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To analyze the effects of confidence and post-identification feedback on belief of eyewitness evidence
The focus of the current project report is analyzed the impact of confidence and post identification feedback on belief of eyewitness evidence. This project report emphasises on eyewitness identification error which is associated with 75% of DNA exoneration. This reports are all about conducting an experiment that facilitates an individual in order to collect important information in concluding the report within a given period. The focus of this project report is to clarify al the principles of investigative process conducted police in comparison with various legal process to be followed by police officers in order to collect all evidences from the suspected individual. The data collected by the police officers will help judge to make important decisions about the crime committed by an individual (SPSS, 2012). The seriousness of the crime will be assessed by using various parameters such as age of an individual, what are situations in which the crime has occurred. The judicial decision making process will depend on all the evidences collected by an individual in order to complete its desired research study with higher level of accuracy maintained by them as it is important in order to grab the right time to give sentence to the defaulters or criminals in order to avoid al the crimes in the society.
Current research study is al about emphasizing on the basic problem faced by an entity which needs to be evaluated in the overall research. This study explains each and everything about the effects of the current identification process adopted y the police officers in interrogating the suspected individuals who have arrested in a suspect of committing a fraud or crime. The complaint files against all the persons will help police officers in order to organize investigation research to collect important information to solve the case and give punishment to the real culprit who have committed a crime (Brainerd, Nakamura, Reyna and Holliday, 2017). This part ocular approach is regarded as one of the essential factor in the overall jury decision making in which decisions are taken by the judge who have experience by giving opportunity of being heard to all both defendant and claimant on a particular case. Police verification process also play an important role in identifying all the suspects by emphasises on different hints collected by an individual.
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Effects of investigation process of identification of evidences or interrogating eyewitnesses is the basis research problems whose efficiency will be assessed in the overall research project (Wells, 2016). The researcher will emphasis in the higher expectations and needs of an individual in order to grab higher opportunity of resolving the case as early as possible to save the time of legal officials. The resolving all he cases play an important by providing justice to the aggrieved party to the case is important process which involves deeply evaluation of all the matters included in the case as the police verification play an important role in communicating important investigation with the higher authority as they will take important decisions based on the collected facts. The current research study will focus on four important criterion's that acts like an important pillars in defining the overall research in the right direction to facilitate the research who will accomplish all the tasks associated with the given research report. The conclusion of the particular research report will help in answering all the problems initially faced by an individual (Luecht, 2016). It has various parameters such as low eyewitness confidence and neutral administrator comment, low eyewitness confidence and confirmatory administrator comment, Moderate eyeLuecht, K. M., 2016.witness confidence and neutral administrator comment and lastly it emphasises on Moderate eyewitness confidence and confirmatory administrator comment. The results are assessed on a specific confidence interval of maximum 95% and minimum 75% confidence interval limit in order to test the efficiency of the overall data collected by an individual in order to accomplish its desired aims and the objectives prepared in the initial of the report. Thee are various variables tested in the overall research report will help an individual in order to come to the conclusion of the report which helps in finding solutions to all the current problems faced by an entity. The research conducted y an individual is to find certain matters which will be assessed in order to satisfy all the needs and the expectations of the people as these variables are verified by taking consent of various respondents.
Research method play a significant role in proving right direction to a particular report as their main aim is to accomplish all the desired goals and the objectives after analyzing the resources held in an entity. The analysis in the research report is important in order to get competitive advantage in the market by resolving all the doubts and queries currently faced by an individual through a particular research report as the main motive of the researcher is to collect data and information in order to achieve the desired aims and the objectives framed initial of the research study (Kaminski and Sporer, 2017). The research methods are selected by an individual according to the overall nature of the report as varied nature of the research report will facilitate the researcher in order to select the best appropriate method of the research in accomplishing all desired goals and the objectives of a particular report framed by an individual.
The selection of quantitative methods will help the researcher in order to test the statistical accuracy of the collected data used for the purpose of overall analysis as their desired aim is to apply statistical tools in accomplish all the desired aims and the objectives within a given period (Horry and Brewer, 2016). In the current psychological research study experimental research method will be used by an individual in order to observe the overall process in order to identify the final outcomes which helps an individual in order to collect important evidences for the beneficial of the researcher. In the experimental research the outcomes will be observed by the researcher which increase the overall reliability of the data collected by the researcher for resolving the desired aim of the research as the results of the current research study will help in amending the existing processes of identification in order to improve the overall legal systems in which real process are followed in order to accomplish desired aims and the objectives in a particular period.
There are 10 variables selected for the overall research study which helps in assessing the current accuracy of all the data collected by the researcher during the journey of research which helps in generating higher outcome in the near future in order to achieve desired aims and the objectives of the research study conducted y an individual for the betterment of the business to resolve the current issues faced by the society as legal process will directly impact on the normal performance of an individual by emphasizing on the different criterion's such as gender, ethnic, guilty, influence of eyewitness on overall identification process, confidence interval, administrator (Dillon and et.al., 2017). These all the parameters will test the data by analyzing the responses of all the respondents to the current analysis whose accuracy will be tested in order take important decisions in improving the overall status of the current research study by resolving all the tasks and duties in achieving desired aims and the objectives of the research report. It is essential to analyze all the data about the respondents. The assessment of data collected from all the respondents is essential as the consent of all the respondents is important in order to provide ultimate direction to a research report. The data is collected randomly from al the respondents in order to accomplish the aim's and the objectives of a research report that helps in generating higher outcomes produces from a particular research study. Random selection of data will help in providing equal chance to all the respondents available at the time f generating their comments to support the aim of the research report.
Current research study has adopted Statistical tools such as SPSS in order to assess the accuracy of the collected data which is essential in order to take important decisions on the basis of results generated with the help of various statistical tools applied by the researcher in testing the statistical accuracy of all the data (Horry and Brewer, 2016). This particular report emphasises on utilising various statistical test by using different variables includes T test, Descriptive frequencies, Analysis of variance that is ANNOVA in one direction to test the accuracy of the collected data that helps in taking important facts and figures used for the analysis purpose in order to provide right direction to an entity in order to achieve desired aims and the objectives of the current research study. The higher accuracy of all the data analyzed using various statistical tools which helps in providing unique conclusion to the current research study as their desired aims to accomplish various aims and the objectives in a given period to achieve all the goal and the objectives. The statistical results will help an individual in reaching conclusion to the overall research report.
The current results generated after applying statistical tools in which data will be analyzed by determining mean, median, mode and standard deviation measure in testing the overall accuracy of all the data collected by an individual in order to ascertain about the market trend and patterns of the external market (Luecht, 2016). Standard deviation of the above data is 0.5 and mean of the data set is 1.54 which shows that confidence intervals data of 75 and 95% will not show closeness with the mean value of the overall data set. So, respondents behavior will be tested by increasing the variation in the data set that increases reliability of data.
Cross tabulation techniques used to determine the presence of all the respondents from whom important data has generated in order to help the researcher in achieving their desired aims and the objectives (Cooper, Pullig and Dickens, 2016). The results state that total 206 respondents have 100% provided their consent and there is no information is missing in the analysis.
One way ANNOVA
The total results of the analysis of variance shows the total difference of 92 and sum of square of 23.81 among the variables used for the purpose of analysis in determining all the goals and the objectives in less period (Kaminski and Sporer, 2017). The mean of all the parameter value defined in the analysis remains the same which states that an entity has not applied extra efforts in achieving desired aims and the objectives within a given period. It includes different parameters such as Administrator comment manipulation, Confidence manipulation and Administrator comment manipulation which states that all statistical values such as mean and standard deviations which shows that there is less closeness of data points in the analysis.
How much influence do you think the police officer had on the eyewitness' confidence in her identification decision? Is the question which is analyses by applying this particular technique which states that this is analyzed on two important parameters such as neutral or confirmatory in assessing all the responses of different respondents whose consents are taken into considerations for the analysis purpose (Brainerd, Nakamura, Reyna and Holliday, 2017). The mean value of confirmatory parameter in higher than compared to another factor used in the analysis sis neutral. The higher value of mean and standard deviation shows that out of total 206 respondents majority of the respondents will speak in the favor of the current questions which about ascertaining the influence of police officers on all the eyewitness who contributed in resolving he matters frequently by explaining about he hidden facts and figures in order to reach the final outcome of the overall research study.
Spear man correlation bi variate is used to determine the relationship among the two variable used in the analysis in order to know the overall direction in order to make important decisions in the busiest for the betterment of the business. Two variable used for the correlation in determining the relationship among these two variable includes identification made by eyewitness and defendant is guilty (Brace, Snelgar and Kemp, 2012). The results show that It has 1: 0.685 relationship which tells that identifications made y the eyewitness is very helpful in solving all the cases accurately but at the same time it is not mandatory that all defendants are guilty which says that both positive relationship as identification by the eyewitness will help judges in order to make important decisions in the overall research report in accomplishing desired aims and the objectives within a given period. The two tailed direction of the current relationship among two of variable states that it has 0.01 is significant level which will be helpful for an individual in order to accomplish all the desired aims and the objectives framed by an entity at the initial phase of the overall research report.
It can be concluded from the research report that as per the statistical tool's and techniques it can be said that there is positive impact of eyewitness in the identification process organized by an entity in order to collect important evidences to support the overall study with the legal evidences which is essential for improving performance of an entity within a particular time. The statistical accuracy of all the collected data states about the positive outcomes generated by an entity in relation to all the parameters used effectively in improving the legal procedure which is important in order to eliminate errors found in the overall data set. The data set is assessed in order to make important decisions in the current project report in which researcher will be held liable for the actions made by them in concluding the overall research project (Pallant, 2013). The collected data speaks about the efficient data set used by an individual in improving overall performance of an entity in order to increase trust and confidence among variety of respondents falls in the external business environment in order to achieve desired aims and the objectives framed by an entity owner in the initial research study which gives clear cut idea to an individual in completing their research study in the best possible manner by considering all the facts and figures in the best suitable way for the current project report.
- Dillon, M. K., ad et.al., 2017. Henderson Instructions: Do They Enhance Evidence Evaluation?. Journal of Forensic Psychology Research and Practice. 17(1). pp.1-24.
- Jones, A. M., ad et.al., 2017. Comparing the effectiveness of Henderson instructions and expert testimony: Which safeguard improves jurors’ evaluations of eyewitness evidence?. Journal of Experimental Criminology. 13(1). pp.29-52.
- Wells, W., Wells, W., Campbell, B., Campbell, B., Li, Y., Li, Y., Swindle, S. and Swindle, S., 2016. The characteristics and results of eyewitness identification procedures conducted during robbery investigations in Houston, TX. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management.39(4). pp.601-619.
- Horry, R. and Brewer, N., 2016. How target–lure similarity shapes confidence judgments in multiple-alternative decision tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 145(12). p.1615.
- Cooper, M. J., Pullig, C. and Dickens, C., 2016. Effects of Narcissism and Religiosity on Church Ministers With Respect to Ethical Judgment, Confidence, and Forgiveness. Journal of Psychology & Theology. 44(1).
- Luecht, K. M., 2016. The effects of post-identification feedback and exposure duration on eyewitnesses. The University of Alabama in Huntsville.