This assessment will cover some of the questions which are like:
- Explain the organisational culture, power and politics in David & Co Limited
- Provide appropriate theories for David & Co Limited in managing effective teams.
- Give the analysis of all the path goal theory and working.
Organisation behaviour is known as the study of various factors which affect the behaviour of employees and their performance at workplace. One of the main feature of this concept is that it help in develop better and effective policy which encourage employees to perform best at workplace (Braccini and Federici, 2013). Manager is the one who remain responsible to create and provide positive work environment to workers so they can perform their job roles in better manner. A David & Co Limited which deals in food and beverages is taken under this report for study. Impact of various factors such as culture, politics and power exist at workplace on individual and performance of team members is all included in this. Further, various motivational theories which can be use by the manages of firms to encourage workers to perform well and factors which make a team more effective is all cover in this. In addition to this, various organisational theories and concepts all mentioned in this.
P1 Influence of organisation's culture, power and politics on individual and team
Organisational culture include behaviours and values that contribute to the psychological and social environment of the company. A David & Co Limited adept an organisational culture in which represent the principles, collective values and beliefs of company's employees. Culture include company's vision, norms, symbols, assumption, location, values, systems, language, environment, habits and beliefs (Carlström and Ekman, 2012). This is a set of assumption that guide to this company by defining suitable behaviour for several condition. This culture affect the way individual and groups interact with stakeholders, clients and each others.
Types of culture:
There are different type of culture which is adopted by company like task culture, person culture, power culture and role culture.
- power culture: In A David & Co Limited, power is held by only some individuals who is influence the members of groups in positive manner because top managers are very good in nature and always support their subordinates towards their work so they can effectively complete their work.
- Role culture: This culture is where employees know their responsibilities and jobs, where useful structure are created, written report to their mangers and value accuracy and efficiency above all else. If a members of group do not properly take their responsibilities then this culture negatively affect the whole group. And if members are know their roles and responsibilities very well then whole group can give batter outcomes.
- Task culture: When in A David & Co Limited, teams are formed to address a specific progress or problems projects then task culture is constituted by the company. This is an important thing , so power inside the group will frequently translation depending on the mixture of the group persons and the status of the project and report (Carney, Cuddy and Yap, 2015). This culture influence the whole group as well as individual like if a member of group do not doing their task properly then its affect negatively on whole group or vice versa.
- Person culture: In this culture include that how persons of the company conduct their business, treat customers and employees. In this culture A David & Co Limited applicable the horizontal structure. They seen every employee as valuable assets of their company. If they doing good and positive behaviour with employees then they give their best result for achieving organisational goals.
power is an important factor in the company because it helps to execute individual's objectives. The more ability of an employee or group of employees within any specific organization wields, the more determinant it will have and the more it will attain. In A David & Co Limited, powers are delegated to the employees according to their capabilities and personality. Powers are many types some are as follows:
- Legitimate power: This power is also knows as positional power. Its taken from the position an employee holds in the company's hierarchy. In this company, a executive, manager and other leading managers who has a authority or power to influence employees behaviour in both positive and negative manner.
- Expert power: This power is taken from possessing expertise or knowledge in a specific field. Such type of employee highly valued by the company for their trouble solving ability. In this company, expert power influence those employees who perform critical tasks by rewarding them many opportunities (CHEN and et. al., 2013).
- Referent power: This power is taken from the interpersonal employees relationship that an individual work with other employees in the company. Employee's feature reference power when others like and respect them. This power also taken from the personal connections.
- Coercive power: This power is taken from a person's skills to influence others through punishments, sanctions and threats. In this company, use of this power is rarely and only in some critical circumstance. This power influence the other behaviour through controlling.
Politics can be unofficial, informal and sometimes behind-the-scenes try to sell thoughts, influence the company, accomplish targeted goals and increase power. Internal representation of organisational politics as a intermediator of the relationship between job performance and carefulness (Dobrow, 2013). The movement of person agendas and self involvement in the company without respect to their effect on the company's effort to accomplish its objectives. In A David Co Limited, Organisational politics influence positively to their employees because they do not doing partiality among members. They only appreciate only those members who doing hard work in the company.
P2 Motivational theory
Motivation is the explanation for human's needs, actions and desires. It is also a behaviour which is direct by a person to another person for growth and success. A person's motivation is inspired by events or others or it can be exist in an individual itself. It is a most important factor that inspires an individual to move forward.
In A David & Co Limited, motivation is a very essential part for encourage the performance of employees. It is the set of units that cause employees to select definite action from among the more option open to them. In this company an employee's actions and performance of work is influenced by ability, work environment and motivation. Motivated workers can increase the productivity and permit the company to accomplish higher level of outcomes or results. A David & Co Limited adopt content and process theory of motivation for increase their employees commitment and improved their satisfaction and efficiency.
Content theory of motivation:
This theory justify that why people's wants change with time and explain the particular component that motivate action and behaviour. A David & Co Limited mainly concentration on what motivates employees. In this include many types of theories like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory of Alderfer's, Herzberg's motivator theory and three needs theory of McClelland's. But this company choose Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory for knowing what motivates people of its organisation.
This theory have a series of needs that scope from “lower” to “higher. This concept maintains that an employees higher needs can't fulfil until satisfied the lower level need. A David & Co Limited identify the employees needs in hierarchy term and after fulfil their needs like physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation need.
- Physiological needs: In this need include food, water, clothing and shelter. These all are a basic need of a human which can be easily fulfil by this company by providing them basic salary in which an employee can satisfy their basic needs (Motivational Theories, 2018).
- Safety needs: After fulfil basic needs, this company should be identify and fulfil the security needs of an employee by providing them job security, safe working environment and freedom from threats.
- Social needs: After provide job security, the affection and belongingness need come standing. In this company identify that employee need to love and be loved. Employees want social groups, peers etc. For reduce their loneliness and social nervousness, company create an social and friendly environment for giving them love and affection by others (Gabriel and et. al., 2015).
- Esteem needs: In this employee want freedom, self respect and appreciation by others. For make workers feel appreciated and valued, company have to assign important task, recognize achievements and provide status to them.
- Self-actualisation: After all above needs, employees wants to develop and grow its potential and skills. For this, company should be offer meaningful work assignments which modify creativity, innovation and development according to long-term objectives.
Process theory of motivation:
In this include Skinner's reinforcement theory, Adam's equity theory, Vroom's expectancy theory and Locke's goal setting theory. A David & Co Limited choose Vroom's theory for encouraging and motivating to employees.
Vroom's expectancy theory:
The expectancy theory places an importance on the motivation content and on the process as well, and it combine equity, reinforcement and need theories. This theory aims to describe how employees select from the available actions. Vroom explain it as a process that regulate people's choices among alternatives forms of wilful action. A David & Co Limited provide many options of motivation to employees (Kazemipour and Mohd Amin, 2012). Employees decisions are become their desired outcomes. In this include expectancy, instrumentality and valence which are as follows-
- Expectancy: In this a employee trust that more effort will outcomes in success. If an employee doing hare work then its results will come in batter performance. A David & Co Limited motivate and encourage their employees towards hard work and better productivity. So, they can achieve batter result.
- Instrumentality: In this process employee trust that there is a relation between goal and activity. If there performance are good then they can get rewards. In this, company should motivate their employees by giving reward them for good performance.
- Valence: In this employees give value to the reward system then success is automatically generated. In this, Company have to established reward, compensation and voluntary system to attract employees towards performance for success.
Techniques of motivation:
There are two type of motivational techniques which are adopted by A David
& Co Limited are mentioned below:
- Financial techniques of motivation: This financial techniques are those techniques which are directly or indirectly related with monetary terms. Money is an important and effective source of motivation. Money can be satisfy the various necessaries, wants, luxuries and comforts (Kitchin, 2017). This company motivate their employees by giving them salary and wages, housing and medical facility, bonus, leaves with pay, vehicle allowances, profit sharing etc.
- Non-financial techniques of motivation: In this kind of motivation, there is no role of money. This techniques give psychological satisfaction to the workers. A David & Co Limited increase motivation of their employees by provide them status, prestige, job enrichment, respect, safety of job, competition, participation and recognition.
P3. Different types and factors of Effective Team
A group of two or more people who work together in an organisation to perform a particular task is called team. Group members are work with interdependence, share their authority and obligation for own management. Team members have different skills who work to achieve a common objective (LA, 2013). A David and Company Ltd. have a strong team who helps to solve complex problems and have strong sense of mutual coordination which generate greater performance.
Different types of Teams
Teams can be divided mainly into four parts which are as follows:-
- Functional Team - In this group, all members belong to the same department and respond to a manager who is liable for the management of complete team. These type of groups are important to perform particular functions in A David and Company Ltd.
- Problem Solving Team - Problem solving team is a group of people who belongs to different departments in a particular business enterprise. This team is made for a temporary basis for permanent solution of a particular problem which arises in A David and Company Ltd. This team is important for a firm because all members have different ideas and problem solving skills by analysing the causes and generate ideas to eliminate those troubles.
- Project Team - It is a union of employees who work on a project for a specific time zone. After completion of project and achievement of objectives, group is dissolved. Employees can delegate clear roles and responsibilities in A David and Company Ltd by choosing both experienced and inexperienced people for different work.
- Virtual Team - A group of individuals who engaged to working together for a common objective but from different areas is known as virtual team. Individuals can work in different location, time or even in various organizations (Xerri and Brunetto, 2013). Main advantage of virtual team is to maintain low cost and time. A David and company Ltd. search and use talent of different persons around the world which increases productivity of an organisation.
Importance of Teams
Teamwork is essential for any enterprise because it give an opportunity to employees to coordinate with each other (Wood, and et. al., 2012). It increases efficiency of individuals and reduce the workload. Generally, team members have different knowledge and skills which is helpful for A David and Company Ltd. To use their ideas for accomplish tasks. It promote coordination and problem solving decisions.
Tuckman and Jensen’s model of team development
This model is published by Dr Bruce Tuckman in 1965. This model states that the team create ability, establishment of coordination and leaders changes their leadership style. In this model, a team may generate a successor leader. This model is divided into five steps which are as follows:-
- Forming - In this phase, team is accumulated and the work is allocated to them. Group members are behave independently and they don't know each other. Employees of A David and company Ltd. are highly dependent on leader for guidance. Roles and responsibilities are not clear and most of the time is spend on planning, coordinating etc.
- Storming - Team members tries to make relation with each other and leader. They communicate their ideas and opinion by which sometimes conflicts may arises (Norton, Zacher and Ashkanasy, 2014). In A David and company Ltd. leader encourage team members to share ideas freely and to be open-minded and try to resolve conflicts by themselves.
- Norming - In this stage, teams are start working in a fulfil manner. It increases the efficiency of a group and they develop their own identity. Group leader of A David and Company Ltd. Give authority to their team to work independently.
- Performing - Team members understand goals and objectives of the team and work together to achieve them. In this stage, environment of team become great and cooperative. Group member of A David and company Ltd. Are perform their task excellently and capable in making decisions without any conflicts.
- Adjourning - This is the last phase of tuckman's model. In this stage, teams can be dissolve after completing task. Employees of A David and company Ltd make distance from each other after achieving goals and objectives.
Some other contributing factors
There are some other factors which contribution their efforts to make a team effective and positive development in a group. These factors are as follows:-
- Role of Leadership Factor - A leader play an important role to develop a group and improve productivity. In A David and Company Ltd. leadership style should be more efficient which motivate their employees.
- Communication Factor - There should be a proper communication among team members. It make coordination and reduce conflicts.
- Personality Factor - if every group member have positive attitude and focus goal then they are able to create positive environment and better development.
- Goal Clarity Factor - Goal of A David and Company Ltd. Should be clear and understand by everyone through which they focus to achieve goal which is beneficial for the development of team as well as organisation.
P4. Concepts and Philosophies of Path Goal Theory
Path Goal Theory was developed by Martin Evans in 1970. This theory is based on the style and behaviour of a leader that is suitable for employees and work environment in order to achieve organisation's objectives. It is responsibility of a leader to motivate group members and increase productivity (Path-Goal Theory of Leadership, 2018.). This theory is based on vroom's expectancy theory in which people are already know that if they perform better task then definably they will get success. This theory is helps to determine the characteristics of employees and environment and on those motivational factors that helps in development of employees of A David and Company Ltd. There are three factors in path goal leadership theory which are as follows:-
This theory is consider the characteristics of employees and environment which helps to improve productivity and performance of team members. A David and company Ltd use this technique to achieve goals. It includes following factors:-
- Employee Characteristics - Leader's behaviour is depends on employees needs. Leader of A David and Company Ltd understand their employees and motivate them as per their needs. Some employees want promotion and salary and some want status and respect (Okurame, 2012). So, leader identify the characteristics of employees and then motivate them to increase productivity and achieve organisation's objectives.
- Task and Environment Characteristics - In this factor, path goal theory focuses on eliminating the barriers (Robbins and et. al., 2013). If there is strong barrier then leader help employees to select a better path to achieve success in A David and Company Ltd. Task and environment characteristics can be design of the task in which leader provide a smooth structure to perform work. If team is non supportive then leader give motivation and devotion to all group members.
path goal theory is based on leader's behaviour. It explains that leader can adjust their leadership behaviour as per employees and performance characteristics through which they can motivate employees to achieve their goals. Different types of leadership style are as follows:-
- Directive - In this leadership style, leaders give a direction to their group members that how to perform task in an effective and efficient manner (Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola, 2013). Environment of A David and Company Ltd is uncertain so how to schedule and coordinate their work in changing environment.
- Supportive - Leaders become more supportive and friendly with their team members in this leadership style. Employees feel more comfortable with their work which improve productivity and development of team members.
- Participative- In participative leadership style, leaders consult their team members before making decisions. A David and Company Ltd Leaders take participation of their employees in decision making process. It is one of the most effective way to trained and development of group members.
- Achievement Oriented - Leaders sets ambitious goals for their team members and expect them to execute highest level of output and show their confidence in their capability to meet expectation. It is the most effective leadership style in A David and company Ltd. work environment.
Focus on Motivation
An organisation should focus on the motivation of group member for improve their performance and enhance the productivity of A David and Company Ltd.
- Define goal - Firstly, goal of a firm is decided and aware to every employees about company's objectives and motivate them to perform better task and achieve the goals.
- Clarify path - After defining goals and objectives, path goal theory decide and clarify a better path which reduce time and cost and enhance productivity.
- Remove obstacles - If there are any barriers arises in a path of success then is is a responsibility of leader and team members to identify and eliminate barriers.
- Provide support - Employees need a support from top level managers in problem solving decisions and other activities (Wilkinson and et. al., 2014). If employees get proper support from leaders of A David and Company Ltd then they feel motivated and perform their task more effectively.
Barriers in Effective Performance
There are some obstacles which create difficulties in effective performance of employees. These are as follows:-
- Unclear Strategy - If there is no clear strategy of A David and Company Ltd then it make a large impact on effective performance. Confusion is created in work performance. Strategy is a long term planning in which a company decide to achieve its vision, mission and objectives. If strategy is not clear then firm can't get its objectives.
- Poor communication and Feedback - Lack of communication and feedback is also create barriers in effective performance. Communication is an effective part of an organisation to share ideas and discuss about activities. Without any feedback A David and Company Ltd can't know their achievements and mistakes.
- Inadequate leadership - Leaders have very important place in organisation to motivate employees to perform task (Wong, Wong and Ngo, 2012). They are known for their leadership style but if leadership style is not adequate then it become a barrier in effective performance.
- Dissatisfied employees - If employees are not satisfy with their position, salary or working environment then they will not perform their task effectively and efficiently. This create barrier in effective performance and success of A David and Company Ltd.
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As per the above mentioned report is has been conclude that in every organisation there is a important role of power, culture and politics who take a company on higher position or may be lower position. So, manager have to use their power for the success of a firm and maintain good environment in organisation. A David and Company Ltd don't politics in their culture and equal behaviour with every employees. Firm has to implement different types of motivation theories to motivate their employees. There are different types of team with various qualities who helps A David and Company Ltd in problem solving decisions and in achieving success. To understand concept of organisation behaviour path goal theory is used with different leadership style. These motivational theories and leadership styles helps to motivate team members, improve productivity and achieve organisational objectives.
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