guidelines and protocols, and etc.

Lo 3.2 Organizations involved in healthcare on national and international level

Health care organizations are mainly divided into three categories: multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental organization. There are only few healthcare organizations that work at both national and international level and NDPA (National drug prevention alliance) is one of them (Kelly and Jones, 2013). It not only operates in the developed nations, but also in developing countries. In most of the poor countries, the firm gets financial support from local government. In such countries other international health care organizations also provide finance to this body. Other than this, NDPA assists the local authorities in finding out the amount of un-prescribed medications being used in the nation, but it also help in restriction it by encouraging and helping them to overcome with it. The organization manages many seminars and sessions in which higher authorities and staff members of the company tell about the negative effects of drugs and its addiction (Mumby, 2012). They also inform them different ways through which they can reduce its consumptions and say no to it.

Lo 3.3 Structure of health care service delivery

In order to deliver its service to the users NDPA adopted a simple structure so that they can support more and more to their clients. The structure which is designed by the firm does not include too many layers or hierarchical levels through which any decision has to cross (Raymond, 2004). By performing effectively the organization is extremely capable of taking care of health associated needs and demands of the users. They also able to recognize different practical obstacles and plan strategies to overcome with them. Some of such barriers comprise the likes of social and transportation issues. It is one of the main problems, and if the organization is not able to solve such issues then will not be able to give its services to the daily users (Thorogood and Coombes, 2000). There are different ways through which they perform well and influence towards providing better outcomes.

Lo 3.4 Practical Barriers to provision of healthcare

In order to reach out to the target populations and serving well, organizations like NDPA has faced so many barriers. There are so many barriers but some of barriers are language related problems, culture and linguistic (Walsh, Stephens and Moore, 2000). In UK majority of the population is outsider and from different countries and backgrounds with various cultures and background. It has been observed that maximum number of people faces in critical issues because they are not able to understand local language and the various concepts on which they are working. Due to this many of the times it becomes an issue for the aligned parties to communicate their information effectively and exchange ideas (Doward, 2013). Without this they are not able to accomplish different ideas or opinions that are beneficial for them and it also has an important factor that gives quality health and service results.

Task 4 Role of Public Health and Health Promotion in Provision of Health Care Services

Lo 4.1 Socio-political issues in promotion of public health

In this fast moving and globalised world it is very difficult to live in, there are so many different health and social issues have surfaced such as smoking, drinking, fatness, etc. This can affect a lot to the people health and these all collectively put forth a lot of pressure on structure of public health services (Bakar and Mustaffa, 2013). In the last few decades, societal norms also have undergone some great changes as societies have been broken down. This can affect negatively and promotion of health care services has become a complicated process.

Because of many reason health is political, its social determinants are open to to political interventions and which can affect and dependent on political actions. Other than this, the right to a living standard sufficient for health and well being is a feature of citizenship and a human right (Brooks, 2010). Ultimately, it requires power and is exercised over it as part of a huge economic, political and social system. For promoting public health it needs political awareness and struggle. 

Lo 4.2 Impact of international campaigns

In this modern era, many international organizations make various promotional campaigns time to time in the industry, so that they can aware the people about different aspects related to wellbeing and health (DiClemente, Crosby and Kegler, 2009). The managers of such events use a particular framework so that they can attract more and more people and assists universal health care practices in their area. To make it more effective and useful local government also has passed some rules and regulations through which they can better incorporate the international healthcare strategies.

There are so many campaign manages to aware people about their health in which the organizers brief about the measures and precautions which has to be taken for a good health (Fawcett, and, 2000). Campaign such as health for all, they provide a framework for a comprehensive strategy for change that comprises: addressing the structural, economic and social determinants of health, social mobilization and political economy based situation. The main aim of such campaign is to work towards the health and encourage people about the safety measures.

Lo 4.3 Role of Health Promotion in determining health care services

Promotion is very important tool through which service providers can improve health care services (Frederiksen, Mäenpää and Hokka, 2008). Health promotion is the process that enables people to increase to control over and to develop their health. In order to make easy health services and its quality that is very significant so that market promotional can be accomplished. Here, in attention need to be given on needs and demands of people associated with health services (Healy, Sharman and Lokuge, 2006).

The basic conditions and resources for health are shelter, peace, education, income, food and many others. Without all such things it is not possible to get healthy. In order to promote health and create supportive environment, there must be a link between people and the service providers. Health is influence by changing patterns of life, work and leisure (Jones and Genao, 2003). Health promotion makes living and working conditions that are safe, satisfying and enjoyable.  


Lo 5.1 Identify the contemporary issues

In the recent past, health care industry in UK is going through a time where health and physical fitness of the people has negative influence. There are so many contemporary issues in which one such issue is rise in the numbers of cough cases (Liu, 2012). In the nation there are various people who are influenced and there has been decline observed in several cases where in children are suffering from range of diseases. Due to this reason it is very important for the authorities that they update healthcare services in the country.

Lo 5.2 Impact of the issues

There are so many issues in the health and social care and they have a very extensive impact on working of national health care system and policies (Nothhaft, 2010). Either it may be negative or positive. In order to solve such issues the government has to improve their delivery system by a substantial margin, so that they can treat the users and eliminate such illness and syndromes from the society. Promoting these policies in the culture has become of great importance through which the environment throughout the world is become protected and safe.

Lo 5.3 Practical responses to these issues

There are so many different sources through which the government can look to resolve the issues and expand a healthy culture in the country (Sambrook and Stewart, 2013). By public awareness the government can help the society to become healthy. Through this manner the country will be able to reach out to many users and tell them about the different health related issues and hazards. Other than this, if the organization or government updating the health care policy in such way that they can treat or serve to more number of patients with increased efficiency and effectiveness.

The alternative and augmentative communication is usually defined towards the system and device that aid the term of communication for the population who have difficulty speaking and interacting with others. The method is not used within the advanced computer technology that uses some aspects, including signing, gesture, written words, symbols, and picture books.

There is a wide range of factors that may affect healthcare function. The failure of the healthcare system usually shows the aspect of failure associated with health professional and health management to balance equilibrium regards with the patient and healthcare professional. It includes inappropriate monitoring and inspection, irregularity, and ignoring duty and responsibility, which contribute to the failure of the healthcare system.

Healthcare in the US refers to the sound system for the people to take the quality of health and life. The United States does not have a universal healthcare system program compared to other developed countries. Their program is funded with the help of Medicare, Medicaid, and many more. Emergency care is defined as medical need concerned with the care and treatment related to the ill or injured patient who requires immediate health support. The picture of health is defined as the person or individual with a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and showing the apparent absence of disease or any infirmity.

Euthenics, defined as the science, deals with the development of human wellbeing by improving the quality of life. The study of Euthenics focuses on improving human functioning and their health and wellbeing by sustaining and implementing a standard of living conditions. The importance of the study of euthenics help to improve the living condition of humankind appropriately and formulate health and wellbeing. Euthenics is essential because it helps to provide an overview of people's lives and provides a path or way which helps to improve their quality of life. The importance of Euthenics is helpful for daily life to provide the betterment towards the improvement to improve the human life and other living organisms. Euthenics in life help to provide the elaborative way with the term of science that improves the internal wellbeing of humans by improving the external factor for their environment.
A caring professional such as nursing and social work involves looking for people and requiring medical support to improve their quality of life. Many virtues are required in the health provider, such as compassion, concern, caring, sympathy, modesty, and courage.

The medicine advance for better is the accurate indication that research is in progress and people suffer from many complications. They require new treatment to reduce the difficulty in instant ways. The intervention used or developed during COVID-19 is social distancing, using regular hygiene, and many more. After the COVID-19, the future is relatively slow. People are constantly in fear, economic crises are decreased, and growth is persistent and continuous.

Gene therapy is defined as the insertion of the extra gene based on individual cells and tissue to treat disease and hereditary disease that defective mutant allele that is replaced with the functional gene.

Being healthy is part of the lifestyle. The health and body show that living a healthy lifestyle can help prevent chronic disease and long-term illnesses. In addition, try to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle by doing the right towards the body.  

Regular activity that can improve quality of life. Physical activity or exercise helps to improve health and reduce the risk and causes of developing several diseases, including some disease type 2 diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. The physical activity and exercise which have immediate and show the prolong health benefits.

Being healthy is defined as the experience based on vitality and feeling strong, fit, and confident daily.

Fitness is defined as the physical fitness that shows the ability to execute daily activities with optimal performance, endurance, and strength with the management of the disease and reduced sedentary behaviour. Meditation helps people relax and feel good about life and their health.

Meat-based food versus plant-based food shows the aspect that provides detailed information regarding the food that is more productive compared to meat food and plant food. Meat food has enough vitamins, calcium, and so on. In this, meat food is more productive as compared with plant food.

Fast food usually contains less protein and high cholesterol, which may create obesity and overweight, so they are unhealthy. The Mediterranean diet is defined as eating-related to the traditional cuisine of Greece, Italy, and other countries based on the border of the Mediterranean Sea.

Cross-cultural adaptation is a defined process of internal change in terms of individuals performing the function in an unfamiliar culture. The health que is also referring as a diagnosis of the people at home. Dermal filler usually helps diminish the facial line, and they help restore the volume and fullness in the face.

The medicine advancement for the better shows the aspect where the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention have been upgraded, providing the vision for improving people's lives.

Stem cell research is the research region that studies the character of stem cells and their potential use in medicine. Abortion is defined as the termination of the pregnancy by removing or expulsion of the embryo or the fetus. The abortion that occurs without any clinical method is a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. They usually grow within the host plant, usually a tree, and get their nutrients from the moisture and dust within the air. For example, Ferns, Mosses, and bromeliads. The digestive system is referring system that digests the food and creates the form of ATP within the body. It includes essential organs such as the mouth, stomach, small intestine, etc.

Invasive species are also called introduced species or any nonnative species that significantly modify or disrupt the ecosystem.


  • Pros: Prevent the extinctionof species.
  • Cons: Process is not entirely safeand based on accuracy.  

Medicine adherence is the extent to taking medication prescribed by a doctor. Prevention of Infection and Control is defined as an evidence-based approach that prevents patients and healthcare staff from being harmed by infection. The most common drug in the UK is cannabis, followed by powder cocaine, MDMA, and ketamine. The different enzymes are oxidoreductase, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, ligases, and isomers.

The rapid change in the progress of treatment in 20th centuries by the enormous way such as a continuous focus on the reducing the side effect of medicine and providing the best suitable treatment for every disease. Proper training regarding the equipment, apparatus, and personal protective kits is provided to the employee is the safest way to promote safe work practice. Social support usually plays a positive impact on the body. It helps reduce the stress related to the task and provides aid recovery. Anorexia Nervosa is defined as an eating disorder caused to show the result of obesity and overweight.


This report discussed about the approaches to health care policy formulation and evaluates health care policy. It is very important for every country to design and formulate health care policies. Government of the country also plays a vital role by providing financial help to the se4rvice providers as well as people. NDPA is the organization in UK whose work in examine the formulation of health care policies. The main aim of this organization is to help those people who are addicted to drugs.


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