This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Analyze the advantages of different tools and approaches available to the business community in terms to respond pressures to improve health.
- Elaborate importance of audit, monitoring, and review processes in the continuous improvement of health, safety, and environment management systems.
- Create and develop systematic health, safety, and environmental procedures for a range of different types of organizations.
- Plan and evaluate methodologies and management strategies to improve health safety and environmental performance.
Vibration issues have a dangerous impact on the health and safety of human beings. The University of Salford formed its own administrative well-being and safety management mechanism in compliance with ISO 10816 in a way of controlling and handling the hazards connected with vibration issues, the whole system should be verified at regular intervals. This review is what makes up this audit system at the university campus facility. This study will result in an audit being performed on the workshop's operations and procedures. The approach implemented for the respective audits is an on-site approach that is compliant with the standards of 1SO 19011. The audit demonstrates some fields of non-compliance with the University's vibration control policy, which included some suggestions such as appropriate training for workers to use an in-depth and thorough knowledge of vibration-related hazards at the workplace and better health monitoring for laboratory employees in compliance with university policies.
At the present time, almost all buildings are built with advanced techniques and approaches so that any kind of problem can be managed or even reduced to maintain the working condition stable. While building various monument architect are always focused to prevent houses and buildings from sudden collapsing due to any technical reason. The Campus has a dream of exceptional strategic collaboration which will create a massive-world experience for candidates through career-after-study training. In recognizing that concept, the University has redesigned its strategy to science, creating instructional programs, recruiting, and industry and employment opportunities. They use necessary standards and principles at the time of landscaping which can help to prevent a building from any sort of vibration issue. In a present business environment, it is observed that business review is mainly prepared to define the quality of company services and goods which would support new interested parties to make a subsequent decision to invest or not. External and internal stakeholders make a proper audit of useful documents of the company which makes them understand the most suitable option that will give higher results in the future. In this report, Vibration issues at the time of landscaping are effectively managed and controlled to avoid the risk have been discussed (Thom, Cerrato, and Sturgill, 2019).
The report cover examines a range of tools and approaches available to the business community to improve its health, safety, and environmental performance and address the sustainability agenda. Discussion of methods and techniques employed in the audit and evaluation of the system, process or activity including a contextual analysis of key issues raised by the audit. In this report, the University of Salford is selected which is looking for a repair and maintenance work in the campus to extend the facilities area for the new students. Thus, developers are required to consider ISO 19011 while rebuilding the place so that issues due to vibration can be removed and University can be a safer place for student.
Occupational health and safety management system:
“Occupational Health and Safety Management System” is a managerial framework that helps handle health as well as safety at the workplace and handle risks in an organization. This mechanism includes more than just a plan for well-being / security, it combines well-being and security initiatives, conceptual frameworks / computer systems, general standard in place especially and documents, and it integrates safety and health operations into various business aspects. This is a decent and efficient management system that improves the capacity and potential of workers and employers to classify hazards, deter, assess and regulate the risks at workplace. There is different standards are issued in it to deal with different issues. In this regard there is standard for compliance of occupational health/safety managerial system which is named as ISO 18001 while for Mechanical vibration assessment and evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts there is an standard i.e. ISO 10816 (Occupational health and safety management systems - Requirements with guidance for use 2019).
Auditing is a critical aspect of management system method, which provides a structured, published, periodic and analytical assessment of how organizational administration, leadership and resources are working with a view to environmental protection by promoting operational control of activities and assessing compliance with organizational policies. The main principles of audit are, assessment of complying with regulations, audit-process are carried out in a set up and accurate way, audits are organized according to a developed timetable, data collected from audits are kept clear of viewpoint, notes are drawn during auditing process and findings are reported and inspections can be integrated into the managerial system, such as the environmental management structure (Horová, 2012).
Types Of Audits:
There are 3 types of auditing, auditing of the first party, auditing of the second party and auditing of the third party. First-party auditing is refers to internal audit method because this audit is usually carried out by the company itself, second-party auditing is carried out by outside parties with an involvement in the entity, whereas the third-party audit includes auditing by an independent auditing body or agency granting certificates of approval or adherence or through government entities. The international standard framework designated ISO 19011 has set up for a professional audit reports to guide audit management system, perform managerial system audits, auditing concept, administer the audit process, and this standard acts as guidelines on the evaluation of people involved in audit plan (Soong and Costantinou, 2014).
Methods, Data Sources, or Approach:
Business reports mainly include the bringing of existing data sources with each other or generating new evidence to support market decision-making processes. In the relevant report, the data have been extracted form the annual sheet of company which provide necessary information about each and every business dealing in respective accounting year. It is observed that the methods mentioned in this section on sustainable evaluation can be applicable to policies, principle and initiatives. It must be including the risk evaluation, life-cycle evaluation, benefit-cost analysis, ecosystem services analyses, comprehensive appraisal frameworks, mitigation impact assessments and environmental rationale techniques. To complete the entire audit report questionnaire method of data collection have been used which help in making better outcomes. The importance of respective method is discussed below:
- Inexpensive: Self-administered queries are an economical way to easily accumulate huge data from a significant number of people over a relatively short time which requires less cost.
- Practical: It is consider to be more practical method of gartering data as responsible person have to target a specific group of people in which face to face question are asked to make (Burdzik, Celiński and Czech, 2016).
Auditing Risks And Opportunities
Throughout the assessment process, it is important to use the assessment and evaluation of the organization's threats and advantages
- To confirm the applicability of threats and the possibility to differentiate the procedures of clear evidence.
- Analysis of how the organization's hazards and prospects are defined.
Criteria For Auditing
There have been various standards for which an investigation could be carried out, whether separately or in mixture. An audit may be performed against legislation and requirements established by involved parties, as well as an audit may also be performed against constitution and regulatory standards. It is also possible to perform an assessment process against essentials defined by one or even more criteria of the processing system (Saavedra and Samanta, 2015).
As per ISO 19011, this model acts as a reference to the audit control system, including administering inspections of the processing system, the concept of auditing, implementing the audit process and this norm acts as guidelines on the selection of individuals involved in the audit process. Each of these internal audit operations involve accountants and internal audit team managers. ISO 19011 may be introduced to different kinds of investigations, but significant skills must be considered.
Methods Of Auditing:
In order to perform an auditing, an auditor should choose a procedure that best suits the audit goals and requirements of scope audit. There are various methods in auditing as per ISO 19011 standards, an audit could be conducted on site, this can be done remotely as well as the mixture of both. Auditing method selection should be fairly balanced, taking into account the challenges and opportunities connected with it (Khorasani, Saadatkia and Kootsookos, 2012).
These should be well constructed for decent program plotting and perform by audit customers and also for suitable effectiveness. Audit objectives should be premised on following concerns, in accordance with ISO 19011:
- Managerial system structure.
- Findings and results of audit programme conducted previously.
- Necessitates and expectations of interested involved parties which may be external or internal.
- Determination of different risks as well as concerning opportunities to the auditee.
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Drivers And Barriers For Health, Safety, Well Being And Environmental Sustainability:
Every day, a lot of time and efforts are invested on calculations of vibratory frequencies in plants, houses and other systems and appliances, not least items as varied as hard disks and spacecraft. If it gets down to assessing how vibration affects physical items, thousands of scientists, technicians, professionals, and machine developers have become researchers. In this context following is discussion upon key drivers for and major barriers to safety, health, sustainability of environmental and well-being with regards to company, as follows:
Repeated access to elevated vibration rates is proven over period to injure employees. Depending on the precise intersecting conditions of the working environment of the patient, these reactions are divided into 2 kinds: hand-arm as well as vibration of the entire body. The exposure of hand-arms to vibrations causes direct thumb and hand lesions, impacting the sensation, agility, and grip, apart from being known to contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome or other injuries. These wounds are deteriorating and compensatory. The whole body vibration (WBV) is among the most prevalent causes of time-loss and manufacturing output when coping with back-pain problem and employee injury than reasonably expected. research has discovered that vibration thresholds comparable to those in man-made power instruments can lower blood flow throughout the limbs; thus, whenever the body needs oxygen as well as other essential nutrients, this is less efficient (Health and Safety Executive. 2019).
Plenty of the instruments commonly used in several sectors can trigger repetitive injury. The causes of vibrations, which can trigger hand-arm vibrations injury, may all be shrinks, slotting hammers, sanders, concrete stoppers, impact boxes, air driven clamps, saws of every kind, and even dentures if used regularly for longer periods. Based on the methods utilized and work carried out, the lag time from constant access to beginning may be as short as 2 years or 17. WBV is an issue if the running vehicles like forklift trucks, some off-road freighters, mining and drilling machinery, pavement machines and ferryboats and other specific transportation appliances are used for a longer time. More factors leading to the possibility of injury involve operating in cold, humid conditions, inadequate maintenance of equipment including use of tobacco (Li, Mangena and Pike, 201).
If the measured rates are above acceptable daily thresholds of 5 m / s2 (HAV) and 1.15 m / s2 (WBV) and if the job is continuous and required, exposure measurement could also be useful when one of the numerous accessible commercially vibration sensors is obtained. This is, although, absolutely crucial that perhaps the selected sensor is explicitly designed to assess human movement and to fulfil the ISO 8041's performance requirements with respect to vibration controls. This in turn requires that the meter also complies with the specifications of ISO 5349 in relation to HAV and ISO 2631 in relation to WBv; though, a substantial quantity of analysis is usually not available. In order to make sure the decent configuration, the placing, alignment and ratcheting of vibration detectors or the accelerometer is essential. Before leasing or buying such a devices or even utilising a specialist who is expert in measuring vibration explicitly for safety of workforce, it might be better to seek advice with machinery supplier as well as its regional distributor (Al Daoud, Ismail and Lode, 2015).
It is observed that when performing an inspection or designing an audit strategy, the fitness. It also includes the protection as it is very well-being in order to get the sustainable performance of any company which are critical for future growth and development. These are discussed below:
- Occupational disease prevention: When performing an inspection or designing an audit strategy, the fitness, protection and well-being and sustainable performance of any company are very critical. Getting ISO 45OO1 as new norm for the Medical Health and Safety Control system to all organizations can assist ensure the safety of employees, risk evaluation and enhancement of health and safety practices, decrease of workplace accidents and mitigation of diseases because of work practices (Buckless, Krawczyk and Showalter, 2014).
- Prevention of reputation loss: Workers are very preoccupied regarding their organization's name. If an organization's credibility is defiled, it directly affects an organization's business appearance that could result in economic loss. Death at work and lives-threatening accidents resulting from visibility to injury can create controversy that can cause to the asking questions of reputation and harm to the picture of the organization. Avoiding the risk of credibility is one of the main forces in the auditing community to insure that items are correctly set up.
- Judicial action: Legislative action may take the form of revocation of an organization's license to operate as a consequence of failure to comply with laws, legal proceedings and insurance for workplace ill-health, disability and injury as a result for an event such as an incident at the workplace (Christensen, Glover and Wolfe, 2014).
- Improvement in productivity: The purpose to auditing is to support an organization's efficiency increase. Getting better an organization's health and safety contributes to increasing ethics and efficiency. Workers could do their function properly with much less trouble and less threat.
There are several obstacles to the successful push towards wellness, protection and well-being and preservation of the community while conducting out an audit.
- Incompetency: The accountants must be reasonably qualified to perform a successful company examination for efficient auditing. Accountants should be adequately trained and have great insight in to the success of health / security compliance policies and practices, review and investigation findings (Kogilavani, 2012).
- Integrated Auditing: This leads to new obstacles or challenges in audit for auditors, as here in it internal as well as external auditing personnels missing essential disciplinarian abilities and perceptive of integrated managerial structures and organization's regard and strategic way.
- Inadequate Information: Lack of proper knowledge poses a threat to fitness, protection, properly-being and preservation of the community. An organization needs to be well educated about the correct policy and norm to use in order to maintain the organization's methodologies regarding fitness, education and the well-being (Fletcher, De Massis and Nordqvist, 2016).
- Regulation: Legislation is one of the obstacles that an entity poses with a better environmental review. Environmental legislation may discourage progress by choosing the best possible methods and imposing an arbitrary deadline
- Lack of Consistency: Inconsistency in internal audit procedures and results may lead to different standards understanding. It primarily involves compliance officers which are external auditors who may be change multiple times during auditing process (Alkhatib and Marji, 2012).
Audit Team And Method:
There are 3 team members in the audit practice. A team leader was chosen and each member had distinct specific audit duties and responsibilities. The team member met inaugural to evaluate goals and to layout a auditing plan in compliance with ISO 19011 criteria. The auditors obtained a pre-questionnaire program to support the auditors in gathering information 1st-hand.
Audit Team Lead
An on-site auditing procedure has been adopted for this activity in keeping with the standards of the ISO 19011. On day of audit, the auditing team met the auditor for the first time, stay the purpose and goals of visit to Workshop. The auditing team member looked at the activities initiated during the job and the practice was performed and the team also noted. It has been tested to comply with vibration issues code of conduct in conjunction with the university's vibration control policy (Sultana, Singh, and Van der Zahn, 2015). In addition, the auditing team conducted interviews with team manager, the safety coordinator as well as the staff who were present at workshop. Here are several method and steps applied in the audit, as listed below:
- The opening meeting of auditing personnels decided on audit goals and audit requirements for the comparison of audit outcomes.
- Sending of appropriate and comprehensive questionnaire as well as required supportings to the Audi-tee.
- Requested reports and documents after receiving critically reviewed and a specific formal confirmation has been received from senders.
- Formulation of audit questionnaire and after that gather relevant resources.
- Initiating an audit day group meeting at workshop.
- The auditing interview took place with Health and Safety Workshop Supervisor and departmental staff.
- A thorough analysis of audit findings.
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Recommendation And Conclusion:
The audit's primary purpose is to ensure compliance with laws, ensuring that measures required to be implemented are done correctly by following right ethics. Findings and results from such a report suggest that due to poor execution and enforceability by the Health / Safety program manager and executives, the workshop does not fully comply with certain university policy regulations on vibration issues. It has also been observed that workshop does not operate on Occupational Safety and health Managerial System is management system standards such as ISO 18001 and substituted version ISO 45001 that has been adopted to enforce the processes / methods, policies and regulations needed by organizations to achieve the finest work conditions as well as operating environment for us. However some positive solutions to the regulatory guidelines has been seen, but much still needs improvement. Here are several recommendations in context of the audit procedure:
- An effective training should be framed for workers or employees in workshop with aim to have deep and wider knowledge related to potential risks related to vibration issues at workplace.
- A standard Health surveillance systems should be placed which is purely based on university's regulations, guidelines and policies in respect of all employees employed in workshop.
- The workshop's management structure need to do more to compel workers to use personal security devices, and fraudsters or guilty must be punished.
- Risk evaluation of vibration problems should be conducted at reasonable intervals in order to properly define the danger in compliance with the policy.
- Work timetables should be established by making a register-book of employees, which may assist to track the no. of hours of work and restrict exposure to vibration problems.
Reflection On Learning In Audit Preparation And Conduct:
I found the audit report to be of great value, particularly in the creation of new abilities. Throughout the entire phase, I have acquired several skills that include preparing audit plans, auditing interviewing skills, composing audit report and being a decent team player. Audit exercise, furthermore, is quite challenging for me as a consequence of management and planning that I always overcome. This has reached a time when I was almost annoyed with the entire process, however like the common refrain ''no pain no gain”. My personal development has been adds a lot of significance throughout the process.
- Thom, B., Cerrato, G. and Sturgill, M., 2019. Augmenting Vehicle Production Audit with Objective Data and Sound Quality Metrics to Improve Customer Experience in a Changing Automotive Landscape (No. 2019-01-1531). SAE Technical Paper.
- Horová, M., 2012, November. Performance Audit Considering the Sustainability: Approach of the Czech Enterprises. In Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance, Academic Publishing International Limited, Reading (pp. 231-236).
- Soong, T.T. and Costantinou, M.C. eds., 2014. Passive and active structural vibration control in civil engineering (Vol. 345). Springer.
- Burdzik, R., Celiński, I. and Czech, P., 2016. Optimization of transportation of unexploded ordnance, explosives and hazardous substances–vibration issues. Vibroengineering PROCEDIA, 10, pp.382-386.
- Saavedra, R.C. and Samanta, B., 2015. Noise and vibration issues of wind turbines and their impact–a review. Wind Engineering, 39(6), pp.693-702.