Partnership in health and social care aims is to give the professionals as well as practitioners with guide to work in an effective manner. It gives useful frameworks and approaches which are based on existing policies and research. Partnership working is collaboration work among two or more than two persons, organisations or governments with the shared interests. Two or more than two different parties which would like to achieve particular objectives and goals develop partnership working (Bryson, 2016). Different players in health and social care are opted for the partnership working to facilitate ability to provide better quality of services. This present report is based on the Mr. I case study. In this report, there will be discussion on philosophy of the working in partnership in health and social care. Also, organisational practices and current legislation for partnership working in health and social care will be mentioned. Further, there will be study on the potential barriers to partnership working in health and social care services. For improving partnership working in health and social care, some strategies will be discussed as well.
1.1 Philosophy of working in partnership
In health and social care, working in partnership is necessary because of the coordination among the patients and practitioners. It is essential for the care home to share necessary pathological information about patient and do their treatment in a proper manner. On the basis of case study, Mr Ian is not cooperative with more aggressive behaviour. He is physically as well as verbally aggressive. He drunk every time and found unhealthy. So, for this partnership is necessary to make effective cooperation and coordination. In addition to this, departments under which Mr Ian shifted in various time periods are Local Authority, Local Authority Long Term Team, Review and Reablement, Risk Enablement Panel and many others. Thus, they do not have any conversation with Mr Ian regarding this about his situation that may provide support to deal with his crucial condition (Cameron and et. al., 2014). Different philosophies have been developed in order to facilitate the working among firms in health and social care industry. Different philosophies of working in partnership are mentioned as below:
Interdependence- Organisations work as partners in the provision of health and social care services which may be based on each other for social, economic and financial support. Interdependence among partnering the organisations is generally assessed in coordination of resources as well as activities and information sharing which are required to take effective decisions.
Empowerment- It is necessary that organisations included in working partnership should be able to empower each other by adequate coordination of cooperation and activities. It enhances the ability or capability of partnering firms to attain target objectives and goals. As per the case study of Mr Ian, care homes should provide the each details of Mr Ian condition with him so that he can coordinate in procedure of treatment (Dickinson and Sullivan, 2014). In regards to this, mutual respect among the collaborating the health and social care sector would be facilitate effective flow of activities and helpful in develop the strong relationship among partners.
Power sharing- It is one of the necessary philosophy and under this, power to take any decisions about the health of person and take any operations, care home should be discuss with that person. In addition to this, it is essential to enhance quality of health care activities. At workplace, power should be distributed equally among the all employees and it will be helpful in develop positive working environment. On the other hand, for better collaboration firms working as the partners should share responsibilities as well as duties equally.
These all philosophies are through various health and social acre agencies under this mention case study. It will be helpful in enhancing better care of Mr Ian and through this, he can recover from his situations.
1.2 Effectiveness of partnership relationships within health and social care services
Partnership working refers to develop better cooperation as well as coordination to work together for attaining specific aims and objectives with in mention period of time. In health and care services, involvement of partners is necessary and also require to coordinate with the each other (Doel and Shardlow, 2017). In the case study of Mr Ian, it is necessary for different departments for an instance Local Authority, Local Authority Long Term Team, Risk Enablement Panel, Occupational Therapist, Community support Worker etc. to deal with his mental as well as physical problems in a proper manner. In health and social care, partnership working brings separate organisations together so that they can get advantages from resources, power sharing and expertise. The main aim of partnership is to increase quality as well as efficiency of service provision.
Guidelines that support collaborative working are:
Our health our care our say 2006- White paper sets out proposals of government to expand and reform the community health and social care services in context to meet with local requirements specially in the poorer deprived communities.
Mental capacity Act, 2005- This act is developed through Parliament of United Kingdom and its main aim is to give legal framework for making decision on the behalf of adults which have lack of capacity to take their own decisions (Glasby and Dickinson, 2014).
At different levels, better relationship in partnership is necessary. Various levels are mentioned as below:
Service user level- It consists of cooperation and coordination among the medical professionals and patients. Under this, professionals provide the effective treatment to patient through conducting necessary procedure in an efficient manner. It consists of organisations, services users and professionals but the central point of partnership is service users. In addition to this, organisations and professionals should work to respect the dignity of service users.
Cons Sometimes, patients ignore instructions of nurses after becoming friendly with them which impacts their health negatively.
Professional level- This level indicates collaboration among various professionals which work towards make improvement in life of service users. Various professionals included in case of MR. Ian are Local Authority, Review and Reablement, Serious Case Reviews, Community support Worker, Local Authority Long Term Team, Occupational Therapist etc. On the other hand, professional level consists junior and senior staff member's which give their contribution to organise the medical activity for an instance clinical parameters, therapeutic activities, monitoring and many others (Glasby, 2017). On the basis of case study, information exchange between various authority levels is not effective because of confusion developed among employees and Mr Ian is not able to take any benefit from the treatment.
Pros – The relationship among number of professionals associated with same case facilitate to improve trust on each other with better coordination to gain improved outcomes of medication.
Cons – Many times, more friendly relation of medical professionals may distract their focus from actual task which can results into emergency situation of patient.
Organisational level- Under this, professionals working in various health and social care firms will be work in the partnership in context to support the service user (Greene, 2017). Organisations which are included in Mr Ian case are local authority, councils, social service users and many others. In context to Mr Ian, when he transferred to other care home for treatment and managed through SPOA then it face some complexities due to the limited information about him. It is necessary to organisations to coordinate and discuss about his condition.
Pros – The professional relation among different health care organisations provide support to make people healthy in case of unavailability of medications. It include to refer patients to different medical institutions to avoid barrier in treatment due to insufficient services.
Cons – Some times, dependency may increase on other institutions which may create critical problem while other organisations also facing issue of unavailability of desired health care services.
2.1 Models of partnership working across the health and social care sector
Health and social care partnership uses various models which identify nature of the partnership and the relations of those parties which are included in partnership. In context to this, it is necessary to distinguish many strategic directions in partnership development models in health and social care industry (Harris and White, 2018). Effective coordination among all levels of staff members is necessary because at every stage, treatment is necessary by using pathological information about a person so that treatment can be done in a proper manner. There are various types of models of partnership mention below:
Unified model- This model consists the criteria to develop a particular system in health and social care organisations. It is essential for all employees to carry out the activities in an effective manner so that work can be done in significant way. It consists single policy that adopted through each staff members in context to finish tasks or activities in a significant manner to get the better outcomes.
It is helpful in minimize confusion among the staff members to finish procedure of providing the services in an efficient manner.
It develops issue because it is not possible to apply the single practice in complicated health problems.
Coalition model- It refers to conducting the various activities or tasks separately which are interconnected with the each other (Healy, 2014). Under this model, the partners work corporately based on agreement on their self-interest and also for achieving common goal.
Various partners work together in an agreement for common goal.
This model enhance the time in process.
Hybrid model- It is a combination of unified and coalition. In this, organisations and professionals both are working in the partnership and they should work in positive partnership principles. They require to include service users under each step of process. They should give them all required information in order to make the informed decision.
It is helpful in develop own model on the basis of needs to solve the issues.
While getting the outcome, uncertainty and risk will be arise.
These all are the necessary models of working partnership. It has been suggested that among all the models, Mr, Ian can use coalition model in order to solve his different health problems. With the help of implementing coalition model, professionals can sort out problems of Mr Ian in a better manner. He has mental as well as physical problems and because of them, he was unable to live independently.
With the help of using the coalition model, medical professionals can resolve health problems in significant manner (Moss, 2017). As comparison to physical, mental problem is more harmful for him and he always in the drunk situation every time and behave with the other people in a rude manner. So, in order to overcome from this issue, it is essential for him to stay mentally good by use the better techniques for an instance counselling. On the other hand, health and social care providers should have certain principles which are necessary for partnership working. Principles consist trust, openness and honesty among partnering organisations, agreement to work in a collaborative manner for attaining objectives and aims, develop positive communication etc.
2.2 Current legislation and organisational practices and policies for partnership working
Various policies as well as government papers has shown need for the collaborative working between providers of health and social care. The government developed the legislations concerned with the health and social care to keep service users, staff members and patients secure and safe (Key legislation, 2018). Different legislations are mention below:
Health and Social Care Act, 2012- This act is formed through Parliament of United Kingdom. The main aim to develop this act is to safe the health of services users and staff members. It remove all the responsibilities for citizen’s health from Secretary of State for Health.
The Mental Capacity Act, 2005- This act is also developed through Parliament of United Kingdom and its main aim is to give legal framework for making the effective decisions on behalf of the adults which have not more capacity to take any specific decisions for themselves (Rubin and Babbie, 2016). It helps in empower and protect people which have lack mental capacity to make their decisions about their treatment and care.
For an example- In case of Mr Ian, he has mental as well as physical issues. He is not in condition to take any decisions. So, for this some of the social institutions take the responsibility of Mr Ian and his future. Other than these, legal bodies are also take decisions on the behalf of Mr Ian.
Care Standards Act 2000- It gives for an administration of many care institutions, independent hospitals, residential care homes, nursing homes and many others. This legislation reform legal system concerning to regulation as well as inspection of different care institutions. Their main motive is to care the people and provide them better treatment so that they can recover. This act was developed and introduce and assure that agencies were competent in their care duties and also create level of playing field for all the service providers.
Equality Act, 2010- This act is formed to protect the people from any discrimination at workplace and wider society. It is necessary that health care homes should treat all employees equally so that they can provide the better treatment to patients and can focus towards maintain their health in an effective manner (Standards and legislation, 2018).
Basically, the main purpose of these legislation is to protect the rights and health of patients from any harm in organisations. All these legislations are important for the given case study of Mr Ian because by using these acts at workplace, health care organisations will be able to provide better treatment and deal with him in a better manner.
These all are the effective legislations which various professionals should use in work in partnership. They should come to the terms with other organisational policies and practices (Slade and et. al., 2014). On the other hand, develop positive working environment, execution of policies through government and assuring full compliance with the rules related to policies and practices which organisations need to be adopted. In health and social care industry, most of the service providers have joined professional bodies for an instance Associations of Directors of Social Services (ADSS) to rearm about the emerging trends and issues in professional areas. These all the laws would support the partnership working in health and social care by maintaining better environment of co-operation through obeying act of equality to provide desired care services to Mr Ian to fulfil their health and safety requirements.
2.3 Impact of differences in working practices and policies on collaborative working
Differences in policies and working practices between firms in the partnership working have resulted in enhancing many inter- organisational disputes. It has hindered effectiveness and efficiency of providing services related to health and social care to service users. In context to this, variations in employment policies can negatively impact on hiring of capable employees, fall of partnership working and risk of termination. Major attribute of working together are communal working, trust, boundaries eradication and respect among the health and social care centres. Because of the collaboration. Some high- graded health care organisations is seeing practice as qualification threat to professionalism and career- orientation.
In this, lack of effective emplacement policies can make unclear roles and responsibilities for the members of steering groups (Smith, Swallow and Coyne, 2015). In a partnership, it is necessary that policies should be clear otherwise, there will be conflict arise and they will not able to perform in a proper manner. In context of case of Mr Ian, there are various professionals as well as teams from various organisations involved. While working in partnership, it is necessary that they should be aware about the condition of Mr Ian and work together to make improvement in their health. On the other hand, Mr Ian should be informed in a proper manner to inform about differences.
Due to variations in working culture as well as policies, merger among the two segments are more complex. Each of them has a unique working practice which they should follow in regards to maintain the organisational objectives.
For an example- The main focus of health care providers is to make improvement in health of people through reducing their expenses, in context to partnership working. Firm should have better coordination with the law authorities that assess in carried out the assessment process which can impact on working together.
Under this, care workers have the varied practice and they have focused on mental and physical health of the service users (Snape and et. al., 2014). Sometimes, care workers deal with emotional attachment of users which may impact on working with the health care professionals. On the other hand, modifications in policies will not only impact on collaborative working bur also impact on way that users get the services which are not required for change for better results. Proper functioning in operations of two firms will be hindered through the force changing in the working policies and practices.
Differences in evaluation and monitoring technique for assessing the operations of partnership which may lead to the lower achievements. Reduced access and confidentiality to information held through the other parties in partnership working that lead to minimize collaboration and suspicion among partners. So, through working in the partnership reduce the cost of organisations as they share their resources equally. It is also helpful in increasing mutual coordination and cooperation which helps in achieving the common objective.
Under this different organisations which working collaboratively in treatment of MR. Ian are Local Authority, Occupational Therapist. Differences can have impact on the collaborative working in many ways which are given below:
Lack of effective communication- In this, when two organisations are working together then their working methods, rules, environment will be different from the each other. From these variations, employees will not be perform in well manner. So, it is a main differences in the collaborative working.
Financial difficulties- It is a main issues because without finance firms cannot perform any activities or operations. In collaborative working, two different organisations a work are together but their financial conditions are different from each other. They both are both able to give equal funds. So, it is a problem in the collaborative working.
3.1 Possible outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals and organizations
Some of the possible outcomes of working partnership for organisations in health and social care sector, professionals and service users consists of enhanced capability of providers of health and social care to provide better quality as well as coordinated services to users.
Service users- In addition to this, partnership working arrangements among the service providers may lead to improve employment opportunities and training for health care professionals. For instance: social workers, nurses, doctors, etc. Under this, advantages which are given through medical professionals conduct effective diagnosing process for getting better outcomes (Ten Hoope-Bender and et.al., 2014). On the basis of Mr Ian’s case study, he was not supportive and was unable to get any advantage from health care organisations to overcome from his health problems.
Positive outcome- Effective services from support of health and social care units tackle health related problems of an individual in a right manner. In order to conduct different treatment procedures, autonomy and empowerment factors are used through agencies.
Negative outcome- Anger and unsupportive behaviour of Mr Ian develops the negative outcomes. On the other hand, miscommunication as well as confusion among health care organisations creates issues because they do not have proper information about condition of Mr Ian.
Professionals- By working in partnership, providers of social and health care would be able to create in-depth understanding about health care sector along with the social sector. Similarly, organisations will need to learn the expertise and new skills to deal with patients in a more effective manner. There are various types of agencies under which Mr Ian shifted for treatments such as Local Authority, Review and Reablement, Serious Case Reviews, Community support Worker, Local Authority Long Term Team, Occupational Therapist etc. but among all of them no one organisation is able to solve his problems.
Positive outcomes-It helps in maintain the professionalism at workplace and it is more supportive to assign the duties and roles of employees in an effective way to attain the set objectives.
Negative outcomes- Due to miscommunication of staff members, confusion is developed. Management activities are hampered for gaining the appropriate outcome.
Organisations- Those organisations which are included in the partnership working would able to give as well as manager the wide range of health and social care services which meet with wants and needs of patients (Union, 2014). It is essential for organisations which are working in partnership to maintain better cooperation and coordination related to exchange of information in a better manner.
Positive outcome- In case of MR. Ian, all organisations work together to improve his health. On the other hand, organisations improve the service standards which they provide top patients and customers. It is helpful in make improvement in reputation of firm between patents by proving better treatment.
Negative outcome- The main focus of health care organisations to enhance time as well as cost of diagnosing the process. Lack of conversation among the staff members may develop negative impact on organisations.
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3.2 Potential barriers to partnership working in health and social care services
It is assumed that working partnership leads to enhanced ability of organisations and people to give the better services. The barriers hindered effectiveness and efficiency of partnership in working in two different organisations. In addition to this, there are many challenges or barriers which are faced through firms in working partnership mention below:
Lack of understanding- In working partnership, there are many organisations are working and they have been suffering from the lack of understanding among partners (World Health Organization, 2014). In context to this, misunderstanding lead to creation of biases and misconception against the other organisations. In case of Mr Ian, there are several organisation are working such as Local Authority, Review and Reablement, Serious Case Reviews, Community support Worker, Local Authority Long Term Team, Occupational Therapist etc. but they do not have any coordination with each other and have not proper knowledge.
Lack of understanding of roles and responsibilities- It is one of the main barriers and it is necessary that each professional or partners should know about their roles and responsibilities in the partnership. If the partners will not know or execute their role then it will be a major barrier.
Lack of communication- For good partnership, better communication between partners is basic need. If at workplace, there is minimum communication and they are not sharing information in proper manner then through this partnership will be negatively impacted. So, it is necessary for organisations to share knowledge, ideas and information which are necessary for achieving objectives as well as enhance communication.
Inadequate time allocation - At early stage of developing partnership, generally many firms are reluctant to commit their time to arrangement. This inadequate time allocation through partnering the organisations lead to the lagged operations.
Lack of resources- There are different type of equipment which are assess to conduct the many activities in an easy manner for an instance conveying message, provide information and many others. Under this, local authority assigned the employees as well as police to visit Mr Ian’s home to take care of him. They also use the technological devices in order to monitor him and develop better strategies to overcome from mental and physical issues of Mr Ian.
3.3 Strategies to improve outcomes for partnership working in health and social care services
Under this, it is necessary for the patients to create as well as execute the appropriate strategies in order to overcome from arisen barriers. The strategies which healthcare organisations can be developed consists adequate recognition, optimizing the use of available resource, proper utilization of resources, adoption of cost effective operations methods and coordination and operations of organizational activities. On the other hand, partnering firms many develop wider base of employees which are more capable or give their better contribution to attaining set aims (Bryson, 2016). It is essential that firms should create effective strategies which aim to improve mutual understanding among partnering organisations.
Effective communication- It is necessary that there should be positive communication develop so that partners can be interact with each other and share their opinions and view point about the specifies case. Accessible as well as effective communication among the organisations and professionals working the partnership should be developed. If the communication will be developed in proper manner then all partnership organisation will work together.
Clear roles and responsibilities- There should be clear responsibilities and roles between partners, before beginning partnership, it is necessary to make the responsibilities and roles in which everyone can get involved. Without knowing clear roles and responsibilities, professionals will not able to perform properly and would not compete with each other Shared values- personal beliefs and values of professionals included should not be interfere. So, it is important that there should be proper distinction line arise among the values expected and individual beliefs expected from partners. In health and social care organisations, there should be shared value in between partners regarding their job. From this, they will focus on achieving the similar objectives which they require to share common work value.
In context to Mr Ian case, various agencies or organisations which are involved in treatment should focus on his mental problems in comparison to physical. Due to bad mental conditions, he was not able to think properly (Cameron and et. al., 2014). On the other hand, in case study, there was lack of communication among employees and it is another issue for which organisations should provide training to them so that they could deal with the patients and give them treatment effectually.
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It has been concluded from the above report that working in partnership is multifaceted arrangement among various firms which aims to make improvement in the performance and operations of concerned parties. Working in partnership is difficult and includes activities like planning, monitoring and employee training with developing better relationship with service users and evaluation of the service provision. Partnership leads to effective care, proper access to services and minimum improper service use. Different strategies have been discussed in this report as well such as communication, coordination etc. to overcome the barriers and improve outcomes of partnership and working in health and social care.