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Critical Thinking and Evaluation Process

Question :

Developing workplace involves the management of people and teams and employee relationships. This project requires the student to apply critical thinking and evaluation in relation to attitude, belief and value. It cover the following-

  • Identify the management theory which is relevant to the role and assess its impact on belief, value and attitude.
  • Critically assess impact of attitude, value and belief on workplace behaviour.
  • Analyse the difference between the attitude, belief and value in workplace.
Answer :

INTRODUCTION

Developing workplace is a key concern where focus of management is on managing team work and employee relationship.  Workplace management is concerned with employee motivation. Leadership, team leading, multitasking etc. However, it is the responsibility of manager is to implement the use of different management styles and models to coordinate  employees efforts. The aim of study is to develop critical approach to workplace thinking with the help of theoretical aspects.

The report will outline management theory and there impact on beliefs, attitudes and values of people. It will critically identify Taylor's theory of scientific management, Administrative management theory by Henry Fayol, behavioural theory of management by Elton Mayo. It will critically outline the impact of theoretical implementation on values and behaviours of employees at workplace.

MAIN BODY

Management theory and their impact on beliefs, values and attitude of student

There is a significant difference between individuals beliefs, values and attitude in which is derived from one' learning, background, education, experiences and knowledge. Beliefs are individual's acceptance which derives state of mind which is reflected in person thinking without any empirical evidence.  For example, faith in god, trust and loyalty to some specific person, etc. Apparently, values are the moral codes of people life which are represented in one's action.  It is the thing which helps the person is analysing good or bad of the situation (An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values, 2012). Apart from this, attitude is something which defined person's way of thinking and reacting to certain situation. It can be classified as outlook of person towards specific situation which differ from person to person.  Thus, it can be said that attitude is a psychological construct which derives mental and emotional stability of people (Li,  Cai and Qiu, 2016).

Value attitude behaviour hierarchy model

As per value attitude behaviour hierarchy model, it has been analysed that as per the theory values plays a vital role in influencing individuals behaviour through attitude. The model define mediating role of attitude on values and behaviour of a person.  The mediating role derives hierarchy of cognition where values act as abstract cognition, attitude as mid range cognition with regard to specific behaviours.

In accordance with hierarchy model, I evaluated implementation of theory in my  workplace context, which will help in deriving my leadership role like, my values are based on dignity and respect where I believe that every employee need to be treated with regard to Maslow hierarchical needs. My values aim at fulfilling self esteem need of workers in order to motivate them and to get work done on time.  Further, my focus will b on encouraging staff by empowering employees, which will assist me in gaining authenticity and coordination in work. In addition, my attitude depends on individual interest learning where I enjoy sharing my knowledge in order to attain team effectiveness (CHUNG and PARK, 2018). Moreover, I am person of values where I focus on working informally with staff but by integrating professional skills of communication.  Thus, as per the framework of model my value and attitudes derives my belief and behaviour at workplace.

However, management theory derives skills and abilities of supervisors and managers for managing organisational functions in order to meet competitive business goals and objectives. The focus of management is on motivating workers and aligning their work in one direction. Further, for employee management focus of supervisors on setting shared beliefs and perspective at workplace in order to set coordinating and cooperation among workers. Management techniques are implemented by managers to accomplish goals and motivate workers for performing to the highest standard of work. There are 5 principles management which helps the manager in setting effective functioning at workplace which are, commanding, controlling, coordinating, organizing and planning (Amanchukwu, Stanley and Ololube, 2015). There are various role of management which helps in establishing coordination and co-operation at workplace towards one organisational goal.

As per my leadership role I feel, it necessary for the leadership to work according to theoretical implication as it helps in deriving step wise duties and unction if individual which works according to beliefs, attitude and values of person.  Further, there are various types of leadership theory which offers different ways of leading and managing employees work like Laissez-faire, democratic, autocratic, and paternalistic. In my opinion, the best leadership theory is democratic which I will implement at my workplace to enhance my job role.

Democratic leadership style

Democratic leadership style is an effective approach because it helps in managing creativity ad innovation in work. It is based on motivation and working with shared beliefs and practices. Managing employee in democratic style aims at encouraging different business ideas which can helps in attaining high productivity and increased participation and contribution of staff members (Renko and et.al., 2015). Moreover, it is theoretical framework which helps in motivating staff members which sets coordination in activities of workers. It is considered as effective style of  management as it promotes group decision making where every employee is encouraged to share own opinion and ideas.

In my opinion, democratic style of managing and leading is the best for workplace management as it promotes stronger employee commitment towards competitive goals of firm. Further, it will help me in integrating my beliefs and value of working that is to enable dignity and respect to employees when working together. Moreover, it will be beneficial for promoting my attitude towards motivation which plays a vital role in managing efficiency and effectiveness in work.

Management Theory of Frederick Taylor

Taylor theory of management which helps the leader in effectively coordinating employee work in one direction. In accordance with this theory, management aims at deriving responsibilities according to different function. The foremost responsibility of leader As per theory is to break down task into different segments on the basis of time.  The division of task helps the management in making ethical distribution of work among employees according to their skills and abilities (Management Theory of Frederick Taylor, 2018).  In addition, the leader aim at delegating responsibilities where the individual analyses the need of training for workers. Learning and development is done by management to ensure effectiveness in work.

Further, as per theory of management, it is responsibilities of supervisor to monitor performance of employee in order to keep check of work and time constraints. It is the management style which helps in controlling job efficiency of workers.  On the other hand, it is the management style which helps in allocating work among employee on the basis of responsibilities (Acquino, 2015). The beliefs of Taylor is based on hierarchical comm munition but with effective distribution of role and responsibilities in order to minimize work pressure and employees dissatisfaction.

 Scientific management theory

In accordance to this management theory, I feel my values can as it helps me coordinating with these practices because it promotes the sense of responsibility with regard to management as well as employee. Moreover, it is and effective approach because it will allow me in breaking task into different level which helps in effective distribution of work among employees. In addition, I feel compliance with their theory helps me in changing my values of working as I was focus on employees interest in activities but with the learning I analyse the need of proving training managing diversity in work.

Apart from this, my attitude of working was based on employees' motivation and self-fulfilment of psychological needs and therefore I was lacking concentration over efficiency of production which also plays a crucial role of managing cost effectiveness in business functions (Stringer and Rueff, 2014). As per learning from Scientific management theory, I feel it necessary for me to focus on reduction in cost of production and maintaining quality of services.

Behavioural management theory

Behavioural theory of management was developed to promote employee motivation and behaviour towards business goals and objectives. However, the approach has drifted its focus of management to classical leadership where it focuses on serving human need with regard to workplace requirement. As per the theory, managers are the individuals who understand human aspect to workers which helps them in setting appropriate working environment (Lin and Hsiao, 2014. Moreover, it is the responsibility of supervisor to ensure employee management and satisfaction as the individuals are important assets of business who helps in achieving goals. Furthermore, as per approach employee satisfaction is the key concern which helps the leader in managing coordination in employees activities. Like, as per theoretical framework of behavioural management states that working conditions helps the management in increase productivity.

However, from the learning over behavioural management theory I analysed the importance of human relationship management at workplace. My values of workplace requirement and employee satisfaction were base don working styles motivation, work distribution etc. With the analysis I evaluated the importance to maintaining relationship with employees as it helps in deriving interest of staff members in business functions. Moreover, I feel it is the strategy of dispute management which can hamper positivity of work environment. Implementing Behavioural theorists will help me in enhancing my leadership role at workplace for employees aswel as management as it assist in developing better understanding of human behaviour at work with regard to motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics. Thus, according to me it is effective will help in diversifying my values in workplace context and management aspect because it derives behaviours and assumption made by leadership during work. Thus, as per the discussion, it can be sated that it is important for the person to implement the use of values and beliefs when working as it helps the person in analysing difference of wrong and right (Ghasabeh, Soosay and Reaiche, 2015). Moreover, compliance with own values with regard to work environment assist in determining need of improvement in work place condition and own attitude and beliefs of working.

 Schwartz Theory of Basic Values

The theory is based on basic human values which helps in deriving differences in values of two persons.  The theory aim at determining ten basic values which drives human behaviour and perception towards different real life situation.  Practising with the help of theoretical implication is the source which derives individual motivation and way of expressing values. As per the author it has been determined that values are beliefs which are infused with human feelings over certain situation (An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values, 2012). For example, loneliness is threatening, impairment is helpless and happy is enjoying. Moreover, the value's theory discusses about desirable goals which can be promotion of health and well-being, justice, motivation.  Further, it is an effective theory because it suggests specific action to different situation such as, honestly, obedience, politics, professional skills etc.

In accordance to learning fro theory of values, I have evaluated the need of enabling self direction at workplace which helps the employees in working individually with set of values and creativity. It is an effective approach because it encourages workplace freedom which helps in generation of creative ideas, in dependency and autonomy.  In addition, stimulation is the concept shared in theory of values which helps the person in determining self direction which plays a vital role in analysing own strength and weakness.

Apart from this, implementing use of theoretical framework of values helps the person in setting motivation in own attitude, beliefs and vales as it derives nature of continuum like sense of achievement and power is reflected by self esteem and social superiority. Further, satisfaction and self direction is denoted by accomplishment hedonism. In addition, judgement and comfort with regard to diversity is demonstrated within universalism.


As per the analysis of management theories, styles of leadership and concepts of values, beliefs and attitude, I evaluated the need of improvement and self development in relation to my leadership role at workplace.  Moreover, I feel critical assessment of different approaches helped me in determining need of changes in own working vales and practices.  I am believer of motivation and positive work environment for employee in order to increase their working efficiency. However, from Management Theory of Frederick Taylor I learned that it is important to focus on employee motivation but on the other hand it is necessary for the leader to ensure cost effectiveness of business functions (Geisler  and Wickramasinghe, 2015).  Managing cost reduction techniques helps the management in managing financial stability which is the key concern of an organisation.

Moreover, I feel change in my attitude of motivation because initially I was focused on promoting independent working among employees according to their comfort and skills but with learning and evaluation I determine the need of setting shared beliefs and perspective in workers to aligning their efforts. Apart from this, I was never focused on implementing use of management style, as I used to implement leadership theory to promote effective team dynamic but during practice I came across the situation where approaching to management style became essential. Like, for specific project I divided work among employee according to their skills and abilities by keeping in mind individual concern. Apparently, at the time of execution of work I noticed that everyone was working as per own convenience which led to waste of time. In this situation I analysed the importance of establishing shared belief's and perspective of working. In accordance with this situation I evaluated the importance of coordinating and cooperating work of staff members in order to attain competitive business goals and objectives.

Apparently, I was not aware about behavioural management theory which I will implement to enhance my leadership role. It is the approach which is beneficial for management as well as supervisor because it helps the individual in managing work according to employees level of motivation and interest (Hill, Jone, and Schilling, 2014). Moreover, it specifies work according to business goals which helps in implementing productivity in business functions.  Thus, as per the discussion of theories and my changes in my values and beliefs I analysed the importance to integrating different approach in work practices to enhance workplace management.

Impact of beliefs, values and attitude on workplace with support of management theory

Impact of values, beliefs and attitude in workplace with regard to theoretical models.

As per the assessment of management theories I felt change in my values and attitudes which drifted from workers motivation to management context, where I realized that it is important for the supervisor to ensure effective participation of staff members in business goals and objectives. I feel workplace practices and learning plays a vital role in deriving right and wrong of the situation. Nevertheless, with the learning, I felt the change in my attitude towards working where I felt in was more focused on quality of work instead of work distribution.

Moreover, I used to focus on employee motivation in day to work to encourage them for managing creativity in functions but with the learning I feel it is important for the leader to organisation motivation programmes in which I every employee needs to be motivated on the basis of their performance. It is the change which helped me in developing understanding over employee interest in business functions. Besides, I noticed changed attitude towards work and power distribution where I feel leader need to delegate responsibilities where the individual analyses the need of training for workers.

Impact of workplace attitude

With the assessment of management theories I felt change in my workplace attitude where now I am focused on leading tea with example. It helps me in establish communication with employees. Further, demonstrating good work example helps in setting innovation target which boost morale of staff members (Conforto and et.al., 2016).  In addition, I drifted my focus on balancing vision and execution of activities which will automatically assist me in aligning business functions.  I feel clear articulated vision is an effective technique of motivation as helps in inspiring workers.

Accepting accountability is a foremost responsibility of leader which I feel will be help me in standing for right and wrong of business functions. Likewise, I am now more focused on exhibiting confidence and therefore now I will aim at promoting learning and practising among employees. It will help in managing innovation as well as confidence among workers. It s the strategy of encouraging interest of staff in organisational functions.  Thus, I feel Integrity is the consistency of leadership action and therefore my aim is to promote working among employee with shared values and practices.

Management theories as per leadership role

Management theories plays prominent role managing effective and safe working practices.It is important for the leader to make use of management theories in order to manage work according to organisation functions like practising with the principles of Fredrick Taylor management theory, leader will be able to divide responsibilities among workers as per their job role and will help in equally empowering employees which is the best strategy of motivation (Jones and et.al., 2016). In addition, the guidelines of theories aim at enabling learning session for workers which is another technique to boost performance of staff members and team development. In accordance with guidelines and principles of theory it can be said that the approach helps in driving successful worker's performance keeping in mind productivity of business operations.

As per scientific management theory, it has been derived that it is essential for the supervisors to break tasks in to simpler section to reduce workload and to promote effective distribution of work (Meyers and Van Woerkom, 2014). Allocation of work plays a vital, role in managing functioning of employees as per business objectives. Effectiveness of scientific theory is represented in following factors:

  • It can be used by leaders at workplace because it helps on managing cooperation between mangers and workers.
  • It helps in management which is based on observation, and specific solution to employee problems.
  • It promotes effective decision making and better planning which is core to team management.
  • It encourages democracy at workplace which assist in promoting innovation and employee motivation.
  • It promotes improvement in physical working conditions for staff members
  • Develops growth opportunities for workers by enabling scientific learning and development programmes.

Nevertheless, Behavioural theory of management is an effective approach its focuses on to core aspect of organisation that staff motivation and accomplishment of business goals. This approach helps in boosting employee productivity ad therefore is effective for reducing boredom at workplace.  It promotes democratic work environment which is beneficial for managing  innovation at workplace (Pyszczynski, Solomon and Greenberg, 2015). In addition, implementing behavioural approach helps the management in fulfilling social and self esteem needs of workers which assist in serving employee satisfaction.  Thus, it is advantageous approach to leadership and management role because it aids in managing team satisfaction and productive outcomes.

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Trait theory

This theory can be applied in leadership style. It states that leader skills and qualities will define whether he or she will be successful or not. A leader trait is always different from other people. Generally, a leader trait can be identified by various factors such as psychological, behavioural, etc. A successful leader will have effective skills and qualities as compared to unsuccessful leader. A leader trait will differ according to his demographic and task competencies. With the help of this theory I can predict my capabilities. Then, I can measure it with the qualities that are required in leader. This theory has helped in identifying successful leaders (Radnor, Osborne and Glennon, 2016). This theory can be applied to identify weak areas and improve them. Apart from this, as people traits differ it becomes difficult to identify leadership quality. By using the core personality trait I can improve my leadership style. Also, it will help me in determining developing practices. I can utilise this to analyse my position and how it can be made stronger. Also, I can use this to develop leadership qualities that will help me in becoming a great leader.

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Leadership at workplace and its activities

Leader at workplace is a person who is responsible for motivating, leading, supervising and integrating employee towards one competitive business goal. It is necessary for the leader to encompass research skills and practical skills at workplace in order to establishing innovation in employees efforts. Supervisor is the individual who is responsible for keeping and track over day to day performance of staff members (Petronio, 2017). It is the person on the basis of whom the person is rewarded. Leadership at workplace plays a crucial role in measuring each movement of which can influence future of organisation.  However, the individuals are responsible for providing guidance to employee which reduces waste of time and errors.

Apart from this, leaders at workplace are the responsible for managing communication with staff member in order to keep them satisfied. The individuals assure employees interest with business in order to attain work productivity. Exhibiting appreciation and Honouring trust are the key responsibilities of leadership role which drive workers efforts in an enterprise (Bernstein,  2017).  It is necessary for the leaders to manage key qualities such as, decision making, time management, communication, delegation and ability to provide flexible working for staff members.

However, the key activities of leader at workplace is team development where the focus of individual is on coordinating and cooperating efforts of employee in one common direction. Managing effectiveness in team dynamic denote leadership skills (Geisler and Wickramasinghe, 2015).  However, to improve communication leader focuses on organising coaching sessions, training and active listening which helps the individual in solving various workplace problems.

Besides, leader is the person who understanding employees' ability to perform certain task and therefore, the individual is responsible for organising learning and developments session in order to promote efforts of team workers. Moreover, leader ensure proper allocation of work and power among staff member sin order to managing equality and stability in working practices.

Relevancy of theories with regard to leadership role.

According to Kipping and Üsdiken, 2014, it has been identified that it is important for the leaders to implement the use of different management theories in order to integrate co-operation in activities of managers as well as employee.  Theory like scientific management helps the leader in coordinating efforts of workforce in one common direction. As per the scholar, it has been analysed that scientific theory of management is effective for leadership role because it aims at scientific selection of training methods which assist increasing working efficiency of employees which promoting productivity in business operations. On the other hand, Waring, 2016, has stated about leadership role and management function which workers hand in hand ad therefore it is essential of the leader to apply theoretical process in order to increase knowledge skills and competency of employees. Management principles by Taylor aim at systematic allocation of work with regard to skills and capabilities of workers.  In addition, author discussed about scientific methods of and techniques which aid in establishing better working condition in order to reduce fatigue.

As per the views of Hill, Jone, and Schilling, 2014, it has been identified that behavioural theory of management plays a vital role in driving leadership values and activities. In this the person is free to manager work according to interest of staff members. The theory aims at team development in order to promote job satisfaction and productivity of business operations.  Behavioural theory of management is often known as human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. It is effective for the leadership role because it helps in managing two key aspects of business in one direction that is employee satisfaction and motivation With the help of these strategies the leader is able to encourage and align workers activities in common direction. Likewise, Bratton and Gold, 2017, has discussed about behavioural psychology of leader which assist the person in making instant management decision in relation to changing business. Management theories assist in executing team leading activities as it empower leaders for taking measurable action of employee benefits and team development. As per the views of Shafritz, Ott and Jang, 2015, it has been identified that management theories act as plan for manager and supervisors which are concerned with goals objectives of business. The activities and functions in theories are in context to employee management, motivation, business productivity, cost reduction, systematic allocation of work, and work flexibility. As per the author, it has been outlined that mixing and managing work according to two management theories can helps leader in eliminating limitation of two theories like scientific theory attempts to maximize productivity and behaviour theory aim ta employee motivation and satisfaction.

CONCLUSION

The report summarized about developing workplace which is the key concern of management as it aim at promoting employee satisfaction. In accordance with the study it has been determined that individuals beliefs, values and attitude are three different concepts. To develop critical understand over the concepts' scholar outlined value attitude behaviour hierarchy model, which states that values plays a crucial role in influencing individuals behaviour which is driven by attitude. Moreover, it discussed about leadership role of scholar at workplace according to which different approaches are identified which are effective for boosting individual performance on the basis of core values and attitude.

However, it outlined effective ad compliance of different management theories that is Taylor theory of management, Behavioural theory of management and democratic leadership style. Further, to develop practical understanding over the approaches the individual outlined its impact on one leadership role with regard to own values, attitude and beliefs. Thus, it concluded by deriving views of different theorist on relevancy of management theories with regard to leadership role.

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