The scenario this report determine how awareness of different factors can influence public health and identification of different approaches that can assist to reduce issues related to specific disease and illness.
- Evaluate numerous strategies and approaches that can used to monitor, measure and control incident of specific disease.
- Identify the impact of any disease and illness in communities for the provision of health and social care within NHS.
- Analyze different factors that can influence health and wellbeing of individuals within NHS.
Public health refers to an aim for improving quality of life by protecting people from several kinds of infectious and non- infectious diseases. It is necessary to take an appropriate actions by citizens and government authorities to improve well being of people living in a country. Being healthy is important for each and person to spend their lives properly (Takagi, Kondo and Kawachi, 2013). This report is based on NHS which is considered an health organisation that has an aim of providing healthcare services to people for increasing the well being of citizens of nation. It has its several branches form names in various parts in United Kingdom. This assignment will discuss about different levelled organisations deal with health issues at local, national and global stage. Impact of lifestyle habits on future standards of well being of an individual is given below.
1.1 Roles of different agencies in determining levels of health
Health is an essential aspect which is required to be take care in accurate manner to make country strong than others. There are different kinds of agencies that are working at several levels such local, national international to provide proper security to people from various diseases to establish healthy nation.
WHO is working at global level to carrying various kinds of events or activities to determine causes and precautions for several dangerous diseases and make people aware. They sets targets through Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve well being of citizens. In case of infants, they focus on immunisation, malnutrition and infection control within babies (Smith and Hellowell, 2012). It also includes to make people aware about pollution related problems like asthma, TB and Alzheimer's disease.
Public Health England (PHE) and NHS England are national level organisations which take several steps that are needed to prevent health problems. They focus on these problems which are spreading at national level and put an appropriate actions for improving standards of living of citizens of country. Such firms organise effective research and work on finding through rendering efficient precautions about certain dangerous issues which can prevent by taking an accurate step by people. They set goals through Public Health Outcome Framework (PHOF) to concentrate on health hazards.
Local Public Health England and Clinician Commissioning Groups (CCGs) are small scale firms which perform their task at local level to protect people of particular region or state. They collect data and monitor disease through Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) to reduce health issues amongst individuals. Education and training to medical professionals for increased BCG vaccination coverage, awareness raising with front line staff, community leaders for public welfare (Lagassé and et. al., 2011).
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1.2 Epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious disease
Epidemiology refers to that process by which causes of several types of diseases can be determined along with vector or pathogen responsible for that specific problem in human body. Infectious or non- infectious problem may identified by conducting an epidemiology and make sure about an appropriate method of treatment to solve these health issues.
Infectious disease refers to those health issues which are spread frequently within a population through touching, sneezing, shaking hand and living in infected surroundings. Hepatitis C is considered as septic problem in which liver get damaged due to virus causes inflammation but it is not identified at initial stage because liver can still working having infections in it. According of study of Public Health England (PHE) estimates that 160,000 people in England are living with hepatitis C. Preliminary study estimates that 11% fall in deaths from hepatitis relevant to ned stage of liver damage and cancer.
Non-infectious diseases are all about those which are not spread amongst people by living with infected person. Dementia (Alzheimer’s disease) is considered non-septic issue which is group of symptoms associated with decline of memory. This problem is mainly observed among-st old people having age above 75 years, from 7.4 per 1000 individuals at age of 85 years.
1.3 Evaluate effectiveness of various approaches and strategies to control diseases
There are different types of approaches or strategies which are mandatory to be utilised for improving health care level of people (Ruano and et. al., 2014). It includes several policies such as screening, immunisation, education, legislation, social welfare and environmental controls. These practices are considered effective as well as efficient to control various infectious and non- infectious diseases.
It is necessary to carrying out several effective learning or educational events for medical professionals to improve their knowledge for diagnosing properly. Various kinds of vaccinations campaigns, medicine distribution, awareness events and many more should be conducted by NHS to improve health of citizens. Several legislations which are made by government authorities must be followed by doctors, nurses or specialist while providing treatment for particular disease. It is also mandatory to provide an appropriate information to maintain clean surroundings and put efforts to reduce problems related to pollution amongst people. This will help to take accurate precautions to avoid many dangerous diseases.
Immunisation can be described as to improve efficiency of immune system of human body to fight against any health issue (Borgelt, Buchman and Illes, 2012). Several programmes should be are carried out by NHS to boost up strength or immunity of people living in country. It is mandatory to focus on these strategies to prove an effective treatment to patients for preventing disease from spreading between a large population properly.
2.1 Current priorities and approaches of services for people with disease
Different kinds of diseases has their own pathogen or vector, causes, curation technique and mode of infection. According to a health issue, priorities and approaches of services may differ from one another. Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) is all about to determine the current and future required for improving health status of people in accurate way through putting effective efforts towards it. This technique is useful to make an appropriate planning to solve different kinds of heath issues. According to the scenario, tuberculosis can be soled taking efficient actions by NHS which are as follows:
Primary prevention :- This can be defined about several conferences and campaigns through which an appropriate information should be provided to people. It is necessary to render knowledge of effective precautions through NHS that can be taken by individuals for avoiding several dangerous diseases properly.
Secondary prevention :- It includes to provide efficient events in public places to prove free vaccinations, medicines etc. to solve problem of tuberculosis (Steffenak and et. al., 2015). NHS have to conduct various events to render effective services for free of cost to solve health issues like tuberculosis of poor people in an accurate manner.
Tertiary prevention :- This can be described as to an effective technique which is utilise to cure specific disease like tuberculosis in appropriate way. Nurses or doctors of NHS should be trained enough so that they can prove treatment to desired patients properly for getting required results in terms of well being of an individual.
2.2 Relation between prevalence of disease and requirements of services
Prevalence refers to rate and proportion of infected persons within group of population which has negative effect on other people who are living in same society. It is mandatory to carrying out an effective as well as efficient research to analyse actual rate of spreading particular disease which is very harmful for people (Douglas and et. al., 2011). NHS have to study about actual condition in terms of any health issue to take appropriate actions for reducing it's negative impacts on society. This will facilitate to reduce risk of tuberculosis i