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Learn Annotated Bibliography

University: University of Chester

  • Unit No: 3
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages 8 / Words 2000
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: OGBH201
  • Downloads: 62
Question :

The scenario of this report is based on a specified topic as Motivation and its theories in order to construct Annotated bibliography.

  • Discuss major contemporary theories and concepts which are relevant to organizational behaviour.   
Answer :


Employees are the life blood of business unit. It is the responsibility of management that to encourage people so that they will perform well in the organization. Motivation is the internal feeling of individuals that impact on behaviour of person in enterprise. Present study will discuss various motivational theories that are used by entities at the workplace.

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Motivation and its theories

Article 1: Toward a better understanding of the relationship between transformational leadership, public service motivation, mission valence, and employee performance

The first article has been prepared by James Gerard Caillier in the year 2014. It describes impact of leadership on individual performance. It is the major motivator factor that impacts on performance of employees in the workplace. Organizational behaviour is concerned with understanding, predicting and influencing behaviour of employees at the workplace. Each firm aims to retain its skilled people in the organization for longer duration. For that, these entities always take care of their needs and create positive environment so that people will feel happy and perform their duties well in the organization. Employee motivation can be defined as creativity and level of commitment of the firm towards its workers (Kiruja and Mukuru, 2018). In recent competitive environment, it becomes very difficult for enterprise to sustain in market for longer duration. For enhancing profitability and gaining competitive advantages, these firms put pressure on workforce so that they will put their hard efforts in order to accomplish goals of organization. But too much pressure discourage people at workplace and change their attitude towards the brand. Tesco and Asda are the successful retail firms which are conducting their operations across world (Shields and et.al, 2015). All these enterprises always take care of their employees and create such environment so that people will feel motivated and retain them for longer duration. The finding of this article revealed that there are positive relationship between leadership and employees performance. There are various theories and practices that have been discussed in this article.

There are several motivational theories that help the organization in encouraging people at workplace and retaining them in the firm for longer duration. Maslow's hierarchy of motivational theory is considered as one of effective frameworks that assist managers in identifying needs of employees and fulfil their requirements in order to motivate them. It comprises of five tier model of human needs. This theory states that each person works for fulfilling their basic needs (Caillier, 2014). If entity is able to meet with their needs then it would be beneficial for the firm to motivate its workers. These needs are physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization.

Physiological needs are related with the biological requirements. These are like air, food, drink, shelter, etc. On the other hand, safety needs are other requirements that are related with the security and freedom. Each enterprise has to provide a safe environment to its workforce so that people will feel protected. In such condition, they will be able to work freely (Fomenky, 2015). This encourages the person and individual to put hard efforts for raising performance of company. Love and belongingness is another requirement of the employee. This includes friendship with other employees, trust, love, etc. If entity develops a strong interpersonal relationship with its workers then it would be beneficial for firm in influencing behaviour of people and making them positive towards brand. Esteem needs include dignity, achievement and independence. Whereas, self-actualization desires are related with personal growth (Ibrahim and Brobbey, 2015).

Article 2: The impact of motivation on Employee Performance

This article has been prepared by Fomenky, N. F., in the year 2015. This article revels that retention of employees is the major element in organization. Motivation is the key element that helps in retaining skilled labour in workplace for longer duration. Herzberg's motivation theory is another type of framework that supports business unit in motivating its workers in the organization. In the year 1959, Frederick Herzberg has implemented this theory (Samnani and Singh, 2014). It is also known as two factor theory of motivation. Herzberg classified job into two major categories: hygiene and motivation.

These are such elements that leads to positive behaviour of workers for longer duration. If this element is being ignored by firm then it may create difficulty for entity in retaining its skilled labour in organization for longer duration. This includes pay scale, fringe benefits, administration policies of company, interpersonal relation, etc. Each individual works in the firm to get good salary. For example: Tesco provides salaries to its employees on the basis of their skills (Reijseger and et.al., 2017). If person is capable to perform well then it offers them good salary. It encourages people and makes them positive towards the brand. By this way, these people put their hard efforts and become positive towards the firm. Company's policies are another major factor that influences employees and their behaviour.

Each firm needs to make flexible administrative policies and have to create fair environment for all. If policies are too much rigid then it sometimes affect the attitude of person. For example: Nisa is a small size retail firm that has rigid polices. It demotivates people and they think to leave their jobs soon. Flexible working hours, proper leaves, breaks and holiday encourage the person. By this way, they get time to spend with their families. This helps in making balance between their personal and professional lives. It motivates the person and boosts their energy. By this way, people become able to perform well at the workplace (Perry and Vandenabeele, 2015).

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