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Analyze The Implications of Universal Coverage

INTRODUCTION

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) means health care provided to the total population under the provided health plan or as comprehensive coverage of health without taking any fees (Stuckler and et.al., 2010). However, the features and essentials of services provided under Universal Health Coverage remain unclear. WHO Primary Health Care describes the services provided under coverage as a basket of services that includes basic drugs and medical interventions. In early 2002, Universal Coverage (UC) of healthcare has been established in Thailand. In this context, the focus of the review is to analyze the implications of Universal Coverage and its impact on supply and demand in Thailand's health sector. The evaluation of reform will be described in the report.

UNIVERSAL COVERAGE IMPLEMENTATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THAILAND'S HEALTH SECTOR

Prior implementation of Universal Coverage in Thailand in 2002, four health insurance program were implemented in order to provide health insurance coverage to the natives of Thailand (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2014). In the past 2 decades, significant investment by successive government in Thailand has been made in order to enhance the public health service infrastructure at district and sub district levels. In order to achieve full coverage, government made explicit pro poor – pro rural policy so that sub districts and district health centres can be enhanced. Albeit, lack of political support has been provided to Universal Coverage in Thailand until the TRT party perceived it as an opportunity to seize an idea for campaign in general election (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2007). After that, much political interest has been laid in the policy. The political parties stress more on upstreaming the process in formation of policies. In downstream of policy, political actors plays significant role in redesigning the implementation of Universal Coverage of healthcare in Thailand.

Universal Coverage impact on the supply and demand in Thailand health sector

Implementation of Universal Coverage of healthcare in Thailand benefited three core factors in the country which are political commitment, engagement of civil society and technical expertise. As a tax financed scheme, the motive of Universal Coverage of Healthcare scheme is to provide free healthcare facilities to healthcare seekers in Thailand (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2014). The enhancement of UCS leads to the significant expansion and improvement of the healthcare supply side in order to make sure that the facilities regarding healthcare could be assimilated efficiently which eventually raise the demand. The design of Universal Coverage of healthcare demanded for radically distinct governance and arrangements with the perception to ensure transparency, responsiveness and accountability (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2018). Promulgation of National Health Security Act 2002 was made which mandates the development of National Health Security Office (NHSO) and its statutory body as well as the National Health Security Board (NHSB) which was governed by Minister of Public Health, Thailand. After the implementation of UCS, demand of utilisation of health has been increased immensely (Limwattananon and et.al., 2015).

The amount of outpatient visits increased from 2.45 per cent in 2003 to 3.22 per cent in 2010 and the amount of admission in hospital raised from 0.094 per cent in 2003 to 0.116 per cent in 2010 (Aungkulanon and et.al., 2016). It was identified that there is substaintial increase among poor segments of population, particularly in health centres and district provisional hospitals. Universal reform diverted from supply to demand side financing. In order to keep the system balance, NHSO moved the healthcare facilities to supply based (Reich and et.al., 2016). The major aim of Universal coverage of health is to provide quality healthcare facilities to the natives of Thailand as per their needs regardless of their accommodation. You can check the best assignment help with chat support.

By providing comprehensive benefits package to the natives of Thailand, it is successfully able to cover 76 per cent of total population. The sector of population is not covered under social health protection schemes such as The Social Security Scheme (SSS) for employees working in private sector and The Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS) for employees working in government organisation (Limwattananon and et.al., 2015). The demand for health care among the natives has been increased(Limwattananon and et.al., 2015).

The amount of outpatient visits increased from 2.45 per cent in 2003 to 3.22 per cent in 2010 and the amount of admission in hospital raised from 0.094 per cent in 2003 to 0.116 per cent in 2010 (Aungkulanon and et.al., 2016). It was identified that there is substaintial increase among poor segments of population, particularly in health centres and district provisional hospitals. Universal reform diverted from supply to demand side financing. In order to keep the system balance, NHSO moved the healthcare facilities to supply based (Reich and et.al., 2016). The major aim of Universal coverage of health is to provide quality healthcare facilities to the natives of Thailand as per their needs regardless of their accommodation.

By providing comprehensive benefits package to the natives of Thailand, it is successfully able to cover 76 per cent of total population (Universal Health-care Coverage Scheme, 2018). The sector of population is not covered under social health protection schemes such as The Social Security Scheme (SSS) for employees working in private sector and The Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS) for employees working in government organisation (Limwattananon and et.al., 2015). The demand for health care among the natives has been increased(Limwattananon and et.al., 2015).

In Thailand after the implementation of UCS which substantially affect in Thailand after the implementation of UCS which substantially affect the supply of medical facilities. Government plays a prominent role in Thailand in establishing clinics and public health infrastructure in sub district and districts within Thailand.

Evaluation of UCS

With extensive coverage of healthcare service infrastructure, providing care to primary level to tertiary level and obliteration of financial obstructions, UCS has greatly contributed to the UHC and provided assistance in enhancement of both; health of natives and overall health system in the country (Reich and et.al., 2016). It provided help to the needy and individuals at free of cost and thus, eliminating the health insurance system within the country. The number of uninsured has been drastically decreased to 0.1 per cent in 2015 from 20 per cent (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2018). After the implementation of UCS, the utilisation rates of both inpatient and outpatient raised and decline of unmet health needs have been occurred. Thus, it eventually raised the satisfaction and experience of both; patient and healthcare provider. At the negative side, workload and dissatisfaction among healthcare professionals have been increased as the rate of patients increased simultaneously (Tangcharoensathien and et.al., 2007). The new budget distribution diverted from historical supply based scheme to need or demand based one affect adversely to resource allocation reforms. It has witnessed several financial implications at its preliminary stage where healthcare providers remain under financed especially for inpatient care.

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CONCLUSION

From the above report, it can be summarised that Universal Coverage for Healthcare lay most prominent and significant impact on the healthcare services. It means providing free and accessible healthcare facilities to total population of the country. After its implementation in Thailand in 2002, there has been substantially decline in unmet health needs of natives and increase in the satisfaction of patients. Demand and supply in healthcare services have been drastically affected with the increase in inpatient and outpatient rate. The review covers the impact and evaluated the UCS implemented in Thailand.

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