The present research is based on topic consumer by considering articles of last eight years.
- Write a literature review by considering different theories of consumer behavior.
In the globe, companies aim at delivering their customers with high quality services. There are businesses that provide similar type of products and services. It is highly effective make sure that appropriate steps are taken so all demand of service users are identified and steps are decided accordingly (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2011). From past many years there are tremendous changes identified in relation with the consumer behaviour for food products. The type of quality that were provided to people were high and individuals were conscious regarding the products that they should purchase. Main focus of the study is to analyse the consumer behaviour for food products. Further, determines various areas that can be studied for their products in future. This analysis will be helpful enough to interpret the strategies that can be applied by companies to raise their sales and profitability.
This is considered to be an important part that enables to provide in depth knowledge and understanding. Many researches are conducted on similar topics. When these are analysed, then it makes researcher to provide adequate knowledge and understanding. Below given are different aspects covered in the research:
As per Ramkissoon and Uysal, (2011) findings show that Motivation plays vital role in order to make a person to develop their own set of preferences through which they develop positive perception within their mind for the products that are through by customer to purchase. With this respect, below given are the finding that are identified.
According to Young, Hwang and Oates, (2010) customers are the one who use goods or products provided by the companies. They have proper understanding about issues that are faced by them. There are certain expectations that individuals have and when these are fulfilled, then it helps to raise up the moral. In this context, expectations can be low price, high quality, quantity, etc. When these are considered by the firm, then it makes the business to attain their goals and objectives in effective manner. As per Young, Hwang and Oates, (2010) companies set up their goals and objectives so that they are able to develop path through these can be reached. Gaining profit it is the main focus of organizations. This is possible only when management understand the requirement of customers and steps are taken by them so that rate of satisfaction can be met. Further, it is also identified that motivational need theory enables to focus five different aspects and these are satisfied, then customers get motivated. With this respect, it includes safety, love, self-esteem, self-actualization and physiological. Each of the set factors plays important role to make a person boosted up to make purchase decisions (Akehurst, Afonso and Martins Gonçalves, 2012). Apart from this, the theory explains the requirement to tailor marketing messages to consumers in a particular way.
Akehurst, Afonso and Martins Gonçalves, (2012) stated that strategies like discount offers, free gifts, etc. also make the business to change perception or behaviour of customers in positive manner. All these are highly effective for the firm to attain their goals and objectives. There are different departments that work when towards goals for the business to raise their sale and profitability. Marketing department is the one that is focused on changing the perception to positive. All these are effective to make individuals know about the products and when people get to know more, then rate of sales increases (Paul and Rana, 2012). In this modern world, people are conscious about their health. In recent years there are many changes that are identified in relation with eating habits like the rate of fast food has raised. These are considered to be type of products that have high fat content and causes serious health related issues like obesity, high blood pressure, etc. These changes in eating habits are making individuals to get addicted to fast food. Majority of people around the world have appropriate understanding for the negative issues that they face due to consumption of fast food. However, there are many reasons due to which people do not stop consuming these type of food products. One of the main reason for this situation is time. People in this modern world are do not have time for themselves and to save their time, they prefer to consume fast food or frozen food products (Ali, Kapoor and Moorthy, 2010). These make individuals to face serious health related problems. Main issues faced is that people face difficulties in memory and learning problems, increases risk of dementia, chemical changes can lead to depression, etc.
As per Paul and Rana, (2012) the research show that 30% of the people are highly conscious regarding the environmental issues but they fail to translate it to purchases. Individuals prefer to make use of the products that are safe and hygienic. Further, there are many other details that are also included and they are as follows.
People who are conscious regarding their health are focused on making individuals know about the strategies that are applied by them so that they can make people learn about the way that can encourage them and make them purchase the products. As per Ali, Kapoor and Moorthy, (2010) the total number of times that people get to know about the product are effective enough to make the business raise their profitability. With advancement in technology there are many options that are provided to customers in which comparison of products are done that are delivered by different companies. These are helpful enough to make the business develop strong customer’s base. The behaviour of customer is serious when they research for the products. In all type of purchases that are made by people includes research to be carried out so that they are able to select the most appropriate product that meets the requirements (Röös and Tjärnemo, 2011). Apart from the consideration that is made by people also differs. For example, McDonalds is one of the well know company in food industry.
The type of products that are provided by cited firm at a particular country will not be sold at other countries. In other words, some of the products that are sold at Australia by McDonalds are not sold at other countries. This is because these changes are made as per the preference of individuals at these counties. The taste and preferences of individuals are different in each of the countries. When products are sold as per the requirements and preference (Röös and Tjärnemo, 2011). This is helpful enough to make the business attain their goals and objective in effective manner. According to Hawkins Stern Impulse Buying, this theory focus on impulse behaviour of customers. Through external stimuli impulse purchases are driven. There are four different type of impulse buying. These are pure impulse in which purchase are made as per their immediate requirements. Then it comes the reminded impulse in which purchases are made as per fulfilling a need at any time or any place. Then it comes the suggested impulse in which others contribute in developing positive perception about the products and then purchases are done (Janssen and Hamm, 2012). Last is the planned impulse in which the individual would set out a target in which the purchases will be made.
According to Janssen and Hamm, (2012) research is focused the determining ecological conscious consumer behaviour and it is done by making analysis of the green consumer profile that is built on the work of Roberts and Straughan. Further, the focus of this study is made on determining effectiveness for green purchase behaviour.
In according with the process for decision making of food products, there are different set of considerations that are made (Golnaz, Zainalabidin and Eddie Chiew, 2010). These make a company to take up steps that can enable to raise the sales and profitability. There are different factors that affect the customer behaviour. This refers to the acquisition, consumption and selection of goods and services in order to meet their needs. In this context, there are different type of process that are involve. With this respect, below given are the steps involved in purchase decision by customers:
Need identification: In order to make a purchase decision, it is important to identify need or requirement. When need is developed, then individuals try to find out sources with the help of which the requirements can be fulfilled (Shah Alam, Mohd, and Hisham, 2011).
Information source: Information plays vital role in order to identify the most suitable product that will be helpful enough to raise the satisfaction level. There are organizations that provides service users with same products and services. This is essential for selecting the most suitable business that is able to meet the requirements.
Evaluation of alternatives: In this modern world, there are different type of food products that can be used as substitutes so as to meet up the requirements.
Purchase decision: As per this step, the analysis is done in which that product is selected that best meets the needs of customers (Barreiro-Hurlé, Gracia and De-Magistris, 2010).
Post purchase behaviour: In making decisions the process does not just end with making purchases but it is focused on considering the level of satisfaction when the product is consumed. In situation when individuals are not able to meet up their needs, then it make them to take the decision in which they will not take any type of purchase decision.
As per the research conducted by Golnaz, Zainalabidin and Eddie Chiew, (2010), main focus of the research was carried out on understanding the behaviour of ecological consumers and their intention to purchase organic food. In accordance with Marshallian economics, consumers make purchases of their services and goods depending upon the most personal satisfaction. However, there are people who do not believe their way. However, the theory suggest that there are many useful hypothesis and they are as follows:
Price of the product: When price of the product is high, then sales will reduce but when price set of comparatively low when compared with products that are delivered by others firms, then rate of sales will increase (Andreyeva, Long and Brownell, 2010).
Price of substitute: In a market where there are many companies that deliver similar type of services or products, then comparison by customers are made on their price. Individuals choose to make purchases for products which are provided to them at low price.
Income of customers: When the total income of a person is high, then the purchases made by them will also get raised. This way, it can be stated that the income that individuals have plays vital role in their purchase behaviour.
Thus the theory provides information that price of the commodity make a person change their perception and develops positive perception. However, this is not the case of all the customers as there are certain set of preferences and expectations, when these are satisfied only then they prefer to make purchase decision (Solomon, Russell-Bennett and Previte, 2012). For example, there are individuals who focus on getting high quality products and in food industry people prefer to get services that are delivered to them at high quality. The consumption of organic products has raised and it has made companies to provide them commodities that are healthy and hygienic.
According to Shah Alam, Mohd, and Hisham, (2011) the type of behaviour of consumers for food products in an emerging economy is raising at tremendous rate. Main focus is to develop a marketing strategy that helps to develop effective impact on the product that are preferred by the customers. It is being identified that when the rate of marketing is raise, then it helps the company to know more about the services and products that are delivered to them (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2011).
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