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Study of Behaviour of Employees in an Organisation

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A report on analysis of workforce behaviour in British Broadcasting Company (BBC)

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INTRODUCTION

Organization behaviour is a scientific approach with the help of which workforce behaviour is being studied in order to analyse and control the behaviour of employees working in an organization. Such analysis is being conducted by the organization so as to result better outcome in the future for the company. In this report company which is taken into consideration in order to explain about the organization behaviour is British Broad Casting Company(BBC) which is one of the mass media industry with its headquarter in United Kingdom. It was founded by John Reith on 18 October 1922. In this assignment,Influence of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of an organization. Is also being stated. Moreover brief about the importance of content and process theory of motivation is also explained in this report. Lastly, the file focuses on the concepts and philosophies of organizational behaviour.

TASK 1

P1. Organisational culture, power and politics influences on organizational behaviour

In modern world huge competition in the changes taking place in power, culture and politics can be the reason for an organization downfall or can be the key contributors in the success of an organization. Power refers to the ability of a manger to motivate and influence employees to work for accomplishment of organizational objectives by adopting the changes which takes places in the organizational culture.( Dartey-Baah and Amoako 2011) Organizational culture refer to the norms and regulation under which the business is carried out. Whereas organization politics refer to the the informal efforts made by the made by the individuals working in an organization in order to effect the firms activities and its position like by selling of ideas.

Meaning and definition of organizational culture:

  • Definition: According to Andrew Brown “ organizational culture reflects about the pattern of beliefs and norms which the member of the organization need to possess or act in a certain ways to perform various operational activities.
  • Meaning: From the above definition it can be interpreted that organizational culture means organization philosophy, value, experience and expectation which provide proper guidance to the members of an organization so as to carry out operational activities of an organization smoothly. Moreover it can be said that it refer to the shared beliefs, customs and written rules which are being communicated to the employees so that by following team they can carry out their respective operational activities easily and such rules and norms are considered to be valid.

Importance of organizational culture:

Each business concern has its own culture, as mostly employees spend their time at workplace so organization culture influence both to their work life as well as their personal lives. There are some of the importance of organization culture for BBC company and they are explained below:

  • Unity: Workforce working within the organization comes from different background, families and have their own norms and culture, so in this case shared organizational culture of BBC company will helps in building unite among employees. As having a shared culture helps in promoting good communication among each other and helps in reducing conflicts among each other. Thus, it result in enhancing profitability ration of an organization.
  • Loyalty: Shared organizational culture helps in viewing employees that they are the part of an organizational culture. As a result such type of culture of BBC company helps in contributing to accomplish success for an entity. In addition to this it helps to keep workforce motivated and loyal towards an organization.
  • Competition: Shared organizational culture of BBC company helps in building healthy competition among the workforce. As a result it will help each employee to give their best so as to earn appreciation and recognition from their respective superiors. Thus, it helps in increasing and improving the quality of work and helps in achieving competitive advantage in the marketplace.

BBC organization culture:

As per the point of view of BBC company, organizational culture plays an important role in the overall accomplishment of organizational aims and objective on specified time schedule. BBC values states that trust is the core foundation of the company, employees of the BBC company are independent they take their decision by their own without the help of superiors and are honest and fair enough while taking correct decision. In addition to this creativity is the life blood for BBC organization, they invent and innovate creativity and by embracing new technology.(Dobrow 2013) This is done by taking the opinions and perspective of each employees working in an organization. Moreover BBC company make their team to work together by sharing skills, knowledge with both the inside and outside of the company so as to learn from wider industry. Lastly, it can be conclude that the organization culture of BBC company flexible enough as they belief in delivering quality and value for money.

Factors affecting organizational culture:

Recruitment and selection:The types of workforce hired by the business concern have the largest impact on organizational culture, specially when the company is in a state to be successful in the market place. So the manager of BBC company should target only those candidate who can act as a talented workforce for an organization in order to bring business to the nest best level.

Change in customers taste and preferences: This is one of the factors which directly impact on the organizational culture as organization profitability ratio goes down when such changes take place. So the manager of BBC company modifies its strategies and policies accordingly. So the manager of BBC company does an analysis about the customers preferences and demands so that they can produce according in order to increase the profitability and productivity of an organization.

Theory of organization culture:

BBC company has taken into consideration Handy's typology in order to explain about the BBC company organizational behaviour and this is explained below(Francis, J. J., O’Connor, D. and Curran 2012):

Handy's typology

This theory has the powerful effect on the thinking of modern organization. He defines four different types of culture which can influence on the behaviour of an organization and they are explained below:

  1. Power culture:In an BBC company power is held by only few individuals and such power influences spread throughout the business concern.
  2. Role culture: BBC company role culture is specifically based on rules, they are high controlled. In addition to this this culture refers to the point that each one in an organization are assigned with their respective roles and responsibility and it is specifically defined by person position.
  3. Task culture:In BBC company task culture is formed so as to address and accomplish specific progress project or problems.
  4. Person culture: This culture specifies that each individual in BBC company see themselves as unique or it can be said that they see themselves as superiors to the business concern.

Organization power:

It refers to the right that one exercise in an organization in order to get things done from workforce. BBC company has taken in to consideration five types of power in order to explain the behaviour of an organization and they are given by French and Raven's(Gabriel 2015):

French and Raven's five types of power:

  1. Legitimate power: In BBC company such power is exercised by top manager of the company and such power is unstable and unpredictable. If the person loses his position he will lose his power.
  2. Reward power:In BBC company individualise with such power are often able to render rewards like promotions, training opportunities or simply by giving complements.
  3. Expert power:The individual in BBC company who exercise such power will be able to solve out situations and issues that might take place during working hours of an organization.
  4. Referent power:In BBC company the individual with referent power have lots of connection with other individual, as such power comes from one individual liking and respecting another in some way.
  5. Coercive power: The person in BBC company who exercise such power may create problematic and such power can be abused. As this power refer that the individual will be asked to completed the work force fully.

Thus, overall it can be conclude that before BBC company use to exercise coercive power through bulling and harassment in order to get work done from them. Thus, it used to effect and influence the team behaviour by demotivating them and as well as it use to lead to increase in employee turn over. But later, it was founded that after 2015 BBC company started exercising reward power by rendering reward to their workforce in order to retain and reduce employee turnover ratio. Thus it has also lead to the development of culture within the organization.

Organizational politics:

It refers to the politics which is exercise by the workforce within the organization in order to get work done from them. In addition to this it refers to the tactics used by the employees so as to get their work done from others. For example earlier it was founded that in BBC company used to use bulling and harassment tactics in order to improve the quality of product and services, but indirectly such types of political tactics use to hamper organizational profitability ration as it use to lead to employee turnover.(Geppert 2017)Nouri, H. and Parker, R. J., 2013) Thus, it also used to effect on the performance of team behaviour. In order to over come the increase in employee turn over BBC company has taken into consideration reward power politics in order to retain workforce within the organization.

TASK 2

A. Process and Content theories of motivation:

Motivation is the process of influencing and guiding the workforce so that they can accomplish organizational goal in an effective and efficient manner.

  • Definition: According to Robert Dubin “ Motivation is the act of influencing to expand energy within the workforce so as to achieve organizational goal or reward.
  • Meaning: From the above definition it can be interpreted that motivation is the technique which is used by the leader of an organization so as to motivate and influence workforce from time to time so as to accomplish better result for the organization in future.

Importance of motivation:

  • Motivation helps in increasing the employee commitment towards the goal by rendering reward benefits to the workforce like promotion, transfer etc.
  • Motivation helps in increasing the employee efficiency and effectiveness in their respective job profile.

Theories of motivation:

There are two types of theories of motivation namely process and content theory of motivation which helps in improving team behaviour and performance level.

  1. Process theory:This theory focuses on what motivate workforce. BBC company has taken into consideration victor room theory of motivation which helps in building up of team behaviour and their performance level(Gkorezis and Petridou2017).
  2. Victor room theory:This theory specifies that action is the outcome of self-conscious choices and the aim is to gain joy and reduce pain. Vroom accomplished that execution of workers activities is entirely based on respective factors such as skills, experience, knowledge and abilities. Activity and motivation both are affiliated to individual's motivation. For this, BBC company uses definite elements such as instrumentality, valence and expectancy. By applying this theory, individual objectives and necessities of workers can be known so as to fulfil their needs and support them to work in order to accomplish the organizational goal.

Content theory:This theory mainly explains about the fact the human needs keeps on changing. BBC company has taken into consideration Maslow theory of motivation under content theory in order to explain how human needs affect individual team behaviour and performance.

Abraham Maslow theory of motivation: According to Maslow there are five types of human needs which keeps in changing from time to time and such need affect team behaviour and their performance and they are mentioned below(Gold 2013):

  1. Physiological needs: This need consist of basic need like food, shelter and clothing. So that BBC company should ensure that their basic needs are getting fulfilled with the pay that they receive, this will helps in motivating worker to work for the organization.
  2. Safety and security needs:This need mainly consist of job security, health and safety needs. So the company should render them medical and life insurance facility and should provide safety of their job. This will helps in retaining the workforce within the organization.
  3. Social needs:This need refer to the feeling of love and affection which the workforce of BBC company needs so as to feel as they are the part of the company. This will helps in increasing the productivity of the company.
  4. Esteem needs:This need refer to the need of affection and recognition which the BBC company should render their worker force in order to influence and motivate them to achieve target goal of the organization.
  5. Self-actualization: This need refer to the need of human being which need to be identified in order to develop their own capability and strength. So the BBC company should allow their employees to take their decision by own by setting challenging task. This will help in the development of team behaviour and their performance.

Thus, overall it can be conclude that BBC company must take due care that needs of workforce are getting accomplished. As they are the one who help in increasing organization productivity and profitability ratio.

B. How improved level of motivation helps in accomplish organizational goal.

Motivation play a crucial role in the overall accomplishment of an organizational goal. As it the motivation techniques which helps workforce to work towards achieving business concern target.( Mohamed and Sathyamoorthy 2013) Earlier BBC company culture were poor they use to adopt bulling and harassment techniques in order to get work done from them which ultimately leads to employees turnover. Thus, after analysing the reason behind employee turnover they have adopted the motivational techniques like by rendering flexible environment, reward on the basis of performance. Thus, now the company is prospering and is achieving the competitive edge in the market place. Thus, it can be said that motivation plays vital role in the success of an organization.

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TASK3

A. Types of an Effective Team

Team work is very much essential for the overall development of an organization. There are mostly two types of team effective and ineffective team. Effective team is one who does their work efficiently and with full potentially, Whereas ineffective team is one who is bit lazy type and does not perform their task efficiently.(Kalliath 2013) In BBC company the manager have divided effective team into three types virtual, problem solving and Functional team and they are explained below:

Types of team

  1. Virtual team: In BBC company virtual team is one which is not physically present within the organization. In-fact, it is the team which carry out the progress of report through conference and its all because of social networking. These teams focuses over maintaining a network between the employees that work over several geographical area.
  2. Problem-solving team: This is the team which helps in overcoming and sorting out those issues which may arise sometime within the organization. Such issues are only solve by problem solving team. Thus, it helps in removing hurdles which may arise during the working of an organization.
  3. Functional team: These team member belongs to different functional department of organisation and expertise in their field who come up together to achieve common goal. In BBC company there are various functional team like production team, packaging team which perform there respective duty in order to increase the maximum profit for the company.

B. Explanation about what make effective team

Effective refers to the group of people that are highly skilled and competent which work toward enhancing the productivity of organisation. They all work toward the accomplishment of organisational goals and enhancing their quality of work. In order to make effective team BBC company has taken into consideration Tuckmn's theory which explains about how the team development takes place .

Tuckman's theory:

This theory was developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. This theory explains about five different stages through which a team move in order to become an effective team and these stages are explained below(McAlpine 2012.):

  • Forming: This is the first stage of team development member of BBC company where individual are aware about the roles and responsibility,they are in the search of leader who will guide them.
  • Storming: After forming next state for the development of team members is storming. In this stage member of the team get to known under whom them have to work. Member of BBC company at this stage starts working toward the target goal of an organization but when each member will share their views and ideas then there is the possibility of conflict among the member during this stage.
  • Norming: At this stage team members of BBC company starts resolving their conflicts and work in a coordination to accomplish the common goal of the business concern.
  • Performing: After norming comes the performing stage for the development of team members of BBC company. In this stage they all work together to achieve the target goal without the supervision of superiors.
  • Adjourning: This is the last stage for the development of team members of BBC company. In this stage team members get accomplished there respective task on the specified time and there may take place break up of team member after achieving the target goal.

TASK4

A. Concepts and Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour

Concepts of organizational behaviour:

The concept of organizational behaviour depends upon two essential features like nature of people and nature of organization. If the nature of people in BBC company is supportive and workers are working to accomplish goal then it will indirectly help in increasing the productivity an profitability of an organization. Similarly if the organization culture is flexible and easily acceptable by the workers then it will helps in over all improvement of productivity of an organization. Thus, both plays an important role in the overall development of the bsuines concern.

Philosophies of organizational behaviour:

Path goal theory has been taken into consideration in order to explain about the philosophies of organisational behaviour of BBC company(Kaur 2013).
Path Goal Theory:It is a leadership theory which was developed by Robert House in 1971. The BBC company has taken this into consideration as this theory explains about the types of leadership style which the leader should adopt in order to motivate and influence workers to work hard in fulfilling administration goal. The different type of leadership style which the leader of BBC company can uses is directive , participative and supportive leadership style. Directive leadership style refer to direct and to provide guidance to the subordinates in the way they have to perform their task. Participative leadership style states that leader of BBC company should motivate member to participative in each activity of an organization and to come up with various ideas. Whereas supportive leadership style referees to the state where the leader need to to friendly and approachable toward their respective subordinates so as to make them feel that they are the members of an organization.

B. Barriers in effective team performance of BBC company:

Effective team performance is must so as to accomplish organizational goal in an effective and efficient manner. But there are some barrier to effective team performance which are explained below(Kinicki 2014):

  • Earlier BBC company use to practice harassment and bulling techniques on the basis of pay scale, age discrimination and many more aspects which indirectly use to create barrier in effective team performance of the BBC company. Thus, it use to lead in increase in employee turnover.
  • If the BBC company does not practice and conduct effective training and development session for the workforce specially for the new workforce then it will also become a barrier for effective team performance of BBC company.

So in order to overcome such barrier BBC company has adopted reward power techniques, as well as render flexible working environment, adopt supportive, participative and directive style of leadership as the situation in order to motivate workforce to retain and to work for the organization.

CONCLUSION

Overall from the above assignment it can be concluded that organizations behaviour is an important factor which need to be taken into consideration by the manager of the company in order to accomplish organizational goal on specified time period. This file states the manages should adopt various types of motivational theory in order to improve culture, politics and power of an organization. Thus, vroom, Maslow ans path goal theory states to be the best in order to guide and motivate workforce in achieving target aims and objectives.

REFERENCES

Books and Journals

Dartey-Baah, K. and Amoako, G. K., 2011. Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: a Ghanaian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management. 3(9). pp.1-8.
Dobrow, S. R., 2013. Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of organizational behavior. 34(4). pp.431-452.
Francis, J. J., O’Connor, D. and Curran, J., 2012. Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework. Implementation Science. 7(1). p.35.
Gabriel, A. S. And et. al., 2015. Emotional labor actors: A latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Applied Psychology. 100(3). p.863.
Geppert, M., 2017. Beyond the Learning Organisation: Paths of Organisational Learning in the East German Context: Paths of Organisational Learning in the East German Context. Routledge.
Gkorezis, P. and Petridou, E., 2017. Corporate social responsibility and pro-environmental behaviour: Organisational identification as a mediator. European Journal of International Management. 11(1). pp.1-18.
Gold, J. and et. al., 2013. Human resource development: Theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Kalliath, T. and et. al., 2013. Organisational behaviour: a psychological perspective for the Asia Pacific. McGraw-Hill Australia.
Kaur, A., 2013. Maslow’s need hierarchy theory: Applications and criticisms. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies. 3(10). pp.1061-1064.
Kinicki, A. and et. al., 2014. Management: A practical introduction. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.
McAlpine, L. and Turner, G., 2012. Imagined and emerging career patterns: Perceptions of doctoral students and research staff. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 36(4), pp.535-548.
Mohamed, N.H. and Sathyamoorthy, D., 2014. Decision Making In Organisational Behaviour: A Review of Models, Factors And Environment Types, and Proposal Of AHP. The Journal of Defence and Security. 5(1). p.62.
Nouri, H. and Parker, R. J., 2013. Career growth opportunities and employee turnover intentions in public accounting firms. The British Accounting Review. 45(2). pp.138-148.

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