This unit is related with conducting research on two theories of personality how they impact on the behavior of person.
- Carry out brief analysis of personality theory
- Critically evaluate two theory of personality trait.
In this essay it would be studied about what are the various theories of personality that are important to examine both the theories are very important to analysis. Two theories of personality would be included there in and talking about what impact do these put on person. Personality of person define them what they are and how do their nature and characteristic would be affecting their and others life.
Personality would be defined to as that part of individual that is very dynamic and connected with the psychophysical system which is helping in determining behaviour, thought and traits. It would also be included to as the blend or mixture of all traits of personalities which is making and enabling person to present themselves into unique way that different from that of others. Then the development of those personalities would be depending upon how environment and surrounding of that person is like especially during the first 5 years of person’s life (Theories of Personality, 2018). As the behaviour and knowledge of parents would be effecting that of their child in more regular sense this would be either making normal or abnormal development. This theory was developed by Sigmund Schlomo Freud during the time period of 1856-1939. Under this theory there included three basic factors like that of instinctual drive, unconscious process and early life influences. In his theory he explained that there is an unconscious instinct which is driving or helping person on order to motivate themselves in certain way out.
Freud majorly focused on mind of human being as he considered it as the most powerful factor that is responsible for both conscious and unconscious decision. In this way there are three distinct aspect of mind which is like that of id, ego and super ego. Both personality and mental health would be helping person to identify their problems related to mind at the initial starting phrase of person only (Clarkin, Cain & Lenzenweger, 2017). Freud also included Psychodynamic theory stating that personality of individual would be explained in terms of conscious and subconscious forces like beliefs and desire of person. This theory was propounded in 20th century by Freud under which he stated that whatever an individual is would be based on those three factors only namely id, ego and super ego. In which Id is that is responsible for pleasure seeking of an individual, super ego would be obeying rules and demand of society or parents and ego is the balance between both which is mediating reality.
This type of theory according to Gunderson, Unruh & Choi-Kain, (2018) focus on how childhood of person is shaping personality of individual especially their experience. This particular theory would be also taken as therapy which is attempting to reveal what are the thoughts, desire and experience into unconscious mind of person. Id of person which is stated in this particular theory is basically dealing with inherited like biological elements of human including sex life and aggressive instinct which is death. As per Wihler, Wiesmann & Blickle, (2017) this would be operating under principle of pleasure meaning that all desire of human should be immediately fulfilled irrespective of what would be the consequence of that. While ego is acting as the connective linkage between what is real and what mind is instructing or wanting from person and then this takes full and final decision of personality component. At last super ego would be dominated by what society and parents of person is wanting and then they would be working according to that only.
Allport trait theory
This theory was developed by as American psychologist namely Gordon Willard Allport and was first psychologist who studied personality into his research work. In his theory he mainly focused on uniqueness of person and personality which is important in the present context and rejecting all other theory stating psychoanalytic and behavioural as well. His theory is named to as Allport’s trait theory which is describing the person and their characteristics as well. Trait theory is having three distinct level including that of secondary, cardinal and central trait of person. As this theory was first on its kind which lay stress on unique personality of person linked with cognitive and motivation procedure and all of them are influencing behaviours of person.’
All of them would be including like that of trait, skills, intelligence, habits, attitudes and temperament. Thus the personality of person is there into since his birth and developing or evolving throughout his experience or environment where he is living. According to Yeager, (2017) trait would be defined to as that characteristic of person that is there into them since their birth and could not be changed so easily. All the traits which person is having would be having and believing to have into at the childhood of individual, experience and also current environment.
The three traits which Allport included within his theory could be narrated to as cardinal trait is that which is dominating personality of person and then strongly influencing their thought or feeling. These could be ruled out to be like as the passion and obsession of person and their need to have certain things which could not be resisted by their personality. These trait in one single person is so much strong that this end up at impacting people surrounding to them and then they tend to rule or dominate them as well. The perfect example of this personality trait would be that of Adolf Hitler who use to dominate people by his personality or thoughts as well. On the other hand Gunderson, Unruh & Choi-Kain, (2018) included that central trait of person are defined to as that which is very general or common characteristic found in people which is basic nature of human being. They are most prominently defined to as the building blocks of behaviour shaping personality and not overwhelming like that of cardinal trait. The best example of this could be stated to as honesty which would be found in any person with any other. Then comes the secondary trait including characteristic which are seen or analysed at certain or special situations only and only certain number of people would be knowing that (Theories of Personality, 2018). This shows that how complex is human nature and their behaviour which is not been able to studied at all times example your particular like or dislike which is known by your mother or best friend only.
All these traits of person would be making and evolving them into different way and also affecting others who are their around. What person is learning in childhood from his parents and surrounding would be impacting and thus influencing person. It was also included that person is evolving by both past and present experience forces that is shaping person and their life on clearer basis.
Towards the end of this module it was analysed that individuals are different from each other and they are depicting whatever learnt by them in past and present. It is importantly noted that person who is including and evolving their personality and trait are to be defined changing their likes and dislikes on greater way out. There are some characteristic which are different in people and some that are more basic in them like that of honesty or attachment with other.