Introduction to Sustainable Tourism: Qatar
Tourism industry is facing fundamental challenges for attaining some important goals of human welfare and sustainable development of business. These goals focuses on providing economic opportunity, enhancing quality of life and protecting culture and natural heritage of the nation, etc. therefore, all three are considered as major objectives of sustainable tourism (Ashworth and Page, 2011). The current research report focuses on sustainable tourism. Regarding this it has chosen Qatar which is one of the most developing country in the world with a well-established Tourism sector. Research includes the rational for planning in travel and tourism sector. Further, it also focuses on different approaches to tourism planning and development. Along with this, study will discuss the needs for the planning for sustainable tourism and current issues related to the tourism development planning. Including this, socio-culture, environmental and economic impacts on tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations are also describing in the following paragraphs of the report.
1.1 Identification of stakeholders and discussion on benefits for stakeholders from planning of tourism development for Qatar
Successful implementation of sustainable development plan is totally depended on the stakeholders of tourism. For the destination of Qatar major stakeholder includes tourists, investors, developers, operators, shareholders, management, employee and public and private sectors such as host community and government tourism development, etc. Involvement of all these stakeholders plays very important role in attaining goal of Sustainable development of tourism of Qatar. Along with this sustainable planning of tourism also maximize the social, economic and environmental return for each and every stakeholders (Ayre and Callway, 2013).
Sustainable tourism planning focuses on the quality of life which is beneficial for tourists. It provides important and valuable experience for visitors with improving the quality of the life of local people or community. In addition, it is also beneficial for society of Qatar because it focuses on the taking care of natural environmental resources of the developing county. Planning of sustainable tourism is beneficial for employees of different hospitality and tourism organizations because it stimulates the creation of jobs and focuses on providing appropriate salary, wages and incentives to entire workforce. In addition, it leads growth in return of investment for shareholders and investors in all area of adjacent tourism of Qatar. Further, it encourages development of country in economic sense. Including this, sustainable tourism increases the long term profitability of different tourism organizations of Qatar which increases the tax and interest payment for government of the nation. Along with this, it increases the coordination between public and private partners of the tourisms industry of Qatar which leads improvement in working in partnership relationships which augment the overall quality of different services as well as sustainable development of whole country (Baker, 2006).
1.2 Discussion on advantages and disadvantage of public/private tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
Public and private tourism planning can be defined as collaboration between public and private sector to attain the long terms sustainability goals. Generally it is used for developing a specific area of Region. Therefore, in terms of Qatar, public and private tourism planning plays very important role in sustainable developing of tourism sector of this developing country. public/private tourism planning helps in sustainable development of Qatar because it helps in attaining socially desirable goals such as it increases the employment opportunity, hike in labour income, reduces crime and provide high protection to the natural and environmental resources. All these benefits increases the quality of life of tourists and local community of Qatar. In addition, public/private tourism planning encourages the effective use of available natural resources of Qatar such as infrastructure, natural resources, culture, heritage and human resources, etc. In addition, this types of planning also helps in developing tourism policies which are beneficial for local community (Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew, 2009). Due to the public and private partnership different sustainable project of tourism industry of Qatar will be completed in speedy, effective and cost effective way. In addition such types of partnerships planning increases the new financial resources for development of whole tourism industry of Qatar.
In contrast, there are some limitations of disadvantages also which have negative impact of sustainable tourism of Qatar. These include that such types of partnership increases sensitivity of investors and shareholders to political risks. Along with this PPP model can face problem in maintaining coordination between different private and public enterprises. Further, it increases the financial risks on monetary outcomes of tourism industry of Qatar. Involvement of both sectors can create a situation of lack of resources for sustainable tourism for Qatar (Purvis and Grainger, 2013).
2.1 Analyses of the features of Tourism Development planning at different levels
Tourism development planning can be defined as a preparation of organizing the future to attain some specific sustainable objectives of particular region. Therefore, for Qatar Tourism planning will help in fulfilling the different sustainable tourism objectives. Major objectives of this planning are enhancing the tourist's satisfaction, economic, social and environmental development of Qatar, sustainable use of resources, integration of community of the country, etc. Tourism development planning at different levels of Qatar focuses on international, national, regional and sub-regional plans (Svanström, Lozano‐García and Rowe, 2008). Features of different levels of plan are described as under:
International level: Tourism planning of Qatar at international level focuses on the transportation services of the country. In addition it also focuses on tour programmes and numbers of tourists of other countries. Further, contemporary development is also one of the major attraction of this planning. Tourism plan also include the place marketing strategies and promotion programs for attracting large number of tourists towards Qatar (Travel and Tourism in Qatar, 2013).
National level: At the level tourism planning focuses on the physical structure and tourism policy of the nation. It develops plans for connecting major routes of country and region. Development of tourism organizational structure and legislations and investment policies for Qatar are also considered as major stages of national level planning
Regional level: A this level of tourism planning of Qatar focuses on regional policies, internal transport network, different types of attractive location and regional level education and different marketing strategies, etc.
Sub-regional level: Components of tourism planning at this level focuses of the situations of sub-regions of Qatar. Along with this, it also focuses on the different attractive features for tourist, general location, and accommodation and other tourist services, etc (França, 2008).
2.2 Evaluation of the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments in Qatar
Interactive planning can be defined as a process which promote the participation in both the design of a desirable future and development in particular industry. Therefore, tourism development of Qatar enables this country to attain the desirable future of sustainable development without any waiting. Interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development is beneficial for tourism of Qatar in different manner such as it provides large number of benefits to different stakeholders. Further, it helps in increasing the communication between stakeholders which will provide an opportunity to understand the whole concepts, goal and objectives of tourism in effective manner. In addition interactive planning will help in forecasting the future of Qatar in terms of sustainable development. Further, it is significant for attaining long run and short run objectives. Interactive planning in tourism development includes resource plan which comprises various information about the required, available and shortage of resources for sustainable tourism of Qatar (Nikolopoulou, Abraham and Mirbagheri, 2010). Therefore, interactive planning helps in sustainable use of available natural and environmental resources of Qatar. In addition, such types of planning also focuses on process and tourist safety. Interactive planning process includes different interconnected phases which help in improving the sustainable tourism in Qatar.
2.3 Evaluation of the different methods available to measure tourist impact
There are different methods which help in measuring the tourist impact on different aspects of Qatar. These methods include Evaluation of all these methods are described as under:
Cambridge Economic Impact Model: It is an industry respect tool which helps in measuring the tourist impacts on Qatar. It mainly focuses on the economic impacts of the tourism on the developing country Qatar. It is a spreadsheet model which helps in producing the estimation from existing national and local information of level of tourism in Qatar. As per this information it translate the volume of visit into economic terms which helps in estimating the amount of spending by tourists on their average spend per trip. This helps in determining the impacts of spending of tourists on different industries or organizations of Qatar which leads changes in business turnovers and jobs, etc. Further, Cambridge Economic Impact Model measures the total amount of spent by tourists, amount of income for local people by this spending, number of jobs supported by their visit, etc. Therefore, this model helps in determining the economic impacts of tourists on economic stability of Qatar (Reunamo and Pipere, 2011).
Environmental impact studies: large number of researcher has conducted studies on impact of tourism on environment of Qatar. These studies play very important role in measuring the impacts of visitors on environment of nation. It will help in determining the information about the available natural resources for sustainable tourism for Qatar. Different policies for environmental benefits also help in determining the impacts on tourists on environment