- Give all culture, politics with power in behaviour for all Organisational context.
- Evaluate how to manage and motivate individuals with teams to manage goal.
- Demonstrate and evaluate all co-operate effectively with others.
- What concepts and philosophies of all major organisational behaviour to manage business situation
The concept of organisational behaviourcan be classified as the analysis of the different attitudes and behaviour that arises amongst the employees in a work culture or organisation (Cacciattolo, 2015). The current report will analyse the impact of politics, power and culture on organisation along with the analysis of motivational theories. The concept team building will be studied and the concepts and philosophies related to organisational behaviour will be illustrated in the last.
Impact of culture, power and politics on individual and team performance
The term organisational culture broadly refers to the psychology and behavioural aspects that the employee of an organisation shows towards their management and the work culture that exists in the organisation in which they work (Wood And et.al., 2016). The cultural model given by Handy particularly analyses the different kind of culture that are prevalent and these can be analysed in the context of Waitrose in following manner:
- Power Culture: The power culture is basically the culture where a select few people have all the major power to take important decisions in the company and the remaining employees have to just comply with the instruction that have been given. The employees of Waitrose individually will lose their motivation and innovation and the team will also lose its creativity which can ultimately be harmful for Waitrose only.
- Role Culture: Here every person has a specified role with which they have to comply and they are strictly focused only on the completion of the roles with which they have been assigned (Tang, 2019). This is not a good aspect for Waitrose as it can although lead to a motivated workforce who in order to get promotion strictly stick to the roles that they have been assigned but yet the teams will face severe consequences as the focus will be on individual growth rather than on organisational growth.
- Task Culture: Task culture clearly segregates the different tasks that are to be performed and the employees work according to that. Implementation of this culture in Waitrose will increase the productivity of the employee and the team performance will also increase as tasks might need to be performed in teams as well.
- Person Culture: Here everyone assumes themselves to be superior to the other persons that are working and overall the culture is extremely negative. Application of this aspect in the Waitrose company can severely minimise the efficiency of the individual performance of the employees and the team performance will also involve increased clashes rather than productivity.
Collectively, it can be said that the best cultural strategies that Waitrose can adopt are role culture and task culture as these both focus on productivity rather than wastage of resources.
The power that the different individuals hold and the manner in which they exercise is the second aspect that affects the overall organisation behaviour. This can be analysed for the Waitrose Company using the French and Raven Model of power:
- Referent Power: Here the leaders are considered as idol by the employees and this is mainly due to their following and work that they have performed in the organisation on the basis of which they have gained certain power (Ruck, 2017). At Waitrose, the individuals are motivated to improve their performance and the team members are also influenced to work with enhanced leadership strategies.
- Legitimate Power: Legitimate power arises with the positions that an individual holds i.e. the manager or the director of a company will be automatically entitled to an enhanced power and authority over the employee that comes with the position. The decision making abilities can affect individuals at Waitrose either positively or negatively and the performance of the team also becomes more regulated.
- Expert Power: This power is gained by an individual who is highly experienced and has been working in the organisation over a long period of time. They are called experts because of the specific knowledge that they share and this motivates the individual and teams at Waitrose to also gain knowledge and work hard so that they might also become experts.
- Coercive power: Coercive power is applied in the organisation when the employees become relaxed with the compliance of the rules that have been developed by the company and hence needs to be punished so that in future such mistakes can be avoided. In Waitrose, the individuals are reminded of their duties for their own benefit and in teams, this enhances coordination and efficiency of work.
- Reward Power: Here the employees and teams are rewarded whenever they perform exceptional work for the company (Raes and et.al., 2015). For both individual and teams at Waitrose, this is the most motivating power which enhances their productivity and performance immensely.
Hence, it can be said that all the powers are present and are necessary in the organisations for achieving goals in a better manner.
The third major aspect that impacts on the organisational performance at individual and team level is politics. This is inherent in every organisation and it cannot be avoided. However, at Waitrose, the management can try to practice more of the good politics rather than bad politics in following manner:
- Good Politics: Good politics basically involves the support that the employees give to each other and the overall manipulation of fats in order to increase the growth collectively in the organisation. Implementation of good politics is good and healthy for the organisation to an extent but beyond that it can be harmful for the management in the long run. In Waitrose, this can affect the support that employees are receiving thus creating a positive work environment.
- Bad Politics: Bad politics is an extremely negative aspect that must be avoided by the organisations at all costs so that the performance, the motivational level and the output of the company everything does not decline simultaneously (Elsmore, 2017).
Therefore, it can be said that the implementation of good politics in Waitrose is beneficial to an extent.
Content and process theories of motivation
Motivation incorporates the factors that influence an individual in a positive manner making them work harder and achieve greater performance level. The intrinsic motivation basically refers to the internal factors such as personal goals that individual themselves develop in order to advance and get motivated by it. The extrinsic factors are more external in nature and affect the performance externally such as rewards, incentives etc. motivating them to work harder.
Content theories of Motivation: Content theories of motivation address the "what" aspect while ascertaining that what are the methods in which an individual can get motivated towards the achievement of goals that have been setup (Cacciattolo, 2015).
McClelland’s theory of Need: This content theory was given by McClelland and it states that there are three major requirements of the individuals that motivate them to work harder. These three attributes are achievement, affiliation and power. Achievement is the need to get recognised and gain prominence in a particular area or field and it is significant in increasing the success factor of the employee as well. Waitrose regularly promotes and recognises employees who are performing great and are efficient. Affiliation refers to the desire to seek belongingness and love form the fellow companions and colleagues with whom the individual is working. The management of the Waitrose Company regularly engages the employees in the team activities and interactive sessions so that the employees can bond over each other. The third factor is the power and this is something that is sought by every individual working in an organisation. The ability to instruct and control the actions of someone gives the ultimate sense of superiority to the individuals and hence motivates them to achieve this level of proficiency (Brenyah and Obuobisa-Darko, 2017). In Waitrose as well the regular promotion of the capable employees helps them in fulfilling this desire as well.
Process Theories of Motivation: The process theory of motivation is mainly the theory that helps in addressing the "How" aspect behind the motivation i.e. how can an individual be motivated or influenced to achieve better performance levels.
Adam’s Equity Theory: This is a process motivation theory that concentrates on the input and output that is associated with the employees of the organisation. This theory states that the inputs i.e. the efforts, skills or knowledge that an employee is putting in the organisation must be equally balanced with the outputs that they are receiving in the form of salaries, rewards and benefits. In Waitrose as well, the organisation understand the need to give a justifiable return to the employees who are working hard and are extremely efficient. The company always aims towards giving a balanced rewards and the equity is tried to minimise. Equity arises when the amount of input that an employee puts in the company exactly matches with the amount of output that they are receiving (Oxenham, 2017). The situation of inequity occurs when the input and output of the employees do not match each other. There can be two prominent situations that can arise in such situation i.e. in inequity:
- Inputs > Outputs: In this kind of scenario, the amount of input exceeds then the output that is being received by the company. In such situation, the employees become dissatisfied s they re not receiving adequate returns for the efforts that they are putting in and it can lead to increase in the employee turnover.
- Outputs > Inputs: This kind of scenario arises when the benefits given to employee over compensate with the inputs that are being employed. In such situations, employees become too relaxed and they di not rake the job role seriously and can prove to be a disastrous situation for the company all over.
Effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Teams are defined as bunch of people working to achieve the common targets. Differences between an effective team and an ineffective team can be summarises in the following points.
|Point of difference||Effective team||Ineffective team|
|Meaning||Effective team consider as such teams that are productive in nature. On the basis of the productivity a team is defined as an effective team.||Ineffective team is the team that is not able to deal with the objectives behind formations of such team. On the basis of lack of productivity a team is defined as an ineffective team.|
|Productivity||Productivity is defined as coping up with the objectives behind formation of such teams (Bhattacharya, 2020). Productivity is denoted as achieving the objectives behind formation of the team.||On the basis of lack of productivity a team is projected as an ineffective team. Ineffective teams are not able to achieve the objectives set by the company behind the formation of such teams.|
|Team meetings||Team meetings are an important aspects of the team. Team leaders in effective team conduct team meetings on a regular basis. Regular team meetings drive leaders to take control over the functional activity of the team. Team meetings also support team leaders to review the strategies and approaches follow by team leaders to conduct functional activity of the team.||Team leaders also organise team meetings even in ineffective teams. Team leaders do not conduct team meeting on a regular basis in the team. Due to irregular team meetings team leaders do not able to discuss the strategies and performance of team with all members of team (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2019).|
|Communication||Communication is also an important part of the team. Team leaders give huge priority to the communication in the team. Communication allows team leaders to interact regularly with all team members.||Communication is always a part of the team. Ineffective team use the communication channel but not in effective manner. Lack of proper communication is the reason why a team remains ineffective.|
|Strategy formation||Strategy formation is among the key functional activity of the team. Strategies are the key driver that drives efficiency in the team. Team leaders give huge priority to form a proper strategy that can allow team leaders to cope up with all objectives of the team. With the support of strategies team leaders achieves all objectives of the team. Team leaders also review the strategies follow by the team on the basis of the expected outcome of the team as compare to actual outcomes of team.||All teams operate operations on the basis of the strategies formed by team leaders. In ineffective teams leaders generally leaders do not involve other team members to form strategies of the team. As the team leaders do not take suggestions from team members which also remove the strategic development in the team. Due to lack of collaborations of team members in strategy formation the team not able to perform efficiently as it restricts the team, leaders to implement necessary changes in the approaches of the team.|
|Flexibility||Flexibility is among the key strength of effective team. Team leaders keep flexibility in the team at the time of formation of team. Flexibility allows team leaders to manage its operations in any practical situation (Pandey, Rishi and Aadil, 2016). Team leaders try to keep flexibility in the team so that all challenges can be faced by team members.||Ineffective team do not give much priority to flexibility in the team. Lack of flexibility in team is one of the major reasons why a team remains ineffective.|
|Clarity of individual role||At the time of the formation of team leaders in team make clarify all roles and responsibilities of individual members of team. Clarification of individual roles in the team operations allows team members to focus on the individual responsibility even at the beginning of the team operations. All responsibilities are also segregated in team members on the basis of individual roles in team.||In ineffective team members remains confuse about the individual roles in the team. Team leaders do not clarifies individual roles and responsibilities in the team in the beginning of the team formation.|
|Solving issues||Team leaders give huge priorities to solve all issues in team. Team leaders effectively deal with all issues arises in the team that also influences the overall outcomes of the team.||Team leaders also feel unable to deal with the issues in the team effectively. Due to not dealing with issues effectively it put a negative impact over the performance of the team (Ionescu, 2018). It also spoils the collaborations of the team members.|
The above differences are among the key differences between effective team and ineffective team.
Tuckman theory of team development
Tuckman theory of development can be used effectively by the management of the Waitrose Company so that the overall integration and coordination between the team members can improve collectively (Kylilis and et.al., 2018). There are four major stages that have been proposed by the Tuckman theory which can be used effectively by the management of the Waitrose Company:
- Forming: This is the first stage where the team members are new to each other and the rules and responsibilities of every team member is clarified to them by the team leader. This is the stage where the members are not at all clear regarding their job roles and the confusion and doubts amongst them is prominent.
- Storming: This is the second stage where due to lack of understanding and integrity, the issues begin to rise in the team. Every team member thinks individually in this stage and they find that their ideas conflicts with the ones that are presented by the others. Here the chances of the conflicts in the team are the highest and the team leaders at Waitrose classify this as most critical stage.
- Norming: This is the third stage where the employees are said to have effectively overcome the conflicts that they were facing and now the focus is on the integration and team building an development (Kovach, 2016). The members settle down in the roles that they have been given and the collaboration amongst them rises. The work of the team leaders at Waitrose simplifies at this stage.
- Performing: This is the last stage where the ultimate focus in on the enhanced output and performance and the work in the team is going at full swing. The team leaders at Waitrose state that this is the most productive stage in the entire process of team building and development.
Concepts and philosophies of organisation behaviour to a given business situation
Organisation behaviour is projected as the approaches of the human resources associated with the organisation towards achieving overall objectives of business.
- Motivation practices in company: John Lewis Company follows the motivation practices as a part of the organisation behaviour. Company follow the practice of content and process theory of employee motivation. This theories drive company to motivate the employees of company by meeting all needs and requirements of employees. Company has also applied Maslow need hierarchy model and other relevant models to motivate employees in company (Kang and Lee, 2017). The theories give huge priorities to fulfilling the needs and requirements of company’s employees as a part of the motivation. It is projected that employees need are among the key factor that drives them to become part of the organisation. With the support of this model John Lewis Company able to deal with the employee motivation effectively.
- Employee development: Concept and philosophies of organisation behaviour also drives management of company to implement employee growth and development programs in the company. The theory drives company to improve its organisation hierarchy that supported better growth potentials to employees at internal level of organisation. Growth is among the key feature that supports company to sustain its work force and also to reduce the employee turnover of company. This theory has supported company in improving the hierarchy of company in such a way that employees company get more opportunities to promote at higher positional roles in company. The concepts and philosophies of organisation behaviour also motivate management of John Lewis Company to conduct various training programs that can improve the skills and personalities of employee’s part of the organisation. Skill development programs support the company in improving the growth potentials of the employees.
- Collaboration practices: Concept and philosophies of organisation behaviour has also guided the John Lewis company management to channelize collaborative practices in organisation (Small, 2017). CEO of John Lewis Company has guided management towards improving collaborative working approaches for conducting different functional activities in the company. Collaboration between employees improve the work culture of the company along with it allows management to achieve more effective operation efficiency.
- Team development activity: Concepts and philosophies of organization behaviour have also guided John Lewis Company to follow the practice of team development. Team development is among the key practices that supported by the concepts and philosophies of organisation behaviour. With the guidance of the Tuck man team development model company management form effective teams for various operations of the company.
The above mentioned points are the key areas of development that the concepts and philosophies of organisation behaviour have made in John Lewis Company. Company has transformed all its operations by installing latest technologies to improve the service quality of company as a part of the organisation behaviour.
The analysis done in the report above concludes that the organisational behaviour is a very important and critical aspect in the overall performance of the business collectively. The aspects of power politics and culture on organisation were analysed along with the motivational theories. The report also concluded that Tuckman theory can be used effectively by Waitrose for team building and lastly the impact of organisational behaviour was analysed using different theories.
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