Academic Literature Essay
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Introduction to Poverty Perpetuates Social Exclusion
There are several negative effects of poverty identified in the form mental imbalance, social inequalities. Social exclusion can be considered as one of the important outcome poverty. Poverty is an universal concept that can be termed as deprivation due to lack of money. In addition to that it is defined as reduction in standard of living of people due to inequalities in income of people (Bak and Larsen, 2014). In the context of current essay, social exclusion can be considered as a process that can involve the systematic assertion of entitlements to resources and services along with the avoidance of the people's right to participate on equal terms associated with various social aspects such as economic, social, cultural or political. It can be occurred among households, villages, cities, states and nations due to inequities among income, expenditure and lifestyle of people.
It is identified that social exclusion and poverty both are interrelated concept because people are living in poverty and their income and various other resources such as material, cultural and social are not fulfilling a standard of living that is accepted by Irish society generally (Musterd and Ostendorf, 2013). As a result of inadequate income and assessment of resources, people may be excluded and marginalized from participating various operations of particular society. The current essay presents several aspects of social exclusion and impact of poverty in social exclusion process. In this process, essay analysis various facts in order to assess wide range of information about social exclusion. But, the poverty can be considered as key factor of social exclusion.
Aspects of social exclusion
There are several aspects of social exclusion such as attitude and social practices that leads social exclusion in society. Firstly, Mobilisation of institutional bias is one of the most important aspect of social exclusion (Copeland and Daly, 2012). It refers to the existence of predominant set of values, beliefs, rituals and institutional along with social procedures that are generally used systematically and consistently in order to provide extra benefits of certain persons and groups etc. This mechanism is based on without any conscious decisions by particular person that represent a group of special status quo (Social exclusion and Poverty, 2015). In this regards, avoidance of views of people belongs from other status quo reflects social exclusion.
Secondly, Social closure is one the most important aspect of social rejection. It can be considered as process in which social collectivities and high end people makes efforts in order to maximize rewards by restricting accession for wide range of resources and opportunities to a limited circle of eligible and group of people (Cross and Et.al., 2012). It also includes monopolisation of some particular opportunities on the basis of group attributes in the form of race, language, social origin, income and religion. Furthermore, State institutions are also playing significant role in the process of exclusion when discrimination is identified in the laws, policies and other regulations for the benefit of particular group. In some system, social system is greatly influenced and decided by people’s position in society based on heredity (Atkinson, 2009). This attribute is playing key role in order to influence social rejection of people.
Lastly, Unruly practices influences social exclusion in society. It refers as gaps identified between formation rules and their implementation. Institutions unofficially carry on exclusion process when public sector workers encounter the partiality from their society through their position (Stanley and et.al., 2011.). It can be considered as some important kind of discrimination that leads social exclusion.
Exclusionary processes are not only based on lower levels of a social hierarchy but also in can occur at different social levels and parts of society (POVERTY & SOCIAL EXCLUSION PROOFING STATEMENT, 2015). There are several marginalization, disadvantage and discrimination addressed by people due to irrespective of poverty. Furthermore, social exclusion can be considered as an important concept in aiding the understanding of social processes and various negative outcomes such as conflict.
Factors of poverty of influence Social exclusion
Poverty has often been identified as main cause of social exclusion. In this regards, various policy makers makes efforts in order to manage this situation to ensure that individuals and social communities are not discriminated with reference to other members and communities of a society (Collins, 2014). Further more, it has been analyzed that inequality is one the most important collection of disparities that are identified in distribution and allocation of wide range of resources among different individuals belong from a particular society. The inequalities in the allocation and distribution of incomes between the rich and the poor also leads social exclusion. There is some other type of inequalities between the rich and the poor identified in the form of minimum wage rates (Shucksmith, 2012). It plays significant role in social exclusion. These economic inequalities are greatly affecting the consumption of commodities and assessment of wide range of resources in the both from quality and quantity by individuals and their families. Income of individuals determines capacity to purchases of basic along with high end luxury good and services. However, those who have low income are generally limited to the purchase of basic food stuffs along with housing units (Betti and Lemmi, 2013). It leaves less disposable income for further purchases. On the other h and, persons with high income levels can easily assess both basic needs and other requirements such as leisure activities. Therefore, social inequality is considered as one of the most important aspects that include a variety of inequalities and discrimination in determination of social classes and status (Devicienti and Poggi, 2011). Furthermore, social inequality is intertwined with social exclusion.
In addition to that social exclusion cannot be restricted to material poverty of an individual, person and a particular community that include different aspects and elements of social disadvantages (Beall, Crankshaw and Parnell, 2013). The major causes of social exclusion are not be limited to social disadvantages that are associated with poverty. It is not an end in itself in significant time period but act as a process. Social exclusion is not a result of an action but it is also considered as action itself. It contains dynamic nature so as it is relatively difficult to manage comparison the relationship between different issues that lead to exclusion over a long duration in society (Marlier and Atkinson, 2010). Considering that social exclusion is a process, different individuals and communities in the society find themselves in different situation of the social exclusion process at a particular time.
In the context of social exclusion, there are kinds of poverty identified such as absolute (subsistence)poverty and relative (overall) poverty. Absolute poverty can be termed as the lack of sufficient and basic resources to meet basic requirement in the form of water, shelter,food, as well as clothing. Relative poverty is also considered as a standard of living (Beall, Crankshaw and Parnell, 2013). It is based on society of an individual and standard of living which is varied in different nations. Furthermore, there are several factors assessed that leads poverty and social exclusion. It includes major issues such as unemployment, poor skills and ability, low earnings, lack of efficient housing, criminal environment, health issues etc. All these factors are mainly influenced by poverty (Poverty and social exclusion in Britains, 2000). It also promotes various issues related to social exclusion such as inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. It leads distance from the mainstream of society.
It has been analyzed that poverty can be considered as most important cause of crimes. In developed nations, criminal activities are largely tangled with social exclusion. The nature of major industrialized economies is capitalistic that means most of production operations are controlled by a few individuals (Beall, Crankshaw and Parnell, 2013). The primary aim of capitalist organization is profit so as businesses are not providing proper care to their workers. These companies always make efforts to increase productivity of worker to enhance revenue level. This approach leaves the workers overworked, less paid and unappreciated. So, the growth crime rate in developed nations can be considered by the inability of people to feel appreciated and well paid (Marlier and Atkinson, 2010). The numbers of people and workers who feel undervalued are quickly enhancing. In addition to that huge exploitation by the system and private companies, these socially excluded people are not able manage the increment in cost of living. Furthermore, people cannot assess positive outcomes of growth in economy such as increase in income. All these factors create huge impact on social exclusion and standard of living.
There are four types of dimensions identified of social exclusion such as impoverishment, or exclusion from adequate income or resources, labour market exclusion, service exclusion along with exclusion from social relations (Rugg, 2014). In the context of labour market exclusion, Individual and household exclusion are considered as most important elements for different reasons. Individual attachment to the labour market is progressively held to be essential not only for an adequate income but also paid work provides wide range of social contact and social communication (Bak and Larsen, 2014). So, Individuals are not having any paid work may be termed as socially excluded, whether or not they live with other individuals or paid worker and whether or not the household is poor. So, unemployment leads poverty and also influences different aspects of social exclusion. Furthermore, disability is also mainly correlated with inactivity. Individuals who are suffering form long term illness that consider as half likely to be paid work. In addition to that living in a jobless households is also influenced social exclusion.
In the context of social exclusion, service exclusion can be termed as lack of assess to basic services whether in the home or outside the home such as power, water supplies, transportation and financial services (Devicienti and Poggi, 2011). Utility disconnections reflect that an individual does not has efficient buying capacity that has restricted to people in order to avoid these services. It also influences social exclusion because an individual cannot assess basic services for organization. Furthermore, evaluation of social relationship and social participation among household population also provide important information about different aspects of social rejection. It determines link between different aspects such as poverty, joblessness and service exclusion (Social exclusion and Poverty, 2015). On the basis of these factors, some other elements are identified in evaluation of exclusion from social relations that can be considered as non-participation in common social activities, isolation , lack of support along with disengagement. All these factors create huge impact on social exclusion process along with poverty.
There are several inequalities identified on the basis income growth, living standards, work and age along with health system. All these factors are influenced by the distribution of different elements such as money, power and resources at mulinationnal, national and local levels (Musterd and Ostendorf, 2013). All these factors are greatly influenced by policy choices and government strategies. So, inequality is greatly dependent on distribution of wide range of attributes across the whole population of particular area. Inequalities can be described as economic or social in nature. Economic inequality is based on inappropriate distribution of monetary resources such as assets and income within a population (Shucksmith, 2012). It also influences consumption and an individual capabilities to purchase wide range of goods and services by individuals and households. The most simplest element that can be used to evaluate economic inequality such as sorts the population from poorest to richest and examines the percentage of expenditure. So, the variations in income and expenditure of people also indicates social exclusion of people (POVERTY & SOCIAL EXCLUSION PROOFING STATEMENT, 2015). Social inequality considers wide range of inequalities based on quality of life of individual along with living conditions. But, the poverty is greatly influenced by different social inequalities such as employment and work conditions, education level, assessment to social protection, housing and participation. By evaluating these social and economic inequalities, different aspects of social exclusion can be identified.
With reference economic and social inequalities, social exclusion can be considered as complex and mulch-dimensional process (Copeland and Daly, 2012). It includes the lack or denial of many types of resources, human rights, goods and services along with inability to take part in the normal relationships and social activities that are available to the majority of people in a society based of different economic, social, cultural or political arenas. It affects both the quality of life of individuals as well as participation in organization. So, poverty can be considered as major cause of social exclusion.
There are several strategies developed by government authorities with the help of various private organization in order to resolve the problems of social exclusion (Social exclusion, 2015). In this regards, different strategies are used for community development, building of efficient environment, youth development, facilitation of efficient education, increment in family support and childcare as well as economic development. The main objectives of all these elements are tackling of poverty and reduction in social exclusion. In the process of community development, government develops wide range of rules and legal regulations such as minimum wages act, social protection act etc. that ensure about minimum earning of an individual from which an individual can easily meet its day to day requirement (Beall, Crankshaw and Parnell, 2013). It increases purchase capacity of people. By developing an efficient equality act, public authorities can avoid problem of inequalities that play important role in management of poverty. By reducing poverty, government can reduce negative impact of social exclusion.
In this regards, public authority can arrange wide range of youth development activities such as training for developing of professional skills among individual in particular area, brains storming of young age criminals along with creation of crime free environment that play important role in youth development (Devicienti and Poggi, 2011). All these factors improve earning capabilities of an individual and increase the demand in labor market. Furthermore, facilitation of efficient education is also providing good benefits in context of social exclusion. By arranging proper education facilities for children belongs from low income families, children can build specific image that would play significant role in social inclusion. In addition to that economic development also influences process of social inclusion in which social excluded people can manage strong relationship with national growth stream (Beall, Crankshaw and Parnell, 2013). In this regards, government agencies have to provide proper employment opportunities that will increase earning capacity of people. It also increases social involvement of people within various social group and society.
The above essay concludes that social exclusion is a very complex phenom which is based on several factors such as inequalities, poverty, government rules, social relationship and economic growth of nation etc. It has addressed that poverty is key a factor for social exclusion because it affects negatively on standard of living and influences criminal activities. All these factors reduce involvement of an individual or group of people among various operations of particular society and social group. It has concluded that social exclusion affects individual's social interaction with various other groups and earning capabilities. This essay has addressed that social exclusion can be controlled by community development, youth development and many other strategies.
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