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Analysis of Health Condition in HIV

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Prevalence in Selected both Nation Australia and Nepal

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INTRODUCTION

HIV/AIDS is one of those viral infections that threatens the life and is fatal in nature. It is caused by an infected virus named human immunodeficiency virus which is factually known to be a lentivirus that defines its higher classification (Butcher & et. al., 2013). HIV is itself referred to be a life threatening virus that directly impact upon the immune system of human beings and in turn weakens the capability of an individual to combat against any sort of disease and infections, etc. It is however originated due to various reasons that involves unsafe sexual transmission, on sharing infected needles from which one's infected blood transverse to another individual. Also, this occurs when a child takes birth from an HIV positive mother.

There do not exist any remedial measures to completely cure a person suffering from HIV but there exists some treatments that in turn assists those individuals to lead a long term life with a healthy body. There together exists a thin-line difference among these two terms called HIV and AIDS where AIDS is referred to be the final stage of HIV and after which, it gets challenging treating a patient suffering from it (Giles & et. al., 2016). Although, and early diagnosis associated with early measures of treatment does not result into such conversion and people with positive syndrome of HIV do not tend to suffer from AIDS. The below essay will discuss about the health condition of HIV/AIDS along with its prevalence in two leading regions namely Australia and Nepal. It will together reveal certain preventive ideas along with some prompt measures of treatment for HIV/AIDS as well as the role of health care professionals to implement the ascertained tactics.

Health Condition

HIV refers to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, where AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, which is a severe and final stage of HIV infection as per the report of World Health Organization [WHO] in the year 2016. Gradually, the infected individual then becomes immune deficient, which enhances susceptibility to wide range of diseases, cancers and infections. Thus, the HIV infected people are less able to raise a protective response against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) such as, AIDS (Morrison & et. al., 2014). It takes from 2 to 15 years for AIDS to develop, which varies within the individuals where the development of certain infections, cancers and diseases defines AIDS. Simple day-to-day contact between individuals like, kissing, shaking hands, hugging or sharing food or water between the HIV infected person and a healthy person cannot infect the healthy person. However, the healthy person can get infected if there is exchange of different body fluids such as, genital secretion, blood and breast milk. It is diagnosed through serological tests, which hence detects the presence or absence of antibodies to HIV -1/2 and/or HIV p 24 antigens.

Beside this, HIV together results in making atrocious impact on the health of those individuals suffering from its infectious origin where they are already referred to deal with an impaired immune system. This in turn results in causing several more complications that is mainly susceptible to some terrible infections by together causing different sort of cancers along with some other type of health related complications (Silverberg & et. al., 2014). This is for instance to specify about one such infectious disease called tuberculosis or TB that is a widely known to prevail in the nations with poor resources and it easily effects the HIV positive people. It is also referred to be one of the most opportunistic ill health that is directly associated with HIV and in case when an HIV positive individual have acquired this infection, then it results in his or her decease.

Candidiasis is referred to be yet another well known infection related to HIV and results in causing redness with a dense white coloured coating on the mucous membrane area of the individual's mouth such as on tongue and esophagus by together affecting the vaginal area of females (Cameron, 2012). Also, Toxoplasmosis is referred to be yet another type of infectious disease that is extremely fatal in nature ans is mainly caused from Toxoplasma gondii which is basically a parasite dispersed chiefly by cats. It is where some septic cats tends to pass these parasites in their excreted stools by which the parasites later spreads onto the human beings and other animals as well.

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Apart from this, there together exist some other sort of complications resulting into cancers where one such disease named lymphomas is commonly known to origin in HIV positive people. This usually develops in their white blood cells and initially seems in their lymph nodes. A common sign for its early detection is pain-free puffiness of the lymph nodes in some areas like the neck, armpit and groin, etc. Additionally, there together exists neurologic complications in the health of an HIV positive individual (Lewis & et. al., 2015). However, AIDS doesn't seem to infect the nerves of an individual but can result in causing certain neurological syndrome like mental disorder, memory loss, depression and trouble in walking and state of anxiousness, etc. One such common neurologic complication is the complexity of dementia in AIDS that in turn results into behavioural changes by reducing the intellectual power of the patient with a partial halt of their brain functioning.

Prevalence in both selected nation Australia and Nepal

More than 33 million people in the world are infected by HIV, which seems to be a global health concern. In 2015, 27000 people in Australia and 39000 people in Nepal were living with HIV/AIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (Cameron, 2012). Although Nepal is relatively smaller than Australia with less population, it has higher number of people infected with HIV/AIDS that indicates the need for effective treatment and preventive measures in Nepal.

Prevalence or incidence of condition in Australia

In 2015, about (24000-30000) people in Australia were infected by HIV where (24000-27000) people were male adults (15+) and (2500-3200) were female adults (15+), similarly (7100-9000) male aged 50+ and less than 1000 women aged 50+ were infected by HIV.

Prevalence or incidence of condition in Nepal

In Nepal about (1700-2300) women aged 50+ and (5100-6700) male aged 50+ were infected HIV during 2015, overall there were 34000-46000 people infected by HIV where (20000-16000) were female adults (15+) and (20000-28000) were male adults (15+).

Prevention and treatment measures for HIV/ AIDS

HIV/AIDS can be prevented and treated through prevention strategies and treatment method respectively. The information provided below will discuss more about these strategies and methods in depths that includes two prevention strategies and one treatment method.

Prevention Strategies

Prevention of HIV/AIDS is mostly based on an individual’s lifestyle or activities. For instance, coping with sex in the right way; about 80% of HIV transmission is through sexual activities, so one-to-one counselling, interaction between people, community and nation regarding the sexual transmission such as, avoiding multiple sex partners, can precisely eliminate the infection. During oral or vaginal sex, correct and consistent use of male and female condoms can shield against the transmission of HIV/AIDS (Lewis, S.L. & et. al., 2015). Also, testing and counselling for HIV could be the another good prevention, people who are exposed to any kind of the risk factors that might cause HIV are strongly advised for the testing and counselling for HIV which may help an individual to know about infection status they are going through and can act accordingly to access important treatment or further preventive measures without any delay. Moreover, young generation should be aware about the HIV/AIDS education before they become sexually active because the behaviour of the young people today effects on the future of the HIV/AIDS on adults.

Likewise, dealing rationally with drug use can be taken as effective preventive measure against the transmission of HIV infection; providing the information on HIV/AIDS, needle and syringe programmes, antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lower the supply and demand of illicit drugs. Also, the idea of not sharing injecting equipment can act as precaution to avoid the transmission of HIV/AIDS ().

Treatment Strategies

HIV/AIDS cannot be completely cured but can be suppressed by the combination ART where it includes 3 or more antiretroviral drugs. HIV infections and transmission can be lowered and prevented by using ART; under certain condition HIV infected people who initiate ART are less likely to infect their healthy partners (Silverberg & et. al., 2014). WHO released the second edition of guidelines in 2016 that was named as “consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection”.

Health Professionals

HIV/AIDS cannot be completely cured but can be suppressed by the combination ART where it includes 3 or more antiretroviral drugs. HIV infections and transmission can be lowered and prevented by using ART; under certain condition HIV infected people who initiate ART are less likely to infect their healthy partners (Butcher & et. al., 2013). WHO released the second edition of guidelines in 2016 that was named as “consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection”.

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It is in context to both the health care practitioner and an allied professional to treat the person suffering from HIV by undertaking applicable measures of prevention. This usually involves the physicians along with the nurses and a prompt intervention of health care communication. It is where the physicians should actively participate in campaigns specially arranged to educate people about the prevalence of such life-threatening disease HIV where improper treatments for its prevention can in turn lead into the existence of AIDS (Giles & et. al., 2016). The health care professionals should thereby explain the importance of its early detection by together inspiring them for its timely treatment rather than trying to conceal it and take stress. Also, the patient's who are abiding by antiretroviral therapies should be constantly assessed by their physicians treating them. After which, the health care practitioners are together required to check for a suppressed load of viral below than the detected limits and should continue for minimum 6 months.

Impact on community

Community plays a greater role in the life of almost all individuals where the people suffering from such severe disease gets into a distinct mindset just after acknowledging its existence in their body. Herein, community has specified the family members of the patients along with the society and its people who have surrounded them till now and will be surely reflecting a concerned outlook towards the condition of the patient suffering from AIDS or HIV (Morrison & et. al., 2014). It is where HIV is referred to be a blood-borne ill health that spreads from high-risk of sexual activities and also from the use of prohibited drugs and other blood products, etc., wherein, it can only get spread by the transmission of blood from an infected person to a healthy one. Also, its rising recognition is not only apparent to effect the individuals suffering from it but together impacts upon their entire family.

Financial costs, social burden and public health campaigns are some factual illustration outlining the same where financial effects are referred to be the most common one. It is hereby referred to the financial burden of this disease that can largely impact upon the family members of the patient. It is specially in case some other members of that individual's family are together going through some sort of illness. This will resultantly tend to make more financial load on the family where they will be now required to treat the one suffering from HIV that are very costly and often not affordable by many families (Silverberg & et. al., 2014). It is together referred to be a concerning agenda where several reports have stated that patients suffering from HIV have also loosed their occupation after getting diagnosed with it. Such situation that reflects a decreased level of income with an increased cost for health care largely prevents the elementary needs of the individual's family who are suffering from HIV. It is where there family members such as parents who are earning money may still not feel it to be enough where the children are frequently loaded with rising number of demands.

CONCLUSION

HIV infection leads to a deadly stage known as AIDS. It is mostly found in adults, less in old peoples and rarely in children due to mother-to-child transmission. Both Australia and Nepal have lower rate of HIV infected women. Healthy sexual life style, using condoms, dealing rationally with drug use might be good preventive measures where ART can together suppress the effect of HIV and people can live a healthy and long term life. The above essay has discoursed upon some preventives measures of HIV with a greater role of health care professionals in it. Also, its impact on the community people have been elaborated with a leading finding of financial crisis that is being dealt by not only the patients suffering from it, but also by their family members and as a result to which, they often goes into the state of social isolation.

REFERENCES

  • Butcher, H.K. & et. al. (2013). Nursing interventions classification (NIC). Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Cameron, S. (2012). Women and HIV in Australia: An overview. HIV Australia. 9(4). pp.6.
  • Giles, M.L. & et. al. (2016). How do outcomes compare between women and men living with HIV in Australia? An observational study. Sexual health. 13(2). pp.155-161.
  • Lewis, S.L. & et. al. (2015). Study guide for medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Morrison, C. & et. al. (2014). Cervical inflammation and immunity associated with hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and HIV-1 seroconversion. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
  • Silverberg, M.J. & et. al. (2014). Immunodeficiency and risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-positive individuals with access to care. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
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