This assessment will cover the following questions:
- Marks & Spencer is British multinational retailing industry of the United Kingdom. Examine the role of leader and manager in the effective functioning of an organisation.
- Distinguish between the leader and manager and their roles and responsibilities towards Marks & Spencer organisation.
- Identify the various approaches used by the leader to deal with the complex business environment.
Operation management refers to a business practices involved in creating highest level of production within an organisation. It is concerned with controlling and designing production and ensuring business operations in effective terms(Abdelhak, Grostick and Hanken, 2014). This process is concerned with entire production system by managing it with converting inputs. This report is based on Marks and Spencer a multinational retailing company whose headquarters are located in Westminster. They are treating with home and food products. The purpose of this assignment is to examine the roles of leader and manger with their similarities and differences. In that, they compasses theories and approaches applied in situational contexts. In this, values of management which are based on achieving business objectives. Functions of a manger performing in an organisation with a motive of accomplishing goals. The impact on OM by an environmental conditions came on decisions made by leaders and mangers. The factors which are affected in environment and wider community. They are dealing with the services by making decisions of using strategy to form designs, quality, production planning, controlling inventory.
a) Difference and similarity in between leader and manager.
For a successful business an organisation leads strong leader and manager who can work towards achievement. The leader is to understand people and believing in their work, they are administering day to day activities. Manager of Marks and Spencer execute their vision and mission with an ability to direct anticipated needs along the way(Armstrong, 2014). They focus on needs and listen to them by involving in providing best service to customers.
Roles and Responsibilities of Managers:
- It is the responsibility of the manager of M&S to oversee the working of their employees specified in a particular department.
- A manager sets up the goals for the company to help the company in earning profit by setting long term and short term goals.
Roles and Responsibilities of Leaders:
- It is the first responsibility of a leader of M&S to build a base which is trust in between the followers and him. It will make them to believe on the leader and follow him and working with full efficiency towards the vision.
- Another role of leader is delegation. It means that in order to get the work done in an efficient and effective way the leader has to delegate the power in between its followers so that they may not have to ask and get permission for work. Also, through this innovation will be enhanced among the followers.
Differences in between manager and leader
In between manager and leader there are few similarities are consider as under.
Goals and Vision
A manager focuses upon the achievement of the goals and objectives of M&S.
A leader gives the way to the followers and inspire them to convert the potentiality into reality.
Copy and Unique
Mostly, the managers copies the ways of working of others and does not find new ways of working and continue to follow the traditional way of working.
This is the utmost quality of a leader of M&S. It means that there is a uniqueness in the ideas of leaders as they do not copy instead they invent new ideas and ways of working.
The work of managers of M&S is to control the level of risk in the work by making and developing the policies.
On the other hand, the work of leader is different as from the manager. A leader himself takes the risk and do not think about the failure. It sometimes may create opportunities for the business.
Similarities in between leader and manager
Supervision- Both the leaders and the managers of M&S are provided with the work to supervise the employees and followers respectively.
Effective Communication- The success of each and every goal provided to the employees and the followers by the managers and leaders totally rely on the communication level as through proper communication only a clear understanding can be created among all.
Measurement of Performance- It is the work of both the leaders and managers of M&S to measure the performance of their employees and followers so that the needful can be done in order to improve the level of their performance.
b) Functions of a manager in an organization.
Management has made 5 basic functions according to Henry Fayol. The set of functions are planning, organising, commanding, controlling and coordinating(Azcarate, Mallor and Mateo, 2017). Their main motive is to make relationship in between personnel and management. Their point is to determine problems which are solved in creative mode. Marks and Spencer is based on these function to identify the results by resolving problems.
- Planning: It is first and foremost step to make plan of action on five functions of management. This is made on the basis of making coordination in between different levels of an organisation. It refers to deal with forecasting situations and helps in avoiding problems before occur. As for the Manager of M&S, planning will involve mapping out the goal that in what way the goal will be achieved (Bennett and James, 2017). As for this the manager decides about the necessary steps to be taken ion order to achieve the goals such as advertising, inventory management, and sales staff.
- Organising: It is an important function from five functions of management. In this, they are providing sufficient capital, staff, raw material so that company can build strong working structure. Their importance is to make good involvement of functions and tasks. The manager of M&S will assign the work give the authority of the employees as per the task assigned to them after preparing the steps needed to achieve the goal. For example, the manager will make an estimate of number of employees needed to carry our the work of advertising and also will estimate the level of delegation in authority they will need to accomplish the task successfully.
- Commanding: According to the functions of Henry Fayol, mangers command to their employees by giving order and instruction of work. Managers of Marks and Spencer communicate clearly with their employees by providing them concrete instructions. Prosperous managers have integrity to make their decisions on regular audits. In this function, the Manager of M&S will select the employees who will suitable for doing the work given such as the advertising and also guiding them and measuring their work progress to make an evaluation that the work is going on as per expected.
- Coordinating: This function stimulates mechanism of processes and peoples in order to to motivate within group dynamics. Marks and Spencer employees behaviour are dealing with influencing positively. It requires positive and clear communication. An organisation is intended to achieve objectives by leading positive behaviour of good leaders(Carballa, Regueiro and Lema, 2015). It is the work of the manager of M&S to make coordination between the employees and making them feel comfortable to share their views and issuers with each other freely such as coordinating the schedule for a project.
- Controlling: this function vary good plan with conformity in an organisation. In this, they know exactly from where the activities are carried out. Marks and Spencer dealing with their employees on controlling basis by establishing standards, measuring actual performances, comparing results and preventive measures of their work. It refers to a feedback of a manager in order to setting up of rules in abidance. They are amending plans for implementing when crises occur. It is a management last function with having forward looking in continuous and dynamic activity. Control enables organization to make out with an uncertainty. In this function, the Manager of M&S will control and look over the progress of the work done. It can be related with the allocation of resources or allocation of labours. For example all the employees cannot be granted leave on the same day, as it affects the work delivery.
c) Situational leadership, System leadership and contingency leadership in an organisation.
Marks and Spencer is updating the technology which it was earlier using for making the finished products. So this innovation will lead to accept changes by the employees and in order to accept these changes in technology, three leadership theories are explained and the best will be applied to overcome this challenge faced by the leader of Marks and Spencer. The explanation is provided as under:
In this, leadership are consider in 3 styles situational, system and contingency are explained as under.
Situational leadership describes leader or manger in an organisation adjusting their styles by influencing followers in developing levels. The styles of leadership is based on maturity level of followers. This leadership are defined 4 approaches are stated below.
- Telling and Directing: In this, leader role is to deal with an unmotivated employees. This styles are referred to as micro management involves in supervising people(Davis, 2016). They are dealing with high directive and low supportive behaviour in an organisation. The main purpose is to make decision and informing others. Marks and Spencer uses this approach.
- Selling and Coaching: leadership style is involved in day to day activities. Coaching is a way to involve with employees by providing knowledge and learning ability. This style typically works with those who are inexperienced and still in learning process. Marks and Spencer leaders have direct phrase with employees in increasing their confidence level and self esteem. This approach is there to help individual and team by influencing and developing performance. The style of this leadership is slenderly less autocratic and require good stage of position.
- Participating and supporting: this is a developing level style which focuses on relationship and less on task direction. They allows team to enhance goal for leadership. Their aim is to develop autonomously by releasing greater scope in leading. It is a style in which it passes with responsibility to employers. Marks and Spencer leader is there in providing feedback when the task is completed. They have necessary skills with lack of confidence level to achieve objectives.
- Delegating to Employees: In this, leader is involved with least amount of employees. In which leader is responsible for task with an involvement in feedback purpose. The role and performance required little supervising in activity. Leader demonstrate with lower level of directing and lower level of supporting employees.
It enables a leader to create level of productivity according to their potential. Leader provide tools which helps in predicting individual behaviour. This leadership helps in building effective systems in production and realising organisation purpose. Marks and Spencer involves principles in defining good leadership quality(Griffith, Stephenson and Watson, 2014). An individual provides tools for predicting behaviour of subordinates and frame work of realities of their presentations and interpretation. This leadership theory is developed by Dr. Ian MacDonald. Human behaviour is creating models to define strategy, system design and social process.
It is a best way to lead with the organisation. This theory focuses on relationship in between an independent and dependent variables. Independent variables includes motivation and leadership. Marks and Spencer dependent on variables includes productive turnover and absenteeism. It embraces behaviour by understanding employees in working environment. This theory is developed by Fielder. There are many constraints which lead best in a given situation. It is way to operate in making decisions and leading with company to a right situation.
- Leader- Member relation: in this, it defines relation in between leader and employees interaction. It is their to determine relation are negative or positive.
- Task Structure: It refers to a situation in measuring high and low structure in relation. Marks and Spencer define how a leader is setting up of tasks in an organisation.
- Positional Power: Leadership theory third step is to identify strong and weak power of structure in good and bad relation. Marks and Spencer company measuring amount of productivity by influencing their followers.
The following situation described above will be overcome with the help of situational leadership style as this leadership style will provide the reason of change and its relative advantages to both the company and the employees which will increase the morale of the employees and make them to accept the changes. The Leaders will guide the employees to accept the changes and the new way of working and their mistakes and doubts will be sorted out. This all will be done patiently, as clearing their doubts regarding the topic increase their morale and confidence level which will help M&S in overcoming the situation.
a) Explain different approaches to operation management and identification.
The approaches are of three types which defines operation management are six sigma, total quality management and just in time.
- Six Sigma: it is disciplined and statistical based approach deals with continuous improvement by eliminating defects in a product. There are many organisation means by measuring quality for perfection. Company Marks and Spencer aim is to analyse issues and problems in manufacturing goods and services(Grimsrud, 2016). The method which exists in specification and looking for implementing. Marks and Spencer improving their quality of products and facilities. It is defined by undertake limits by abstracting good from bad outcomes. Role of manager is their in enhancing customer requirements, developing trade goods.
Marks and Spencer is the organisation which deals in clothing sector, so there are possibilities of wastage, dead stock, etc. in order to reduce it Six Sigma approach of management can be used. This helps to perform operations according to requirement and hence possibilities of wastage is less. In this case leaders and managers are responsible for creating proper communication among different departments through channel. For instance: there is change in trend then it is responsibility of marketing manager to inform changes to manufacturing department, so purchase department can by related items. This helps maintain quality of product and consumer satisfaction can be achieved.
Managers play key role in structuring six sigma organisation.
Their aim is to select right projects and people for success.
Clearly mention employees about their roles and responsibilities.
Clear and effective communication in between employees and mangers.
Inexperienced persons provided training and education in order to perform their task.
Role of leader in six sigma
Their aim is to discuss about increasing benefits of projects with team members.
Driving sigma projects and their costs in saving with management goals.
They are reviewing data and supporting for implementing those projects.
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- Total quality management: it describes an approach for long term success by customer satisfaction. They makes an effort for improving processes by participating within an organisation. The strategies uses to integrate the discipline quality in culture and activities of an organisation(Hitt and Duane Ireland, 2017). Total quality managemnt is the aspect which works to maintin quality of product produced. This helps Marks and Spencer to attain good image in front of consumers because thee days they more quality conscious and want full return of their money. Tit is responsibility of purchase department manager of Marks and Spencer to analyse quality of raw material. Leaders has to motivate employees to work under latest technique so best quality product and services can be provided to consumers.
Role of leader in total quality management are stated as under.
- Their motive is to create proper environment for developing plan of action. The employees of marks and Spencer in an organisation is likely to meet their output goals.
- Leader unify their employees in to use skills and talent in unified manner. This process will ensure higher quality of output.
Role of a manager
- It is a person in instigating program with its associated costs and cultural changes require committing with their senior.
- Facilitating team of knowledgable managers which support and communicate with principles. They are acquiring resources, assist time for training, quality efforts and continuous betterment ideas.
- Just in time: Just in time manufacturing model talks about providing goods within specified time. Just in time system is aimed primarily by reducing waiting time. The purpose of this production is avoiding wastage and using excess inventory. It is primarily reducing time from suppliers and customers. There is competition in current retail market, hence Just in Time approach, helps to provide satisfaction to consumers of Marks and Spencer because demands are satisfied within reasonable time. For instance: in case of festive season, there is more demand of clothes. Hence it is responsibility of production manager of Marks and Spencer to plan operations in effective way so demand scan be fulfilled and possibilities of wastage are less. They insure highest flexibility in their production process. The second basic role of manager and leader is to manage costs associated with an inventory.
b) Role of a store manger
A store manager is responsible for day to day supervision of retail outlets. Their aim is to store successfully in including sales, staff, resources etc. manager is in a constant contact with customers and staff. The duty of manager of Marks and Spencer is to ensure that staff in providing services to customer for monitoring performance of store(Kull, 2014). In gender preferences female store manager is comfortable with female buyers and easily can build focus on product. An organisation used to maintain data in statistically and by financially. It displays merchandise which immediately catches attention of customers towards a product. He is a person who has to link with their customers and staff. Major responsibilities are stated below.
- Management of employees: This is a major duty or responsibility of a retail or store manager. Their are different level to work in cleaning staff, sales staff and clerical staff. Marks and Spencer manage has to perform same duties in order to their applied responsibility.
- Maintaining sales environment: Sales is one of the important aspect which helps to earn good profits amnd maintain sales of Marks and Spencer. Store manager is responsible for maintaining record of material check in and check out. They are responsible for proper recording and maintain ance of stock in warehouse and going out to sales or purchase department. Hence this helps to make proper sales of Marks and Spencer with appropriate recording so possibilities of loss to Marks and Spencer is less.
- Cost minimisation: the manger used to reduce expenses which are essential to run store. For minimising it is a best way to enhance policies which helps in increasing profitability. Company marks and Spencer eliminates wastage, errors and accidents. Cost can be minimised with the help of proper planning. Marks and Spencer is big brand in industry, this is because of their quality of products and services. They collect raw material from some specific suppliers, this helps to maintain cost. Store manager is responsible for maintaining proper records of check in and check out. At danger stock, they must order product. This helps to maintain ordering, processing cost for Marks and Spencer.
- Recruitment, training and development: retail store manager has a power to recruit right person for the right job. In this, persons are trained and adjust in order to store policies and environment. New entries in Marks and Spencer provides training in order to make achievement the whole business(Lam, 2014). Manager ensure that it may be a cashier, sales executive or store keeper who may consider by having minimum qualification but experienced in its concerned field. Companies store manager is working at different levels performing their duties and may not create problems for store or for any other employee.
- Budgeting and Forecasting: Budgeting refers to planning and setting budgets for near future, it is responsibility of store manager of Marks and Spencer to fix specific budget at which they have to order raw material on the basis of forecasting sales for near future. In this, store manager of Marks and Spencer predicts future performances by calculating expenses according with setting of budgets. Marks and Spencer company set targets and funds are available for collecting performance of their regular intervals for implementing retail strategy.
- Implementing Marketing plans: These days marketing is essential component which helps in creating information to consumers. Marketing manager of Marks and Spencer are responsible for implementing techniques for promotion of product and services. There are many competitors for Marks and Spencer hence it helps to implement marketing in effective and efficient manner. It involves different policies and strategies of marketing product and services such as social media, newspaper advertisement, hoardings, etc. Marks and Spencer company allocates sales promotion activities in order to inspect effective sales and distribution programmes.
- Team Leadership: store manager has responsibility to motivate employees and reducing resistance in new strategic direction. Marks and Spencer employees work for a unit, leaving any personal grievance.
- Maintaining leave and salary record: Manager has to maintain proper records of money by way of selling goods. Marks and Spencer employees records are prepare according to their working hours mentioned with no. of days they work. With this record they provide salary of no. of hours and days served for them. They may oversees the casual leave provisions applicable to employees. It is necessary to update all the records by estimating selling goods and provided services to customers.
c) Importance of operation management in store
Operation management involves with the major aim of planning, organising, supervising, controlling process. They ensure timely delivery of products turn from raw material to finished products. It plays a vital role in running successful project. The store is direct for day to day activities in user departments. Their purpose is to provide services for manufacturing divisions.
Improving Productivity: Operation management is their in enhancing inputs and outputs through productivity(Oakland, 2014). It deals with the manager in measuring efficiency of manger. Marks and Spencer uses total Quality management approach in order to maintain proper cost and production. This also helps to provide improved quality products to consumers.
Utilization of resources: In this management leads with reducing resources in order to gain enormous profits. It is a way of making efforts by reducing wastage of material which are converted from goods and services of an organisation. They handle system of production in order to make by designs, operations, maintenance of goods. With the help of total quality management approach it is possible to use resources according to requirement and in specified amount. For instance: there is change in demand of consumer of consumers as per change in geographical region, so it is responsibility of manager of Marks and Spencer to alter production system so possibilities of wastage of resources are less.
Goods and service differentiation: Business are their to make similar products from goods and services. Marks and Spencer are using differentiation by making higher prices which enhance sales. In this it is differentia in order to innovate changes in technology by speeding up of time of delivery and building alliances. This strategy focuses by store in design, marketing and technology which serves by adding values of activity and increases reputation of product as well as company. With Total Quality management, there is improvement in product and services and able to make difference in product and services as compared to competitors. This helps to make long term relations with consumers by providing them goods of satisfactorily level.
Prevention failure: The failure can be occur by detection and analysis. Prevention is their in recovering errors and failures. Critical incidents may held by customers, injuries,l high repairing costs etc. Marks and Spencer discriminates priority of failures with an impact to measure by different approaches by store manager. Total quality management helps to maintain quality of product and services with latest and improved version. Hence managers of Marks and Spencer perform operations with proper planning which reduces possibilities of failure of product and services.
d) Identify outside factors that effect on operation management.
In operation management there are different factors which involve in making outside decision by using transforming process, social factors and technological factors. It is their to define Marks and Spencer all the factors by analysing outside operations in retail market(Purce, 2014). The factors are made in business to know the effects of occur on business. They are explained as under.
Transformational process: In this process, it defines group of activities of one or more inputs transforms in order to add some value and provides outputs to customers and clients. Marks and Spencer inputs pertain raw material which are involved in transformed manner.
Impacts of Transformational Process on Marks and Spencer:
The positive impact of Transformational Process on Marks and Spencer is that this process will make the company to compete with the external environment and also the upgradation will reduce their overall cost of production. It will help in providing the customers with the quality of goods at cheaper prices and increasing the customer base.
The negative impact is that it will decrease the morale of employees as the continuous change will confuse them. It will not be easy for them to constantly accept the changes and work according the new patterns of working. It can also cause labour turnover. In addition to this, the company will also incur the cost of training to employees for the constant changes.
They are the factors made by business in social basis which includes belief system, practices, traditions and behaviours of customers. Marks and Spencer is a company who influences action and decisions in order to make decisions and strategic goals(Rushton, Croucher and Baker, 2014). The impact of social factors lie on strategic analysis which lead better alignment to society those are classified as under.
Change in the level of population will affect the demand for a product at a particular place. So M&S should set up their business at a place where the migration level is low.
Technological Factors: These are the factors in which marks and Spencer is facing availability and development of technology with a computational power in increasing efficiency. As per a manager of retail store there are many of the uses made of technology which impact came on operating activities. Change in software, check in, check out process, more use of digital technology, etc. are part of technological changes which affects working style of workers at Marks and Spencer.
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e) Factors impact came on decision making
The external factors are like political, economical, social, technological, environmental and legal whose impact came on making decisions in regarding with making strategic plans for future events. The company Marks and Spencer is looking after influencing directly in making profits and understanding by maximising opportunities where minimising threats(Wang, 2015). As per store manager, their laid down many of the happenings in regarding with inside an organisation. The factors which are involved in making decisions are impacted in two forms negative and positive.
Political factor affects decision making of managers of Marks and Spencer because in case of change in political party, managers has to alter working style of company. For instance change in tax rate, then this leads to change decisions of managers.
Economic factor affects decisions managers adversely such as change in inflation rate leads to change in option for collecting finance from external source (Turner, 2014). This affects decisions in negative manner because possibilities selection source of funds may affects proper functioning of Marks and Spencer.
Social change is one of the major issue which affects decisions of managers. In case of change in demand of consumers because of change in trends. Then managers of Marks and Spencer has to plan for sales, discount offers to dispose old stock.
Technological changes also affects decisions of managers. For instance: while making changes in technology, there is requirement of training, so it is responsibility of manager to decide according to suitability of workforce at Marks and Spencer.
From the above mention report, it is concluded that by considering roles and characteristics of manager and leader is configure by individual behaviour towards company Marks and Spencer. Their examine functions of manager in according to the performing functions. Here report is concluded leadership qualities which are to be opt by leader in an organisation. The approaches used by operation management by identifying by manager in order to accept in recognising positively. By knowing many of the importance of operation management which is their in support to lead store by competing on daily basis. Their positiveness is useful by adopting make by an organisation for improvement. Here identification is made by Marks and Spencer by dealing with external factors which make an impact on company while making effective decisions.
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