- Explanation of Dahlgren and Whiteheads which are determinants of health model along with sources of government on inequalities of health.
- Explanation of various models which are used for health promotion as contemporary practice.
All the people who are associated with health and social care need to know what and how their patients would health will be affecting them. There are expected influences on health and what are the reasons for varied success of health promotion campaigns and strategies at both regional and national level. Health promotion would be referred to that process through the help of which individuals are to develop awareness regarding their health and wellbeing. Many of social and governmental organisations would be offering information regarding taking corrective actions so that they could improve health of society and that of individual. So the current report on health promotion is covering model of Determinants of health model and then government sources which is reporting inequalities in health. Role of health professionals in health promotion and importance of routines in maintaining good health is also to be included within this report.
TASK 1 Explaining Dahlgren and Whitehead’s 1992 “Determinants of Health Model”
Determinants of health would be including all factors that are linked and associated with health of individual that are influencing it like that of social, economic and physical environment and person’s behaviour and characteristic. These are all included in Dahlgren and Whiteheads 1992 Determinants of Health model under which they have shown in their model according to layers of influence on health (Edelman, Mandle and Kudzma, 2017). There are many health inequalities within society in which all socioeconomic level would be connected with health of individual person. Many of increasing health awareness issues is to be determined by social factors like that of economic and environmental which is risking health of people.
Figure 1: Determinants of Health Model
[Source: Social Model of Health – Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2018]
All these factors and determinants are been laid down in Rainbow Model of Dahlgren and Whiteheads in year 1992 which is mapping relationship of individual person and their environment and health issues as well. Under their model all individuals are been placed at centre indicating individual-centric and then showing relationship between centre and all its surrounding factors in this layer. In the first layer of model which covered personal behaviour like that of mode of living that is either promoting or damaging health of person. Like if any person in their daily routine is including intake of cigarette then it would generally be affecting that individual’s health and others as well (Lindström, 2018). The coming layer is all social factors which is influencing health like that of working conditions or house situations as well.
2. Source of government on inequalities of health.
Inequalities in health would be including factors which are not allowing person to have adequate access to health and social care facilities due to that their health is not able to get improved. There are many reports of government of UK which they are publishing from time to time including factors and outcomes of inequality of health. Some of them are been discussed under:
The Black Report 1980-
This report was published in year 1980 by Department of Health and Social Security of UK government there was a committee headed by Sir Douglas Black who was expert in issues of health inequality (Selvey and et.al, 2018). The report would be including to covering that overall health is been improved from the time when government has introduced Welfare state but still there are many inequalities of health. Major reason behind this inequality would be due to instability within economic conditions of people so main finding was according to death rates. It was analysed that death rate of men within social class 5th was thrice more than that of social class 1st and gap between these are keep on increasing.
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The Acheson Report 1988-
This report was introduced in year 1988 with the heading committee of Donald Acheson which was given name of Independent Inquiry into Inequality in health report. Like the above Black reports of 1980 this one also majorly focused on reason behind health inequality would be that of gap between social classes. During time of 1970-1990 when morality trend was having downward slope then also 1st class in society regarded to as upper social class was experiencing rapid decline in morality death (Nolen and et,al, 2017). Under this report there were in total of 39 policy which were suggesting within areas like that of taxation, agricultural and upgrading of health discrepancy.
Marmot Report 2010-
This report which came in year 2010 includes not focusing on evidence of health issues relating to social factors like the others but this was focusing on helping charities. This was under Professor Sir Michael Marmot of University of London.
3. Discussing possible reason for barriers in accessing healthcare by Tudor Harts concept of “Inverse Care Law”
Barriers in accessing healthcare within society would be including all factors that are not allowing person to have access to amenities and facilities within health and social care sector (Stigsdotter and et.al, 2017). So main or most common factor which is not allowing person to have greater access to their health care facilities would be that of lack of resources like that of funds or knowledge. If person is not having good communication skills or facilities then also they are to lack access to social and health care. So this concept of barriers and their possible reasons in access to healthcare would be included in Inverse Care law which is propounded by Julian Tudor Hart in year 1974.
This Inverse Care Law is including that there is inverse relationship between number of population and amount of good medical and social care within particular area and now is been widely accepted in all around world. Under this law Tudor included that if this health care is treated like that of a commodity for example that of Champagne then it is like rich people is getting more and poor is getting less of it (The Inverse Care Law, 2018). This law is more argued with having its key issue like that of health inequality which is also included by Frank Dobson. He included that this type of disparity is most dangerous of all in which person who is poor would be knowing that he is about to die due to not having good care of. So lack of resources mostly that of money or access to fund is the most common among all which is also dangerous for those who are not getting adequate money to fund their health problems.
TASK 2 Defining and explaining two different models of health promotion used in contemporary practice.
These models would be helping the practitioners in health and social care sector in promoting all health related problems and issues could be included and barriers need to be resolved.