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Indigenous Health System in Australia - Palliative Care

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Introduction

An individual needs to have effective mental, social and physical well being so that the type of work that is being provided can be performed in an effective manner. In this context, as per indigenous people, they have similar set of understanding for health, they prefer to being well about the harmony which exist among universe, individuals and community (Treloar, C., Gray, Brener and Newman, 2014). Social determinants of the health can b determined as the condition in which people take birth, grow, live, work, etc. further, they get shaped up through resources, power and money at local, national and global levels. This report is about a case of Pam who is an 39 years old Indigenous Australian. It covers different attitudes, culture and approaches to culturally competent health care delivery for Indigenous Australians.

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a). 3 cultural aspect to culturally competent health care delivery for Indigenous Australians

As per one of the explorer, William Dampier, he happened to visit Australia in the year 1688. As per his view points, Aboriginal people are considered to be the most miserable people around the globe and this was due to the great plagues of files that prevalent from 3 quarters. Further, there are some kind of common diseases that were known. In this context, it includes trachoma and yaws (Mercer, Byrth and Jordan, 2014). Further, different type of health care services provided were considered to be sorcery and magic. This type of perception occurred due to traditional healers who were provided emphasis over the physiological and spiritual aspects. All the people in this society considered to look over the supernatural and spiritual aspect in order to overcome the problem of illness or diseases. With this respect, event the clever men and women considered to deal with issues related to health and consider other responsibilities like appeasing spirit, deciding over punishments and rain making. Further, traditional healers aimed at making use of plants so that medicines can be made. All type of medical treatments were provided by doctors who visited on rotational or regular basis (Deravin-Malone and Anderson, 2016).

One of the main issues at these place was related with lack of information to people over the steps that should be considered when they get any kind of diseases. However, with time individuals were provided with training and development so that basic nursing skills can be developed. Further, as per Western approach, in order to treat diseases, they took precedence and other native doctors who were encouraged for practising (Reed, Fitzgerald and Bish, 2015). With time may of the traditional practices were lost. In this context, it includes birthing on country. Moreover, the rate of population raised and this created issues with respect, to stay. There was an aspect in which people have to stay in their own place but this type of culture was eliminated due to raise in population (Josif, Kruske and Barclay, 2017). With this respect, people can follow their tradition even if they are non-Indigenous Australians.

Support of government has helped in develop positive perception within the mind of people. The traditional type of approach that was being followed are known are eliminated or its rate has reduced. This has helped for the local people to trust the services that are provided by different organizations related to health and social care (Davidson, Phillips and Currow, 2016). Earlier people used to trust and make use of traditional way for overcoming the diseases that is faced by a patient. However, with proper support of government, they are making use of different type of sources that are helpful enough to deliver proper information and the rate of traditional methods have reduced. With the advancement in technology has helpful in getting proper meditation for most of the diseases that are faced at Australia. Due to lack of information that local people have, it has affected the health in negative manner. There are number of people who die due to not getting proper treatment for the issues that they are faced (Anderson and Malone, 2015). With this respect, it is important that proper consideration should be made so patient get to know the treatment that are available for the issue faced. There is issues in which all the people who fall under the contract of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander are provided with the treatment for the issues that are faced by them. One the other hand, people who does not fall under this community does not get the treatment. As per the case, Pam is willing to get back to her community and so this can be stated that if she is under the contract, then all type of medication will be provided for the cancer that she is having (Marel, Mills and Teesson, 2016). Another type of facility that the patient get is reduction in the services that are being used. For each of the treatment that is provided consist of certain cost for the medication that is being provided. With the help of community it is beneficial for the patient to get reduction in the type of cost that is included in it. This way cancer which is type if serious issues that is faced by patient that is Pam will be able to overcome the problems and that also at low cost.

b). 2 reasons why Pam wanted to return to her community at this end stage of her life

As per the costume that is being followed by Indigenous Australian, they focus on staying on the same place until they die. Due to increase in population, other lifestyle can be followed also being a non-indigenous (Zorbas and Elston, 2016). However, when it comes to last event of life, then it requires to be considered to stay and die in their community. As per the costume that is being followed, it is important to make sure that one need to spend time with their an-sisters. This is a type of belief in which they believe that will next life at the same place. This is not possible when one say at other place as an non-indigenous. As per the case, this can be determined as the main reason due to which Pam is willing to return to her community. Further, they type of services that are being provided has been raised as the orders of the government. Moreover, there is also support of government in order to make sure that people are educated and they get to understand the problems that are being faced. When people have proper information, then it becomes helpful enough for Pam to get proper information about the type of health related issue that is faced by her. Moreover, the number of nurses at health professional in community is high (Kelly, Wilden and Brown, 2016). More specifically, there are about 280000 nurses and midwives. When the rate of nurses are high, then it becomes favourable enough to get high and better quality services. From this, it can be stated that these are the main two reasons due to which Pam tent getting back to her community at the time of end stages of her life as she is facing issues related with primary cervical cancer.

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c). Discharge information including access to appropriate palliative care services that would be supplied to Pam and its family

Palliative care can be determined as a type of care that is provided in order to improve the quality of patients life. These are for those in special who have serious or life threatening diseases like cancer. It aims at understanding the problems that are faced by patient and focus on understand the symptoms and changes that take place within the body and accordingly provide treatment. In hospitals, there are team made that monitor the patient problems. Further, they also monitor the considerations that are made by patient and their family members (Treloar, Gray, Brener and Newman, 2014). There are different type of steps that are considered by care providers in order to make sure that patient who have serious health issues. With this respect, it includes proper monitoring of patient. In this context, day to day monitoring is need to be done so that the rate of improvement can be determined. Further, for each of the diseases that a patient is facing are provided with medicines that will be helpful enough to overcome them. When medication is provided, then it becomes helpful enough to understand whether the patient is reacting to it positively or negatively. When the observations made is positive, then it can be stated that there is improvement in the type of services that are delivered to them.

On the other hand, if the provided medication is not effective, then there the time that is scheduled by the team will get extinct. A patient can be discharged only when all the type of problems that are faced by the patient are resolved. Considerations need to be made of the requirement of family members (Mercer, Byrth and Jordan, 2014). There are different type of preference that are provided by family members and the patient. All the needs and requirement should be fulfilled. In case of cancer, support from members of the family is highly important as it enables to make the mental stability strong and the rate of improvement is high. Further, there are number of changing needs that are required by the patient with cancer. For a patient who is ill and is also trying to manage the work that has to be performed by him/her, then for such condition, support from family member is important for the patient. Palliative care is helpful enough to prepare patient in order to make sure that they develop their physical body that occur near the end of life. There are different type of mental stress that is caused to patient and it becomes helpful to make sure that all the aspects should be considered and the mental stability is provided. For this aspect, all the staff members who are involved in this are provided with proper training so that they will be able to understand the requirement of the patient and fulfil their requirement (Deravin-Malone and Anderson, 2016). In this context, there are different type of factors that has to be considered in which communication is one of the most important factor. Communication is helpful enough to develop trust and confidence within the mind of patient they get to develop trust over the medication and the type of care that is being provided to them. As per the case, it is important that Pam have proper interaction and all the staff members are able to deliver adequate care so that the cancer can be eliminated. Discharge can be provided to Pam when the type of meditation that is provided to her is reacting in positive manner. Further, the day to day monitoring will enable to understand the requirement and the barriers that are faced. Further, the improvement can also be determined and this enable to know whether the discharge of Pam is possible or not. Further, the main decision of discharge of any patient is take up by Doctor (Reed, Fitzgerald and Bish, 2015). They make counting of results that are taken to know the improvement. When the type of risk in which patient is reduced, then it enables to consider that patient can be discharged.

Conclusion

From this report, it can be articulated that it is important for individuals have proper information for that type of steps that should be considered to reduce the negative impact over the health should be known. Further, family member play vital role to support the requirement of patient. There are condition in which patient are not able to handle the personal work that has to be performed. It is essential that proper steps should be considered with the help of which people will be able to get to satisfy their requirements. In addition to this, there should be effective communication so that trust and confidence can be developed by the patient over the medications that is being provided to them.

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References

  • Anderson, J. and Malone, L., 2015. Chronic care undergraduate nursing education in Australia. Nurse education today.
  • Davidson, P. M., Phillips, J. L. and Currow, D. C., 2016. Providing palliative care for cardiovascular disease from a perspective of sociocultural diversity: a global view. Current opinion in supportive and palliative care.
  • Deravin-Malone, L. and Anderson, J., 2016. Chronic Care Nursing. Cambridge University Press.
  • Josif, C. M., Kruske, S. and Barclay, L. M., 2017. The quality of health services provided to remote dwelling aboriginal infants in the top end of northern Australia following health system changes: a qualitative analysis. BMC pediatrics.
  • Kelly, J., Wilden, C. and Brown, S., 2016. Bottling knowledge and sharing it-using patient journey mapping to build evidence and improve Aboriginal renal patient care. Renal Society of Australasia Journal.
  • Marel, C., Mills, K. L. and Teesson, M., 2016. Guidelines on the management of co-occurring alcohol and other drug and mental health conditions in alcohol and other drug treatment settings. Australian Family Physician.
  • Mercer, C., Byrth, J. and Jordan, Z., 2014. The experiences of Aboriginal health workers and non‐Aboriginal health professionals working collaboratively in the delivery of health care to Aboriginal Australians: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports.
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