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Psychological Theories for Health & Social Care

University: Regent College of London

  • Unit No: 9
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 9 / Words 2365
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: M/508/9860
  • Downloads: 1069
Question :

This unit is related with psychology for health and social care for determining mind state of person and accordingly provide them treatment for their recovery

  • Determine theories of lifespan development.
  • Demonstrate social and biological aspects of human behavior displayed in health care
  • Develop understanding of how psychological theories applied to health care practices.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks & Spencer


The concept of psychology is very important for human beings when it concerns with frequent changes in behaviour of human. At each and every stage of human life there are changes in thoughts and these are due to situation that are faced. It is stage of life when aging makes a person go through the process of human development. In this report, it identifies the behaviour of humans at every stage of life (Hansson, 2017). Further, it covers mind levels of human is development at every stage because they learn new thing in his whole life. It also discusses about the disorder and health of human being. Lastly, it also covers the factors that play important role in human life.


1.1 Different types of psychological theories

At each stage of life, there are different types of changes that takes place, and all these are significantly important for personality development. At each and every level, one is able to develop their understanding. There are six stages that are included in life-span development which are: Infancy, early childhood, childhood, middle age, younger age and adolescence. There are so many changes in behaviour identified from childhood to adulthood. In this report, below are given some of the psychological theories related to lifespan development:

Piaget Theory- This theory is useful for the development such as cognitive and their life perspectives. With this theory it enables to identifying the real meaning of life (Courtin, 2017). Apart from this, they can also determine the internal and external factor that negatively affects human life. As per the nature and nurture that need to be provided to students should be appropriate. Parents are supposed to understand their children and provide them appropriate support so that they grow in positive direction.

Continuity and discontinuity approach: In accordance with continuity approach, it can be stated that older adults will usually maintain same type of behaviour, activities and relationships as all these has been done by them in their early days. Apart from this, this theory is considered to be tone of the theory. On the other hand, Discontinuity approach is selected so that causal elicits effects of interventions by cut-off threshold above or below which an intervention is assigned.

Idiographic and nomothetic approaches: Both these are terms that are described by Kantian in order to describe two of the distinct approaches to knowledge. Each of these are corresponding to diverse intellectual tendency. Further, each one corresponding to various branch academe.

Activity and passivity approaches: This is considered to be the implicit theory of aging. More specifically, proposes for successful aging occurs when older adults stay active and maintain social interactions. Passive approach enables to make analysis of power systems and to derive controllers is presented.

Maturation: This is considered to be the process through which a person changes, grow and develop in their life.

Sigmund Freud theory- This theory is very important as it enables to suggest the behaviour and personality of an individual. Sometimes, the person's unconscious mind can also affect their behaviour. This is a type of theory that is related with single person.

Erickson Psychological theory- This theory is related to all human being in which it states that importance should be given to social interaction. In other words, the theory increases the importance towards getting social. Further, it provides the details of person and their behaviour towards the society.

Contextual theory- This theory enables to determine the initial factors like psychology of a person.

Abraham Maslow's theory- This theory is totally depended upon the human ability to think and the perception that are carried out. The person also have the ability to make their own decision as per the perception that are carried out by them.

Charles Darwin theory- This theory is based on the inheritance that is focused on individual behaviour (Kaljee, 2017). This is adopted for survival and promotion human survival. This can be applied for individual aspect as well.

1.2 Description on the various psychological theory in relation to the age related to the specific stages of life

Covered in PPT


2.1 Description of the biological and social factors which work as to influence the human behaviour

For some individuals, the genetic and character and roles reflect upon behaviour. This is in regard to different type of situation and things that are being faced. There are frequent changes identified at each level of life span (Boyd, Bee and Johnson, 2014). As per the situation that are faced affects physically, mentally and emotionally. Further, it also has impact on psychology or behaviour of a person. Below given are different factors that influence and affect the human behaviour:

Biological Factor- The biological factor is very important factor when it describes human behaviour and it is natural thing that happens to genetic changes. In most of the cases, they have attractive personality, physical appearance, etc. all these are depended upon the inheritance. With the help of this factor, person behaviour gets totally changed according to their genies.

There are different type of genetics that can predispose to certain diseases. In this context, it can have small or large effects on likelihood of developing some particular disease. With this respect, it includes BRCA2 or BRCA1 genes that can increase risk of a person to develop breast ovarian and cancer.

Social Factor- Social factors affect their whole society because the person learns new things and gain knowledge through community (Reblin, 2018). The human learn lot of think from their family and friends, all these have high impact on changes that taken place in behaviour. These changes can be positive and negative impact of the teaching that are given by others. However, it depends upon the perception that are carried out by individuals.

From a person to grow, it is required to have a healthy environment in which child have strong interaction and relationship with their parents. Child do not have proper understanding regarding what is right and what is wrong. However, they get to develop through observing and teachings that are provided to them. Both environmental and biological factors has equal impact on individuals. Individuals who are not provided with healthy environment, then they develop bad habits that cannot be changed. Similarly, with appropriate support is not provided, then it becomes difficult to survive in effective manner. Development of brain is possible when child get to develop their learning and understanding. There are diseases like Parkinson's caused due to lack of dopamine in the brain. There are other reasons due to which mental development of child gets affected. One of the reason is due to smoking habit among mothers at the time of pregnancy. Further, it also requires a mother to have appropriate attachment with their child as it contributes effectively towards child development.

2.2 Importance of the social roles of Social and health care setting

Individuals can get influenced with number of ways but the preference of people is considered to be the set of role of our expectation. For example, when there are 10 people and are given a situation, then the solution to it will be different (Brett, Staniszewska and Suleman, 2014). Changes in answers come due to perception that are carried out. For each of the social situation, it makes it to have a proper behaviour that is certain for some of the situation. Roles related to social is considered to be a condition in which many people are involved and they all work together.

In situations when any of the family member is sick or ill, then they are required to have or get social help. Within health care, there are social workers who aim at delivering health related services to people in need (Buunk, Gibbons and Buunk, 2013). There are conditions in which patients do not have the capability to take decisions regarding their treatment. In this context, care providers, family member and friends make sure that they provide support so that combined decisions are made for the patient. In social and health care setting, it is important for patients to get adequate information regarding the issues that are faced by them. These are effective enough to make sure that patients select the most appropriate solution or treatment as per their preferences. Further, it is essential that social workers continuously develop appropriate services as per the changing behaviour that are made up by individuals. They have the capability to improve lives of individuals and families in all type of critical condition (Moule and Hek, 2011). Social workers prefer people to understand or anticipate their lives and provide them suggestion by which their lives can be improved. All have faith on social workers and they know that they will be helpful in all type of crucial condition. Apart from this, below given are some of the importance for social roles of social and health care setting:

Social roles: In order to effectively in health and social care, it is the responsibility to make sure that all the patients are provided with information in relation with the issue or problem that are faced by them. However, it is seen that care providers who are not sure about the roles that needs to be played can cause serious problem for patients.

Obedience: There are different type of health related issues that are faced by people. In order to make sure they overcome them in effective manner, it requires to work as a team so that with combined efforts the problems can be solved. However, in situations of conflicts it becomes difficult to work together.

Sick role behaviour: This can be determined as an activity that is undertaken by people who are sick. The type of behaviour carried out by individuals at this time is different. They fail to perform any type of activity and these requires appropriate support so that they are able to overcome their sickness.

Health Belief Model: This is a psychological model that focus on predicting and explaining health behaviours. This is done by focusing on beliefs and attitudes of individuals.

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3.1 Analysing the application of psychological theories to individuals experiencing elevated levels of stress

Stress can be determined as a condition in which individuals fail to manage their work in appropriate manner. It is identified that some of the people are able to handle them with medication, time management, etc. All these are effective enough to make sure that rate of stress can be reduced in effective manner. There are different type of issues problems or situations raised due to which stress occurs and this has reverse impact on behaviour. Mental stage and behaviour of a person gets changed because of stress (Sheldon, 2011). Some of the conditions due to which stress is developed can be due to dissatisfaction, workload, studying, or it can be due to some physical issues, etc. Below are given condition of stress that are caused at different levels or stages of life:

Stress at early childhood: There are various factors of which a child can get stressed. Children observe or learn from their parents or friends and so when they frequently witness any type of violence, abuse, etc. then it can create stress among children. When these types of conditions are frequent, then this can cause a child to face mental as well as behavioural changes (Moorhead, Hazlett and Hoving, 2013). The type of perception that are carried out by individuals will be different. There will be some of them whose behaviour do not change even when they witness abuse or violence. However, there will be some of them who may face immediate changes in their behaviour.

Stress during Adulthood: When a person grows older, there are many responsibilities that are to be taken care of. This is considered to be the stage in which individual faced various type of conditions like anxiety, depression, etc. (Hansson, 2017). Adult identifies their goals in life and aim at meeting up the expectations that others develop upon them. Further, there are various relationships that also need to be maintained. When these types of aspects are not properly considered, then it causes the person to face stress.

Old age: When a person grows older, then it causes stressful situation. There are certain set of expectation that individuals have like care, support, etc. A person becomes weaker physically and sometime mentally also (Morgan, 2017). When the rate of support provided to them is not appropriate, then it causes serious issue and it increases stress.

Apart from this, there are psychological stress that is causes due to different reasons like work-related, illness, chronic illness, bereavement, loss, etc.

Further, there are theories related with stress. In this context, Selye's model of stress consist of three of the stages that are included which are: Alarm, resistance and exhaustion. All these need to be properly managed and controlled so that at initial stage itself these can be eliminated.

When stress is not properly handled, then it causes serious health related issues like heart attack, stroke, diabetes, etc.

In order to overcome such type of condition, there are cost involved in which workers are provided with training so as to make workers to manage stress.

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