These questions will fulfill the requirement of the brief given below:
- Define the terminology that is used in construction technology.
- Analyze various tools that are being used to construct the structures and also define their functions and design selection criteria.
- Discuss various types of civil engineering infrastructure technology that helped in supporting of building.
- Discuss the supply and distribution of a range of building services and how they are being used within the building.
Construction technology is the process that includes the techniques of civil engineering for the purpose of development of different infrastructural designs along with appropriate structure. Effective implementation of same depends over study and its successful application. In accordance to the current specifications, fiver story building in requires to constructed near Heathrow Airport of London (Akinwumi, Awoyera and Bello, 2015).
This report covers about description of the different terminologies used in application of construction technology for the development of super structure of building. Also, includes the usage of different civil engineering infrastructural technologies and techniques that assist in development of building along with the distribution of appropriate rage of building services.
Difference in between the three different form of buildings includes residential, commercial and industrial
The types of building which are constructed are different in nature on the basis of the need and requirement of various people belong from the diversified groups. The nature of building has direct impact over the fulfilments which are needed to adhere in process of the development of same (Bryan, 2015). The different type of buildings which are generally constructed are named as Residential, Commercial and Industrial. The different in between all three is explained below:
|Concern||The main concern in process of development includes providence of effective functionality and space which aid in effective performance of industrial functions.||The major concern is about providence of optimum safety that involves the use and adherence of all necessary safety aspects along with application of hybrid construction technology.||The main concern in the development of same is about simple use of technology that help to meet out the requirement of individual.|
|Purpose||The aspects which are fulfils through the development of these includes warehouses.||This includes the construction to carry on primary activities such as offices, workplaces, stores etc.||The main purpose is accommodation of people and families.|
|Size||In terms of size it is huge from the both. This is so because this allows the internal transactions and transportations for carrying on the activities.||The size of these is big in nature but not from the structures which are build for industrial purpose.||The size of these is small in nature from the other too because these are used for accommodation purpose only.|
Different aspects help in disbursement of sustainability in building projects
It is important in nature to adopt sustainability practices in process of the development of each type of structure. The importance of the same is ascertained from the point that this will provides an opportunity to continue the work without any hindrances along with optimum utilisation of resources (Chew,2017). The different ways that assist to promote sustainability in each kind of building projects are defined below:
- Effective planning: Planning always help to mitigate the risks through the development of effective structure. This will includes the activities related to selection of site, design and methods of construction on the basis of nature. So, this will effectively able in providence of long term effectiveness to all the structures.
- Advanced technology: Application of advanced technology help in effective utilisation of available resources along with the efficient disbursement of energy. The technologies which are basically used in all nature of structures includes self-healing concrete and aerogel insulations. These will provides an opportunity in addition of years to the structures along with the attainment of sustainability.
- Construction waste: The amount of waste in construction is the major concern because this will not have the impact over the cost but also influences environment in negative terms. Minimisation of those is the only aspect which help in attainment of sustainability. So, in this regard focus over use of the recyclable or reusable products (Ganesan, 2019).
Determination of the terminologies used in process of the development of Hotel
A new five story hotel is constructed near to the Airport of Heathrow which includes the use of various terminologies of construction. The description of those along with their functioning is demonstrated below for better understanding of the concepts:
- Girder: It is used in the development of big structures like this hotel of five storey building. It is known as large steel beam that provide supports to load at different points. It provide strength to the structure of hotel.
- Mastic: It is the material which is used on the place of cement for the purpose of the pasting of tiles. The extra feature which build the same innovative and distinctive in nature is about its capacity of waterproofing in nature. This will be uses in hotel complex which provides log term life to the walls (Lin and et. al., 2017).
Plenum: This is the duct which help in the providence of hot air. The same will be use in the hotel as this will to provide the distinctive feature of uniqueness from others.
Pre-Design studies and different type of informations for the purpose of designing of suitable foundation type in respect to different type of structures
Large number of studies involve behind the selection of the most suitable nature of foundation type. This is so because this includes determination and consideration of designing aspects in integration with external factors. Development of five story hotel in Heathrow also needs pre-design studies in process of selection of most suitable foundation type for same. The structural nature of this hotel is big. These kind of studies are important for the formulation of all the type of structures (Paul And et. al., 2018).
- Geotechnology studies: The importance of same is ascertained from the point that this help in determination of the conditions presented below the site of structure. It is pre-design study report which provide assistance to civil engineer to ascertain the information in respect to the soil conditions and geological characteristics. This will provides an opportunity in respect to the use of technology or materials in accordance to the situation. Also, aid in formulation of contingency plans along with decision making of any change in location. This study is important in nature to carry out before formulating the work of any building structure irrespective of its nature i.e. small, big and large.
- Hydrology report: This study is important in nature to carry out while functioning the work of building commercial or industrial infrastructures. The different type of aspects in respect of which information is gathered from this study includes water depth, drainage patterns, aquifers etc. The impact of this has seen direct over the selection of foundation type. This will allows in the selection which is most appropriate in nature in accordance to the size of structure (Paul And et. al., 2018).
Development of the different nature of foundations and their applicability upon various structures
This is the procedure which is start after doing pre-design studies and formulation of the effective reports. This will aid in selection of the most appropriate type of foundation. Description of the different type of foundations along with their application upon the various structures is defined below:
Deep foundation: The application of this foundation is preferable in nature when soil condition is weak. In accordance to this foundation type the base is very deep in nature around 3 meter below to the ground level. The major benefit which is associated with the usage of this foundation type is that it provides high bearing capacity. One of the most usable type of design and structure under this foundation type is named as Pile. It is important in formation of bridges as it allows in to transmit the load to deep (Sarkar and et. al., 2015).
Shallow foundations: These foundation types are of those nature which are available with open or spread footings. These are of various kinds which are mentioned below:
- Pad foundations: The shape of these are in the form of circular, rectangular or square in nature. These are build in such nature that provides an opportunity to support the load at all individuals points.
- Strip foundations: The importance of these ascertained when requires to support the loads of wall. This foundation provides the support to support lines that carries the load of entire wall (Various Types of Foundation. 2018).
- Mat foundations: This sis also knows as raft foundation. This is majorly focus over the development of big structures due to having the ability and nature of support to entire structure of building. The use of this structure is most suitable in nature for the development of five story hotel in Heathrow. The construction of basement is also supported by this structure which is necessity to build in hotel (Sepasgozar, Razkenari and Barati, 2015).
Site information impact over the selection of foundation type
Pre-design studies has important role in determination of the different information related to site. The different nature of studies which are conducted are named as geotechnical and hydrology which provides the information related to soil and other important characteristics. All these information is further use by civil engineer in selection and formulation of effective foundation in accordance to the nature of structure and client requirements (Turk and Klinc, 2017). So, the impact of these informations related to particular site over foundation type is understood from the points defined below:
- Impact of studies report: The two different type of studies are conducted upon site includes geotechnical and hydrology. The information gathered from these is related to soil condition, underground water level and other characteristics. Construction of hotel is big in nature which requires the strong base. So, deep information in respect to land help in selection of most suitable foundation design and type (Ganesan, 2019).
- Availability of energy: Collection of site information also aid in ascertainment about the availability of sources of energy. In terms of formulation of hotel, if appropriate source is not present in respect to energy then requires the use of advance technology along with supported foundation type.
- Environmental legislations: Inspection of site help in ascertainment of the environment regulations too. The contribution of the same in selection of foundation type is important as this will aid in formulation of structure of hotel which is environment friendly in nature and fulfils the laws of Environment Protection Act. 1990.
Explanation of different functional features of various elements of superstructure and designing of criterion for their selection and usage
Superstructure is called to the one which is built to the above of foundation. In terms of hotel which is needed to formulate in Heathrow, superstructure is the overall building which is going to built above the foundation to fulfil the different requirements of consumer. In building of that superstructure the different of elements are used which are mentioned below along with their functional characteristics:
- Walls: The design which uses in respect to the walls of hotel is about the providence of length of 12 feet for each floor. Also, includes the use of hard concrete which has the mixture of cement and other necessary materials. The features which are ascertained from this wall is about high amount of strength along with the moisture from ground. This will provides long term sustainability in future which results in to the reduction of maintenance cost.
- Roofs: The material which is used in the construction of hotel roof has the feature of sound resistive in nature along with providence of protection from the external activities impact like rain and snow. Designing plays the main role in ascertainment of these features where uses fibreglass and ready-made framing that provides ultimate strength (Chew, 2017).
- Floors: One of the main and important part of every structure including the hotel needed to prepares in Heathrow. Combination of different elements are used in formulation of floor that provides the characteristic of optimum safety from fire along with other major natural issues. The use of such material in combination provides the uniqueness to the floor of hotel which not not only fulfil the aspect of attractiveness but also able to deliver safety.
- Windows and doors: All the windows and doors are constructed with the help of combination of various technologies and materials which includes wood and aluminium. The usage of same provides the characteristic of light in nature which allows easy installation in the building. These are placed in the hotel in such way that provides optimum nature of ventilation and fresh air. Also, able to provides link to internal and external parts of the hotel complex.
- Staircases: The materials which are used in the combination for the purpose of the formulation of staircases of hotel includes woods and marble. For effective access, focus over designing where the wideness is around 36 inches. The different kind of characteristics which are associate with staircases of hotel due the use of above mentioned design and material includes easy conveying of furnitures and fittings in between the various floors along with easy entry and exit of people (10 futuristic technologies that are changing construction. 2018.).
- Finishes: The finish of hotel includes the use of plaster and carpet which provides overall look to the hotel and makes it attractive in nature. The characteristics which are provided by the use of such aspects in the hotel includes providence of outstanding texture and safety from the corrosion for the long period of time. It improves the overall sustainability of hotel and allows in attraction of large number of consumers.
Conduction of pre-design studies for collection of information for hotel
The method which is used for study along with the information ascertained is mentioned below:
Geodetic studies: It is must to do because of five story building nature of hotel. This allows the compliance with specific variances and tolerance that help to attain success and long term sustainability. The different kind of information which collects from the use of this study is about shape of land and gravitational field on that specific area. This aid civil engineers in selection of most appropriate design and type that have high load bearing capacity.
Functioning of different component parts of element and its further allowance in fulfilment of function
The different component parts are use in various elements for successful functioning of hotel. The contribution of some of the component parts of elements is ascertained from the matter defined below:
- Concrete: The structuring of hotel complex requires the use of concrete for its formulation. The number of benefits derives from the same includes high strength and durability.
- Floor sheets and fibre glasses: Floor sheets uses in the construction of internal floors and fibre glasses uses for construction of roof along with concrete. These provide resistance from water, fire and sound (Wang, Wu, Wang and Shou, 2017).
Various nature of structural frames uses to carry primary and secondary elements of the superstructure
Primary elements includes staircases, walls, windows and doors, Secondary elements specified as roof lights, internal walls and suspended ceilings. It is the duty of civil engineer to use effective structural frames in effective performance of functions. Some of these are mentioned below:
- Braced structural frames: This includes the structures in which bracing is done or present in between the columns and beams to enhance resistance. Bracing includes the use of diagonal components. It provide protection against winds and earthquakes.
- Rigid structural frame: This includes the structuring where columns and beams are constructed monolithically. The advantage of this is ascertain in the form that this will help in carrying load and provides more stability.
Techniques of re-mediating over the site before commencement of construction
Re-mediating is important for civil engineer over site before the commencement of construction. The different ways uses in this respect mentioned below:
Chemical treatment: Important in nature for re-mediation of site. The two ways consists under this includes Chemical immobilization and oxidation.
- Chemical immobilization: This includes the treatment of soil with the help of chemical. Soluble chemicals is uses where it is saturated with soil. Whereas, insoluble chemicals are force injected.
- Oxidation: It includes chemical treatment which involves the elimination of toxic and contaminants. The methods that can be uses in same includes chlorine dioxide and photolysis (Bryan, 2015).
Different substructures requires for infrastructures
In successful formulation of infrastructure requires effective building of substructures. The work of that substructures are defined below:
- Propping: This includes the use of adjacent properties that provides temporary support to overall structure.
- Ground work: This includes construction of sub-surfaces to support the beginning of main structural development work.
Civil Engineering Structure, Substructure and Superstructure necessary for Hotel Complex
Successful construction of hotel depends over three elements which are defined below:
- Civil engineering structure: Construction done for long term. In terms of current hotel the construction of bridge is determined as this structure.
- Superstructure: It includes construction of hotel above foundation. The aspects which includes in its formulation are bricks, columns and beams.
- Substructure: This exists below to the baseline. It also fulfils the foundation requirements where it indulges in the structuring of basement for parking purpose.
Different arrangements of supply of primary services
Role of primary services in construction of hotel and bridge is important and ascertained from the points defined below:
- Energy supply: It is must to provide energy irrespective to the use of resource includes solar energy, geothermal and biomass. It help in completion of construction on time.
- Lifts: These uses for the conveying of the heavy materials from one place to another. Contribution of this in completion of hotel on time is ascertained from this only feature i.e. conveying (Akinwumi, Awoyera and Bello, 2015).
Arrangements needed for the distribution of primary sources
The different arrangements in this respect are defined below:
- Mode of transportation is uses such as vehicles for carrying equipments and machineries.
- Use of 3 different phase of energy supply to support heavy work of hotel.
- Use of temporary bridge also help in effective disbursement.
Different aspect of superstructure used to provide primary services
The main primary services includes the use of escalators and lifts which is possible when effective presence of elements like walls, floors, doors and windows.
Doors and Windows help in deliverance of raw materials to the place where escalators and lifts are going to install. Whereas, presence of walls and floors help in its effective implementation along with processing.
Impact of the distribution of primary services upon overall designing of building
Effective disbursement of primary services like escalators and lifts has huge positive impact over the designing of building. This will allows the civil engineer to connect the different floors with these help which allows the staff and employees in effective performance of their functions.
Also, this will help the consumers in ascertainment of reliable services in accordance to their needs.
It has been concluded from the above report that technologies used in construction have huge positive impact over its sustainability. Pre-Design studies help in selection of the foundation type which is most suitable in nature in accordance to he size of structure. Also, the use of re-mediation techniques and effective disbursement of primary services help in effective formulation of building in accordance to their initial planning.
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