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Tourism industry is facing fundamental challenges for attaining some important goals of human welfare and sustainable development of business. These goals focuses on providing economic opportunity, enhancing quality of life and protecting culture and natural heritage of the nation, etc. therefore, all three are considered as major objectives of sustainable tourism (Ashworth and Page, 2011). The current research report focuses on sustainable tourism. Regarding this it has chosen Qatar which is one of the most developing country in the world with a well-established Tourism sector. Research includes the rational for planning in travel and tourism sector. Further, it also focuses on different approaches to tourism planning and development. Along with this, study will discuss the needs for the planning for sustainable tourism and current issues related to the tourism development planning. Including this, socio-culture, environmental and economic impacts on tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations are also describing in the following paragraphs of the report.
Successful implementation of sustainable development plan is totally depended on the stakeholders of tourism. For the destination of Qatar major stakeholder includes tourists, investors, developers, operators, shareholders, management, employee and public and private sectors such as host community and government tourism development, etc. Involvement of all these stakeholders plays very important role in attaining goal of Sustainable development of tourism of Qatar. Along with this sustainable planning of tourism also maximize the social, economic and environmental return for each and every stakeholders (Ayre and Callway, 2013).
Sustainable tourism planning focuses on the quality of life which is beneficial for tourists. It provides important and valuable experience for visitors with improving the quality of the life of local people or community. In addition, it is also beneficial for society of Qatar because it focuses on the taking care of natural environmental resources of the developing county. Planning of sustainable tourism is beneficial for employees of different hospitality and tourism organizations because it stimulates the creation of jobs and focuses on providing appropriate salary, wages and incentives to entire workforce. In addition, it leads growth in return of investment for shareholders and investors in all area of adjacent tourism of Qatar. Further, it encourages development of country in economic sense. Including this, sustainable tourism increases the long term profitability of different tourism organizations of Qatar which increases the tax and interest payment for government of the nation. Along with this, it increases the coordination between public and private partners of the tourisms industry of Qatar which leads improvement in working in partnership relationships which augment the overall quality of different services as well as sustainable development of whole country (Baker, 2006).
Public and private tourism planning can be defined as collaboration between public and private sector to attain the long terms sustainability goals. Generally it is used for developing a specific area of Region. Therefore, in terms of Qatar, public and private tourism planning plays very important role in sustainable developing of tourism sector of this developing country. public/private tourism planning helps in sustainable development of Qatar because it helps in attaining socially desirable goals such as it increases the employment opportunity, hike in labour income, reduces crime and provide high protection to the natural and environmental resources. All these benefits increases the quality of life of tourists and local community of Qatar. In addition, public/private tourism planning encourages the effective use of available natural resources of Qatar such as infrastructure, natural resources, culture, heritage and human resources, etc. In addition, this types of planning also helps in developing tourism policies which are beneficial for local community (Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew, 2009). Due to the public and private partnership different sustainable project of tourism industry of Qatar will be completed in speedy, effective and cost effective way. In addition such types of partnerships planning increases the new financial resources for development of whole tourism industry of Qatar.
In contrast, there are some limitations of disadvantages also which have negative impact of sustainable tourism of Qatar. These include that such types of partnership increases sensitivity of investors and shareholders to political risks. Along with this PPP model can face problem in maintaining coordination between different private and public enterprises. Further, it increases the financial risks on monetary outcomes of tourism industry of Qatar. Involvement of both sectors can create a situation of lack of resources for sustainable tourism for Qatar (Purvis and Grainger, 2013).
Tourism development planning can be defined as a preparation of organizing the future to attain some specific sustainable objectives of particular region. Therefore, for Qatar Tourism planning will help in fulfilling the different sustainable tourism objectives. Major objectives of this planning are enhancing the tourist's satisfaction, economic, social and environmental development of Qatar, sustainable use of resources, integration of community of the country, etc. Tourism development planning at different levels of Qatar focuses on international, national, regional and sub-regional plans (Svanström, Lozano‐García and Rowe, 2008). Features of different levels of plan are described as under:
International level: Tourism planning of Qatar at international level focuses on the transportation services of the country. In addition it also focuses on tour programmes and numbers of tourists of other countries. Further, contemporary development is also one of the major attraction of this planning. Tourism plan also include the place marketing strategies and promotion programs for attracting large number of tourists towards Qatar (Travel and Tourism in Qatar, 2013).
National level: At the level tourism planning focuses on the physical structure and tourism policy of the nation. It develops plans for connecting major routes of country and region. Development of tourism organizational structure and legislations and investment policies for Qatar are also considered as major stages of national level planning
Regional level: A this level of tourism planning of Qatar focuses on regional policies, internal transport network, different types of attractive location and regional level education and different marketing strategies, etc.
Sub-regional level: Components of tourism planning at this level focuses of the situations of sub-regions of Qatar. Along with this, it also focuses on the different attractive features for tourist, general location, and accommodation and other tourist services, etc (França, 2008).
Interactive planning can be defined as a process which promote the participation in both the design of a desirable future and development in particular industry. Therefore, tourism development of Qatar enables this country to attain the desirable future of sustainable development without any waiting. Interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development is beneficial for tourism of Qatar in different manner such as it provides large number of benefits to different stakeholders. Further, it helps in increasing the communication between stakeholders which will provide an opportunity to understand the whole concepts, goal and objectives of tourism in effective manner. In addition interactive planning will help in forecasting the future of Qatar in terms of sustainable development. Further, it is significant for attaining long run and short run objectives. Interactive planning in tourism development includes resource plan which comprises various information about the required, available and shortage of resources for sustainable tourism of Qatar (Nikolopoulou, Abraham and Mirbagheri, 2010). Therefore, interactive planning helps in sustainable use of available natural and environmental resources of Qatar. In addition, such types of planning also focuses on process and tourist safety. Interactive planning process includes different interconnected phases which help in improving the sustainable tourism in Qatar.
There are different methods which help in measuring the tourist impact on different aspects of Qatar. These methods include Evaluation of all these methods are described as under:
Cambridge Economic Impact Model: It is an industry respect tool which helps in measuring the tourist impacts on Qatar. It mainly focuses on the economic impacts of the tourism on the developing country Qatar. It is a spreadsheet model which helps in producing the estimation from existing national and local information of level of tourism in Qatar. As per this information it translate the volume of visit into economic terms which helps in estimating the amount of spending by tourists on their average spend per trip. This helps in determining the impacts of spending of tourists on different industries or organizations of Qatar which leads changes in business turnovers and jobs, etc. Further, Cambridge Economic Impact Model measures the total amount of spent by tourists, amount of income for local people by this spending, number of jobs supported by their visit, etc. Therefore, this model helps in determining the economic impacts of tourists on economic stability of Qatar (Reunamo and Pipere, 2011).
Environmental impact studies: large number of researcher has conducted studies on impact of tourism on environment of Qatar. These studies play very important role in measuring the impacts of visitors on environment of nation. It will help in determining the information about the available natural resources for sustainable tourism for Qatar. Different policies for environmental benefits also help in determining the impacts on tourists on environment of Qatar.
Social impact studies: Review of social impact studies of tourism is also one of the important methods for determining the social impacts on tourists on Qatar. Tourists have direct and indirect impacts on quality of life of local community or people. Along with this, there are different primary and secondary sources for measuring the societal impacts of tourisms on Qatar. Tourism can influence the culture, religion and norms of this country in positive and negative manner. Questionnaire, survey, literature review ate most important methods for measuring the social impacts of tourists on Qatar (Jucker and Mathar, 2011).
Sustainability in tourism can be defined as a development process which focuses on the environmental, social and economic development of particular organization, industry or region. Major objectives of sustainability of tourism focuses on to make optimal utilization of environmental resources, respect the socio-culture and ensure about the viable and long terms economic operations in different aspects of tourism of Qatar. Concept of sustainability in tourism development of Qatar can be justified by the Triple bottom line theory which is as under:
This theory helps in determining three different bottom lines of Qatar in terms of sustainable development in tourism of the country. Therefore, it provides the information about the three dimensions of the performance such as social, environmental and economic (Fyall and Garrod, 2005.).
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Therefore, as per the TBL sustainability concepts helps in improving the social performance of the Qatar. This performance can be measured by the level of education, equality and access to social resources, health and safety and wellbeing, quality of life and social capital of Different community of Qatar. Therefore, Different sustainability concepts helps in improving the different social performance factors of different society of Qatar. In contrast, it also focuses on reduction of unemployment rate, female force labour, violent crimes, health deceases in society, etc.
Another bottom line of this theory focuses on the different dimensions of environment of Qatar. This types of development focuses on the optimum utilization of natural resources. Further, it will help in improving the air and water quality, energy consumption, natural resources, etc. On the other hand, different sustainability concepts also provide assistance in reducing the environmental pollution by different tourism organizations, minimization of electricity consumption, fossil fuel consumption and wastage of natural resources, etc (Kusluvan, 2003).
Third bottom line of this theory focuses on the economic development of tourism of Qatar. It focuses on improvement in different economic factors such as income, taxes, interest, business climate factors, employment, etc. In addition it focuses on reduction of economic instability of nation as well as wastage of economic resources.
Therefore, Triple bottom line theory has reflected that different concepts of sustainability help in improving the social, environmental and economic development of tourism of Qatar.
There are different issues of sustainability which can negatively affect tourism development of Qatar. There are relevant to the different factors such as climate changes, level of education, pollution and waste, availability of resources, human rights, social justice, tourism policies, globalization, etc. For example, if education level of local community of Qatar is very low then it can harm the social development of tourism of Qatar. Further, unfavourable changes in climate, environmental pollution, wastage of natural and environmental resources affect the sustainable tourism of environment with respect to the environmental aspect (Conrady and Buck, 2011). Including this, different tourism policies, human rights and social justice have negative impacts on tourists which can reduce the number of tourists in Qatar. Including this, high economic policies, exchange rates reduces the attraction of visitors towards this developing country. Therefore, all these factors or issues have negative impacts on sustainable development of tourism of Qatar.
Sustainability planning can be defined as a process of different stages which helps in improving performance of the organizations, region or country in terms of social, environments and economic factors. Therefore, planning of sustainable tourism focuses on improving the performance of Qatar in these aspects. This planning includes different stages in which first stage focuses on the producing long terms and short terms goal for sustainable tourism of Qatar. Afterwards, this planning process focuses on deciding different activities for attaining each and very goal with specific time frame. Next stage is determining the major stakeholders which can influence the sustainable development of tourism of Qatar. Next phase of the planning includes the establishment of sub-plans such as social development plan, environmental development plan and economic development plan, etc. Next stage is identifying the major issues associated with the sustainability of Qatar. Afterwards, monitoring and controlling are also considered as important stages of such types of planning. At last, management of tourism sector of Qatar needs to take appropriate actions for resolving the issues of sustainability (Robinson, 2009). Therefore, all these phases of sustainability planning of Qatar will help in attaining the goal and objectives in effective manner.
There are different types of conflicts of interest in sustainable tourism of Qatar which have negative impact on the future well-being of this destination. Major conflicts have raised between planner, tour operator, tourists, government, developer and local community, etc. Major conflicts occurs due to the differences between culture of tourists and local community. Society of the Qatar has followed Islamic religion and tourists of foreign country belongs to the different religions so, difference between norms and beliefs create complex situation. So, there is a formal process for resolving these types of conflicts in which involvement of third party help in making communication between tourists and local community and provide solution which is favourable for both parties (Tsiotsou, 2014).
In contrast, there are different policies of government of Qatar which creates some complex situations for tourists at the time of tax payment. So, such types of conflicts can be resolved by using step by step process of conflict resolution in which reason and impacts of conflicts are identified by the court of the local government of the Qatar. Legal authority helps in making solution of conflicts with consideration of all rules and regulation.
Similarly, there are different situations in which appropriate communication, discussion and meetings help in resolving the conflicts between different stakeholders of tourism of Qatar. All these methods help in maintaining good image of the travel and tourism industry of Qatar in mind of other visitors (Korstanje, 2012).
Balance of demand and supply is very essential for sustainable development of tourism industry of Qatar. There are different methods by which balance between demand and supply can be managed. Different factors which can directly affect the demand and supply management of tourism industry such as imposition of limits, pressure on finite resources, etc. So, appropriate estimation of demand and development of planning strategies help in managing the demand and supply in effective manner. Consideration of all these factors help in improving the planning and coordination between internal and external environment of tourism industry of Qatar. In addition, Delphi techniques are most important method for forecasting the demand of the future customers of the tourism industry of Qatar. After this forecasting, supply of high quality services can be managed by optimum utilization of available resources of Qatar. Therefore, all these methods are appropriate for maintaining balance between demand and supply (Osnes, 2013).
There are different ethical and moral issues of enclave tourism such as physical safety of visitors, financial security, stress, lack of transportation, emotional issues, inappropriate services, problems associated with the health and safety, etc. Qatar is a developing country, it means large numbers of services are not developed yet. So, inappropriateness of these services can create all above discussed moral and ethical issues which can negatively affect the sustainable development of tourism of Qatar. Competition in the enclave tourism is increasing day by day so, for improving sustainable development of tourism sector Qatar needs to focus on its corporate social responsibilities towards the key stakeholders. These policies will help in resolving all these issues in effective manner (Hess, 2013).
Social issues: Current tourism development is associated with the different social issues such as social changes, changing values, crime and gambling, lack of moral behaviour, etc. but in Qatar, most of the local communities belong to Islamic religion which focuses on the moral behaviour with guest which helps in maintaining strong relationship with visitors. Along with this, different policies of government also helps in reducing the crime and gambling at Qatar. But, government of this country does not focus on the commercialisation of culture and art. So, it is one of the major social issue of Qatar (Bebbington, 2007).
Environmental issues: Current tourism development is faced the major problem in utilization of natural resources. Similarly, tourism development of Qatar is also faced the similar issues which include the inappropriate use of land, water, finite sources, etc. In addition tourism authorities of this country is not capable to preservation of environment such as national parks, drainage, irrigations, etc.
Economic issues: Fluctuation of economic position of the countries is the major issue for current tourism development. On the other hand, Qatar has faced some other economic problems such as low generation of employment, economic leakage, etc.
There are different strategies and ways for resolving all those issues which are discussed above. All these methods will help in future development of tourism in Qatar. Optimum utilization of the available resources of the environment is one of the best way to reduce the different issues associated with the tourism of Qatar. In addition, government of this destination should develop attractive policies for visitors such as low tax payment and exchange rates, etc. It will help in resolving the economic issues of this nation. In addition, involvement of stakeholder in sustainable tourism planning is also one of the major way to develop strong relationship with all stakeholders which will help in reducing the negative impacts of social issues. Therefore, all these ways will improve the future development of Qatar (Nayar, 2013).
The current research report has concluded that sustainable development of tourism of Qatar focuses on the environmental, social and economic development of the destination. There are different issues associated with the sustainability of this destination. Optimum utilization of resources, appropriate involvement of all stakeholders and favourable economic policies of government of nation will help in resolving all these issues and improving the sustainability tourism of Qatar.
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