Introduction to Policy Analysis
Background and Rationale
Policy analysis is a method which is used to evaluate and examine the different options available in public administration, which can be used in implementing the targets set by the government. The analysis of policies can be done in two ways. One is the analysis of the policy, which is already existing. The analysis will be analytical and descriptive. The second one is the analysis of new policies, which can be different and perspective. The main purpose and area of interest of these analysis is to identify any faults present in the current policies and to promote the health awareness. The public should be aware of the government policies for different health diseases.
The “National Tobacco policy's” main aim is to reduce the harm, which is related to tobacco. The object of this policy is to increase the health condition of all the people by reducing the consumption of smoking and tobacco. Other than this, the policies have some more objectives like; reduce the affordability of tobacco products, encourage the smokers to quit, decrease or eliminate the advertising or sponsorship of tobacco products. It also aims yo reduce the smoke free workplace, the supply of tobacco products and many other non healthy tobacco products.
Criteria For Analyzing Policy
Stake holders and different groups
For analyzing any policy, stakeholders plays an important key. Because they can get affected by the organization and their investments also. For tobacco, there are numerous stakeholders who have invested money in the promotion of tobacco and other hazardous items. These policies can reduce the investments, and can increase the social awareness about the side effects of consuming tobacco. The improvements of these stakeholders can decide the success or failure rate of policies. The government have to analyze that all the stake holders which are related to this policy should contribute in the formulation of the policy, so that the government and the policy will get enough time, various effective and efficient ways to evaluate this policy.
Lowest for accessibility
The another criteria on which the policies can be analyzed is the accessibility. For local use and the people, the policies should be such that tobacco should not be easily available for the people to access. In National Tobacco Policy, it was clearly mentioned that in Australia, tobacco should not be available at all the places. It should be supplied to very limited stores. Another thing which has to be analyzed is the cost of tobacco product . The cost must be kept high enough, infect very high enough. People should not find very easy to buy tobacco related products. The products should be out of reach for most of the population. This is the way, the government can reduce the consumption of such kind of products. In the policy, it should be mentioned that anyone who found distributing tobacco without legal license must be severely punished.
To analyze the policy, they have to make sure that all the resources, which are easily available for the people should be closed. The factories or the places from where tobacco is manufactured, must be very limited. They should have the government's permission for manufacturing the tobacco products. The places from where tobacco can be available must be seized. The policy should be technically feasible. The policy must have the same effect on all the population of groups. It should not be like, one part of the country is heavily affected and other part is least affected. All the population of different age groups, must accept the policy. They have to realize that, it is for their own group. These type of effects can reduce or limit the ways of data collection. The policy maker must collect the data from everywhere before analyzing anything. So it is advisable that there should be enough resources to collect the data and the data should not be limited. This will make very difficult in analyzing the current policy.
Monitoring and evaluation
The policy must be monitored time and time again. The government have to note down all the incoming quantity and selling quantity of tobacco products. This will help in identifying, whether the sales of the products is increased or decreased. This is also the effective way to analyze the policy. Because if the sales rate increased from last time, then it is clear that policy is not doing proper justice to the people. The monitoring should be followed by the evaluation. Policy must be evaluated to find out the final result of tobacco distribution. It is advisable that evaluation is on the basis of current results, this will help in analyzing the present scenario. This process also includes the statistics of the places which are severely affected by the tobacco consuming population. This will help the government to take more strict actions and to implement more strict rules, so that people will find it difficult to consume tobacco.
Policy Document Analysis
After doing the analysis of National Teleconference Policy, it has been found that the government is doing significant effort in reducing the consumption of tobacco. These type of policies can also be considered as the frame work, which can be used in identifying the well-being of the citizen. To analyze the policies, various legislative bodies can be used. Each analysis is having some outcome,which can be either positive or negative. Proper analysis is done to study in depth for finding the major problem and its solution. The document analysis based on the criteria can be done to check the effectiveness of the policy. This can be done to find out, in which part the policy is doing significant job and where it requires improvements. Another thing is the efficiency of the policy. To find out the efficiency, the results have to be checked which is on the basis of the calculation and statistics observed after doing the analysis.
The framework can also be used in identifying the problems assessed by the policy. It can help in finding out the targets of the policy and whether they achieved it or not. After this, proper study should be done on the effects of the policy. If it requires any kind of changes, then it needs to be done and again have to be implemented. If the policy is not doing good, then there should be an alternative policy, which is more suitable and well structured. This alternative policy can be used to put more effect. There are different ways which can be used to analyze the implementation and development of the policy. Many governing bodies use this to find out the important factors of this policy and also helps in finding out the consequences. The government policy will be applicable to all the citizen.
The policy document analysis still remains very underdeveloped in Australia. There is a set of predefined criteria which is used in the study of policy. National Tobacco policy is used in finding out the places where more quantity of illegal tobacco is sold. This is also used in creating the awareness in public, that tobacco is not good for health. This can cause harm to the body. There are various awareness programs run by the government. This can help in advertising the side effects of the tobacco. The document analysis can be done to find out the involvement of stake holders. The government can take the help from stake holders in running the policies. This will ensure that different stakeholder are doing their job in increasing the general awareness in public. Stakeholders can include various community groups, citizens, businessman, organizations which are non-governmental and it can also include the opposing parties.
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This document analysis can be done with the help of policy cycle. This method is the simplest method and can be implemented as a loop or a circle. The first thing is to identify the problems. After gathering the data from the analysis, the main thing is to find out the problem. Where the policy is lacking and in which part of the country it is least effective. There are different methods which can be used in examining the policy and finding its problem. This can also be used in the ways by which the government can respond to that problem. After this, it is followed by the implementation stage. This can be done by including other alternative policies. The policy which is the best one, that is selected and then implemented for some period of time. After this, the data is collected in the form of documents and this data is evaluated. There are different ways by which the evaluation can be done, which includes, the effectiveness, the cost it takes to implement the policy, and after the implementation what are the outcomes of this policy.
The main purpose of this document analysis is to identify that the criteria what used earlier in analysis are efficient or not. The analysis should be monitored carefully, so that it will be easy to find out the statistics from all over the country. The resources used by the government should be effective enough to generate social awareness about the health risks of consuming tobacco. There are many clauses in this policy, by which various illegal firms have been shut down for manufacturing tobacco. Thus decreasing the amount of tobacco supplied in the market. The cost of the products are also increased by the government, so that it will be difficult for people to buy the product, and also the accessibility is also reduced. Because the stores are limited and the price is high. By this way, the “National Tobacco Policy” is successful in decreasing the tobacco consuming population.
Evaluation Of Health Promotion Capacity
The first health promotion conference was held in Ottawa, and this was held to promote and develop health awareness around the globe. The “Integrated health promotion guide” defines a process which encourage people to improve their health and to prevent them from taking tobacco. The group or individual can able to identify the consequences of consuming tobacco. The health promotion is not only the responsibility of health sector, but to all the person of their well-being. The stakeholder and other associated partners must have the clear identification to identify the problems and their solutions as quick as possible. The health promotion quality should have their focus on implementing and evaluating the policies applied by the government.
This guide should identify and recognize the values of different organizations and agencies which are helping in promoting the policies. This guides main motive is to move towards the highest level of integration, which is Collaboration. This can be done by setting the priority, like in which part health promotion is most needed. After identification, they must set the benchmark or ground rules, which will be applicable to all. The last part is implementation, after setting the rules, the government have to implement those policies. After certain time, the evaluation of this promotion is done, which will identify up to which mark the capacity of promotion is reached. This will help in developing more effective ways of promotion in the next health policy.
Greek democracy- The ancient Greek democracy was followed the process in which all the citizens had the right to vote for laws. According to the majority to votes additional laws were introduced in the economy. Rather than voting for electing the representative, like other democratic countries do, in Greek democracy people votes for the laws. Moreover, in the Greek democracy, the government bodies were bifurcated in three main bodies which were the assembly, the court and the council. The assembly is comprised of aggregate of citizens of the economy. For instance, these citizens have the right to become the part of the assembly society. In addition to that, decision-making practices were taken into consideration in order to determine whether to consider and introduce that particular law or not. The council manages all the day to day activity of government in regard to handled trial and lawsuits. These council were elected through the lottery system. All the selected members served their roles and responsibility in the council for the next working year.
Political system of Pakistan- The respective country follows the democratic parliamentary republic in their nation in order to elect the government. Pakistan holds one of the youngest democracies around the globe as well as follows the Islamic constitution in the country. The mentioned constitution is the inclusion of various attributes which assist to guide political culture and political system. The parliament of Pakistan does not have the authority to form any laws in the economy. Therefore, every bill is passed by the senate and national assembly of Pakistan.
Bargaining model of war- The bargaining model of war revolves around war which has been performed as political concern over social or economic determines the war which performed as a political more than social or economic. The structure of the model includes the linear representative with the inclusion of two actors such as A and B which represent the left and right ends of the line. These lines show the complexities and willingness of fight between the both representative. The above discussed model of war highlights the interactions in which a country actor cannot be benefited while other suffering the loss. The respected model highlights the various assumption in regard to the war. The primary cause of war lies in high level of uncertainty and misconception between the actors. Therefore, it has led to rise of a crucial war among the actors.
North Korean Government Personalities- There have been three generation of the Kim family which have ruled the economic nation of North Korea. The mentioned family have the absolute authority in regard to taking the decisions in regard to the Korean economy. The mentioned country does not have the democratic governance as they follow the dictatorship structure. Moreover, the respected government determines the three branches which is judicial, administrative and legislative. All these branches are controlled by the ruling directorship party of worker's party of Korea (WPK). In addition, the cabinet holds the rights of provisional people's committee for Korea (LPC) in order to maintain the operational working of local economies and administration.
From the analysis done, it has been concluded that the health awareness about tobacco is very necessary. All the people need to realize that consuming tobacco is not good for health and that can cause disease like cancer, infections which are life threatening. To analyze the policy, there are various criteria, which can be used. These criteria will give some data and by evaluating those data, the exact condition of the policy can be found out. The government should make the right policies, which be helpful in creating the health awareness of consuming tobacco. There should be an alternative policy which can be used, if the first policy is not successful. The health promotion should be such that it affect more number of population about not to smoke. And encourage the people who smoke to quit smoking.
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