This assessment will cover following questions:
- Explain aspect of early childhood curriculum in relation to theories of learning and pedagogy.
- Evaluate the relationship between history of early childhood provision in the UK and its present form.
- How pioneer influenced the approach of early childhood education?
Pedagogy is basically the approach of teaching along with learning practice which helps in the physiological a well as psychological development of students. Curriculum on the other hand refers to knowledge as well as skills which the students are requited to learn and thus involves learning objectives along with learning standards. The main aim of this report is to understand the significance of pedagogy and curriculum in enhancing the knowledge base of students and to discus the various approaches and philosophical ideas drawn by theorists to gain in-sight of experiential learning.
This report gives a brief about Pedagogy, curriculum, pioneers in early childhood, learning theories, post-modern theory, curriculum models and difference between curriculum models.
According to Wood and Hedges (2016), pedagogy is basically the well-through approach of teaching and thus is the learning practice which helps ion the physiological development and growth of the learners. In short, pedagogy is simply the method and practice along with approach of teaching. It includes various aspects like teaching styles, teaching theory, feedback as well as assessment etc.
As illustrated by Rintakorpi (2016), curriculum is basically the lessons as well as academic content which is being taught in schools and thus refers to specific course and programme. In short, curriculum is primarily the courses which are being provided by schools for improving the knowledge base of students. In broad terms, it is mixture of experiences of students which takes place within educational process. It is planned series of instructions which are delivered to the students for helping them to better understand different concepts and practices.
Pioneers in early childhood
There are various pioneers which had developed a great ideas regarding the development of children in their early childhood days and has impacted their growth to great extent.
As per the view of Nutbrown (2018), Maria Montessori was the another pioneer within individualized education who crafted a well-through environment for meeting needs of children that are in specific age group. Maria Montessori established and discovered experiential learning and believed that experiential learning leads to the deeper understanding and great in-sight of different subjects like science, mathematics, social interaction, language etc.
The ideas of Maria Montessori has influenced me to a great level and thus have shaped my experience of early education. When I was a teacher in the pre school, I used to teach the children between age group of 3 to 5 and this was the place where I used the ideas of Maria Montessori. I used to show kids various activities like crocodile circle, connecting dots, alphabet knock down etc. Initially I used to just show them that how the things used to happen and what they have to do. I observed that children were not able to grab the things in their mind thoroughly and were not showing much progress. I came across the learning tactics of Maria Montessori and learned that children learn better when they actually perform that work themselves thus the from the next day, I tried to create a collaborative environment by not only simply teaching them but allowing them to do the play activities by themselves.
I used RASE pedagogical model during teaching the children which has been shaped by the ideas of Maria Montessori. The philosophical ideas of maria Montessori helped me to use this RASE model effectively and also shaped the curriculum which I made for children. For having an interactive learning, I used the various resources in my classroom like videos, demonstration through which I showed children that how things happen. My curriculum includes helping children to drink water, letter recognition, various play activities like snowball throw etc in which the I used Montessori theory. After the videos and demonstration, I advised children to perform the activities of curriculum by themselves. Many children were not able to correctly depict the situation thus instead of shouting at them, I supported them and corrected them by letting them know that what they now have to do.
Kolb learning theory
This is one of the well-known experiential learning theory which was being developed by David Kolb and thus explains that how learning occurs. This theory helped me to effectively apply my RASE pedagogical model and also influenced my curriculum. It consist of four stages
According to Bloch (2019), this dimension address that the learner comes across the new experience. In this, the learner basically encounters the experience which is entirely new for them and have not taken place earlier. This has helped me to shape my RASE model where for helping the children to gain new experience I used various resources like demonstration, videos. The first activity within my curriculum consist of teaching them that how to drink water.
As per the view of Nilsson and Elm (2017), in this stage of Kolb learning cycle, the learner basically reflects that experience on the basis of their personal aspect. In this, the learners basically watch the instructor that what they are doing and how they are doing. Thus in this stage, children watched the video and along with it also observed me that how I am performing the activities of curriculum.
This stage of Kolb learning theory mainly relates to thinking where the learners generates new ideas as well as modify their existing concept. In this stage, the learner have learned the concept from experience. Therefore, after watching the videos and demonstration, children began to think and generate ideas of the various activities of curriculum.
According to Anders, Roßbach and Kuger (2016), this basically relates to doing and thus in this stage, the learner actually applies the ideas as well as perform the activities which they have learned from experience. This is main stage where learner actually performs and experiments the various things. This stage has helped me to effectively apply the rest of the stages of RASE model.
According to Harper and Vered (2017), the post modern theory in early childhood is basically the theory which is mainly characterized by skepticism, subjectivism as well as relativism and incorporate the acute sensitivity in role of ideology for increasing the knowledge and creativity in children.
As per the view of Heikka and et.al.,(2019), in order to look the power as well as knowledge within children, their knowledge base needs to be examined. To help learners in making their own ways and for shaping their education as well as social life, the most important strategy which is involving with images needs to be employed. This strategy mainly involves the showing different images to students in early childhood practices from numerous theoretical perspectives for asking that who remain in advantage from specific knowledge.
According to Palaiologou (2016), Multiple reading is the key to great psychological development of students. This author believes that the most important instrument in this postmodern theory which makes it highly valuable in learning context is its multiple reading aspect. When students reads or observe a particular activity or thing repeatedly then they tend to remember that thing for extended period of time.
As illustrated by Pramling and Samuelsson (2018), a curriculum model is basically the model for the development of curriculum. This forms then first step within curriculum development. This is the model is basically the framework which addresses the various kinds of curriculum that are being used by teachers for designing curriculum.
According to Fleer and Van Oers (2017), this is basically the model which defines a plan of activities and action which can be used for structuring the subject area from theory to practice. Within this model, the curriculum is mainly continuous cycle that responds to changes in education wherein new information brings these changes. It generally undertakes the situational analysis under which the situation within which decision of curriculum are taken is deeply studied.
Tyler model of curriculum
As illustrated by Schleicher (2019), this is the another model of curriculum which is being used in United states. This model was developed by Ralph Tyler and is one of the most significant quintessential prototype in curriculum development within scientific approach. This model of Ralph showed the certified teachers and instructors in America develop their curriculum effectively by utilizing this model and thus maintain a collaborative environment in their classroom.
Difference between curriculum models
Tyler's model is basically straight line and deductive model
Wheeler model is primarily cyclic and inductive model
Tyler's model focus on the curriculum as way of striking towards the educational object
This focuses on continuously responding to changes in education wherein the information and practices brings these changes.
Tyler's model make use of various facts, definitions as well as rules for drawing the conclusion
Wheeler model make use of patterns and properties for drawing the conclusion.
Early childhood provision in UK and Ireland
The provision of early childhood in UK has been imperative and has transformed the entire United Kingdom. In the year 1944, education act came into force which implied that the nursery education would become universal and this was the first provision towards early childhood development. In the year 1960, a pres-school playgroup was formed where the nursery paces were provided with mothers which was the most important state provision. This continuous diversification and expansion of this provision contributed significantly towards meeting the needs of children under five years of age. Interest in this state provision in nursery education generally was stimulated by Plowden report, 1967. The starting of 21st century marked the emergence of elementary education in UK and in the year 2013, under act of elementary education, the provision of compulsory education was established.
The early childhood provision in Ireland has been highly remarkable in its history and impacted the education of children to a great extent. In the year 1996, the preschool regulation was being established in Ireland. These regulation later on were revised and reformed in the year 2006. In the year 1990, the most important provision which ECEC was being established by the government of Ireland. Under this provision, the early childhood needs of children were being met along with their families. But in the year 1997, this provision was then unregulated as there in this provision it was mandatory to show qualification of children. In the year 2006, child care regulation was formulated in Ireland under which there was no need to show the experience as well as qualification of children to provide services.
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Impact of change
The change which has been bought in the provision of 90s and 20 in both Ireland and UK were prove to be highly effective in meeting the needs of children. For example- In UK, the change of pre-school provision to elementary education made the early education compulsory and the age limit was extended from under five years of age to between 5 to 7. Besides this, the change of ECEC provision to child care act enhanced the mental development of children as this act removed the mandate to show qualification and experience of children and parents.
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It has been summarized that pedagogy helps to improve the way teacher deliver the content in the classroom and thus forms and essential part of learning. Pedagogy is one of the most vital teaching method which helps to increase the knowledge base of students. On the other hand, teachers are able to deliver effective teaching when they are able to design efficient curriculum and thus curriculum helps teacher to increase their expertise and increases skills of students. There are various pioneers which gave rise to experiential learning and thus understood the importance of psychological development in early childhood.
- Anders, Y., Roßbach, H.G. and Kuger, S., 2016. Early childhood learning experiences. In Assessing Contexts of Learning (pp. 179-208). Springer, Cham.
- Bloch, M.N., 2019. SOCIAL JUSTICE IN EARLY EDUCATION AND CHILD CARE. Educating for Social Justice in Early Childhood.p.56.
- Dietze, B. and Kashin, D., 2016. Empowering pedagogy for early childhood education. Pearson.
- Ebbeck, M. and Waniganayake, M., 2017. Play in early childhood education: Learning in diverse contexts. Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016.
- Fleer, M. and Van Oers, B. eds., 2017. International handbook of early childhood education. Springer.