Financial accounting is the important areas for all the business entity. There is vast difference in the management and financial accounting
- Record all the business transactions by using double entry book-keeping, and maintaining the trial balance.
- Make final accounts for sole traders, partnerships or limited companies with conventions and standard.
Financial accounting plays very important concern for every business entity. There is huge difference from management and financial accounting as it is dependent and independent respectively. The present report is providing brief discussion about double entry book keeping and capability for extracting trial balance along with transactions of purchase in general ledger. It had also articulated about process of preparing final accounts in context of partnerships, limited organization or sole traders.
Financial accounting is a system where whole information about finance with respect to any specific business is being collected, accumulated, analysed and represented in a standard format. It is considered as a branch which is specialised on the basis of accounting and it keeps record of all financial transactions of any specific business entity. This information could be used on the basis of given standard guidelines. All the accounting principles could be optimised as this is established in an appropriate format. The financial statements are issued by business entities on regular schedule which is set by board of directors or top management. It could also be interpreted as entities whose aim is to increase stakeholder’s value. All these framed reports of financial accounting set a benchmark for determining level and function of efficiency on the basis of board and management. The main objective of this financial accounting is to provide information on basis of requirment in context of decision making process related to economy in very sound aspect.
1. Articulating journal entries of every transaction
Journal entries is a format for tracing every transaction in context of business as per their particular records. It can be easily recorded in general ledger as well but it has various restrictions and it is specifically introduced in general ledger. The journal entries have its various implications for preparing financial statements. Main aim of this specific book is to trace each business transaction which is recorded at two places so it is known as double entry accounting (Zimmerman and Yahya-Zadeh, 2011). It is not applicable for the purpose of common transactions in context of invoices and billing due to availability of various software as it helps in automatic preparation of accounting records.
The account of ledger is indicated as record which has its applications for purpose of segregating and storing different transactions on basis of profit and loss statements and balance sheet. It also provides help for presentation of formal ledger of firm's financial statements along with the account of debit and credit as it is validated along with trial balance as well. All the financial transactions are recorded in ledger account (Pratt, 2013). For the purpose of preparation of financial statements, there is huge requirement of information about each account as it comprises of accounts on the basis of liabilities, assets, expenses, owner's equity and revenue. It had gained huge importance as books of account due to reason it had appropriate classification of any specific firm. At the ending of accounting period whole information is on basis of each transactions.
Interpretation: The above table is ledger account of bank which consists of various credit transactions of cash, insurance, rent and account payable. There is absence of any debit entry so, balance which has been brought down will be sum of credit transactions as 5325.
Interpretation: The above table is indicating ledger of cash account as this consists of huge number of transactions. It consists of both debit and credit entries in which debit side is the highest as it includes capital, bank and sales account as 79100. On the contrary, expenses and equipment are credited for 3030 where balance should be brought down as 76070 is extracted from specified cash ledger.
Interpretation: The above ledger is indicaring purchase account where is absence of credit entries as it consists of debit entry for accounts payable as 18000. The same amount will be brought down.
Interpretation: The above table is indicating ledger of sales account which has absence of debit entries as every sales transaction had been credited through cash and accounts receivables. The amount 26000 will be brought down by viewing above scenario.
Interpretation: The above table is indicating account receivable account which is specified in two formats in which 1st one is indicating debit of sales by 12000 which will be carried downwards. The other table is indicateing both debit and credit side where the highest side is credit from 18000 and debit amount is of 5000. So, accordingly 13000 would be carried downwards.
Computer equipment account
Interpretation: The above ledger is representing computer equipment account on cash basis which is debit from 3000 as this amount is brought downwards due to absence of credit transactions.
Interpretation: It is considered as an essential ledger account as it specifies the amount of capital which has been debited or credited. As there is presence of transaction of 65,000 which cash as in capital account which brought downwards as well.
Interpretation: Above table is depicting picture of all transactions on the basis of rent which is debited from bank as 150 and similar amount has been brought downwards.
Interpretation: The above table is indicating ledger account of Insurance which had debited 75 through bank and due to absence of credit entry, it will be brought downwards.
Interpretation: The above table is depicting ledger of expenses account as there is presence of only one transaction which debited via cash as 30 and it will be brought down because of absence of credit transaction.
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Trial balance is considered as closing balance list related to ledger account on the basis of duration as it is considered as an initial step for process of preparation of various financial statement. At the ending of accounting period, it is framed for observing such financial statements. There is an appropriate segregation of ledger balances in debit and credit. It consists of expenses which is traced on debit side in trial balance and credit side comprises of capital, income and liabilities. It also helps in ensuring that every transaction of debit is stated and simultaneously, it replicates the concept of double entry in accounting. If there is presence of variation of both sides in context of sum then it should resolve and investigate ir on prior basis for preparation financial statements (Sharma and Panigrahi, 2013). It also identifies and rectify specific errors. In the same series, for preparation of trial balance there is requirement of fully or balancing off to ledger account as it could be done by appropriately listing closing balance which had been extracted from ledger account or which is brought down on credit or debit balance.
Balance off rule
|Accounts receivables ac
|insurance expenses ac
|Accounts payable ac
|Rent expense ac
|Computer accessories ac
It is also known as Statement of Profit and Loss as it is replicated as an essential financial statement for the purpose of assessment of performance of firm along with financial stability. It specifies all revenues and expenses of business of given duration as it identifies losses. This statement is interpreting growth of top line in context of net income and along with this bottom line is also elaborated (Henderson and et.al., 2015). The financial progress had been judged of entity within examined duration.
Income statement as per ending year
|Less: Purchase returns
|Less: Sales returns
|Gross profitability margin
|Salaries and wages
|Rates and Rent
|add: outstanding rates
|bad debts occured
|less: provision (old)
|add: bad debts (new)
|exclude: prepaid insurance
|Less: Unearned rent
|Net profit margin
Balance sheet as per ending year
|Less: bad debts
|less: depreciation cost
|less: Drawing expenses
|Add: net Income
Representing Bank Reconciliation Statement
This statement helps in extracting, explaining and understanding various differences of balances which is included in bank statements and accounting records as well. It is largely applicable for depositors. This is indicated as normal situation according to entity's balance as per accounting record which has huge variations from amount according to bank statement due to alterations in time. All transactions which are recorded by any specific entity which had been updated in bank statement after particular time lag (Bank Reconciliation statement, 2018). Its specific aim is to determine various discrepancies in accounting record of organization and bank's record due to time variations. If there is presence of BRS on monthly basis then it would assist daily tracking of cash flow of business entity.
|Amount (in £)
|Amount (in £)
|Balance according cash book (Dr)
|Cheque issued on basis of D Park but not conferred for the payment
|Payment transferred by Mr. Petal in bank of Akram
|Amount Withdrawal for personal use
|Dividend gathered by bank
|Insurance paid by Tesco to bank in context of fire
|Monthly talk bill paid by bank
|Cheque attributable in the bank statement
|Balance as (per pass book Cr)
Statement for rectification
It is replicated as statement which is used for rectifying different error for omission as such its result is omitted for recording any specific transaction.
|Cash ac dr To bank ac To suspense ac
|G Tahir ac dr To suspense ac
|Electricity bill expense ac dr To suspense ac
|Motor vehicle expense ac dr To cash ac
|Cash ac dr To motor vehicle ac
|Sales ac dr To suspense ac
|L Samantha ac dr To cash ac
|Suspense ac dr To D John ac
This account is framed for recording differences in context of trial balance as its specific adjustments is on temporary view but they are appropriately rectified before preparation of final accounts (Barth, 2015).
|To cash ac
|To sales ac
|To D Jhon ac
|To sales ac
|To balance c/f
|To electricity bill ac
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It could be concluded from above report that financial accounting is very important aspect before preparing financial statements. This plays vital role in every business entity whether it is small or big, financial stability and position is general information. It had been articulated from above report that the structure of any business entity should be appropriate and maintained properly which is done by financial accounting. Further it could be summed up reflecting importance of each financial statement for determining financial performance of any business entity.