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Role of the Consultant: Ph.D. Thesis

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Abstract of This Thesis

The construction industry usually deals with two types of construction parts: infrastructural part and real-estate part. The real-estate part can be divided into corporate, residential, industrial and commercial sectors. On the other hand infrastructure part deals with Roads, Railways, Ports, Airport etc. The consulting engineer plays a very significant role in providing services in such a big project from starting point of the project till its completion, the project management consultancy is very useful for construction project as it improves the efficiency of the project.

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of project management consultancy in construction. Project management consultants make sure that every activity must carryon smoothly at each stage of the project because it helps in proper execution of work for any construction project. Principle of project management is very important for successful completion of projects within time and minimum number of errors.

It’s not easy to get a permission to construct a building in the UAE, because some certain rules and special conditions should be followed, the project life should pass through two stages which are design stage and supervision stage. The design stage means completing the study of the project with full details and follow-up departments to get the approvals. At supervision phase, the consultant supervises the contractor and makes sure how the work is done; if it’s same to drawing and terms and conditions that were agreed upon during tender.

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The successful consultant engineer should follow his own laws to do his unique design andhis supervision way on projects. In this research, the role of consultant engineer is to make a successful project by analyzing both sections (design and supervision) to get stronger and superior results to satisfy the owners, the lessees, and achieve fame in creativity. In this paper, we also are going to identify the effectiveness, roles and responsibility of project management consultancy. This thesis analyzes 9 successful project factors, according to the consultant and describes how the consultant can affect from these factors.

Chapter 1- Introduction

The construction market has been developed faster as compare to any other markets in the economy. Due to the fierce competition within the market, the forces such contractors/consultants are trying to do their best in order to satisfy the investors. Furthermore, the main purpose of backer is to increase his income with the completion of the construction phase (Aliverdi, Naeni and Salehipour, 2013). Moreover, the ideal goal for the contractors is to offer a good quality services without asking the client to pay extra money for it. As a result, the quality should increase hand in hand with no increasing in cost and not the opposite. The pressure from the market and competition side is increasing. So it becomes important for contractors to care more about their good reputation. For this, they have to decrease all the associated risks that can result in delaying the project and eventually submitting the project to the client on time according to the program timeline for the project (Duy Nguyen, Ogunlana and Thi Xuan Lan, 2004). To achieve the above mentioned goals the contractors should improve their inner quality and build up management to decrease the possibility of such risks. They should also develop their own methods of quality assurance for all the elements of the projects to achieve the highest levels of quality and client satisfactions.

Projects and project management processes vary from one industry to another. There are different dimension of project management. According to knowledge areas in the Project Management Institute’s publication, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) [1], was utilized to establish the evaluation dimension:

  • Project Integration Management
  • Project Scope Management
  • Project Time Management
  • Project Cost Management
  • Project quality Management
  • Project human Resource Management
  • Project Communications Management
  • Project Risk Management
  • Procurement Management (Forsythe, 2012)

Quality management can be divided into three main categories: Perform plan quality, Perform quality Assurance and Perform quality control. Firstly, Plan quality is the process of discovering quality requirement and standards for the project, product and documenting how the project will show submission. Secondly, the quality assurance evaluates the results obtained from quality control to guarantee appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. It is also an execution process that uses data created during the third category perform quality control (Jaju, Mohanty and Lakhe, 2009). Thirdly, quality control is the process of monitoring and recording the quality activities in order to assess the performance and recommend necessary change if needed. In addition, the quality control for the whole construction process, only accord with the required quality standards and user promised requirements such as satisfying quality, time, cost etc. By keeping these things in mind, the three categories should be performed in parallel with all the other project-planning processes until the project not deliver to the client. If these three categories were implemented accurately the main benefits will include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs and increased stakeholder fulfilment (Gap, 2013).

Quality of construction is defined as “meeting or go above” the requirement of the Client. The cost of each quality activity should be equivalent to the expected benefits. The construction project manager should look for quality management by including those three main categories to the method and actions of the performance organization. It determines quality polices; objectives and duties of the firms. Accordingly, the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken (Egemen and Mohamed, 2006).

Finally yet importantly, the consultant project manager may face several difficulties because of the fixed project location, large volume and different locations of different projects. The poor control of these factors may produce quality problems and increase the possibility of failure of project by losing more money and time (Ebrahimi and Sadeghi, 2013). Hence, the project manager of construction should look after the risk management because as the quality of construction increases the possibility of risk occurrence decreases. Project risk is always unknown as it is an uncertain event or situation that if it raises it will have a negative impact on at least one project objective such as scope, plan, cost and quality. Although there are many reasons for these causes like requirement, assumption, constraint or situation that creates the probability of negative or positive outcome. For example, causes could include the requirement of an environmental permeation to do the work, or having limited personally assigned to the design of the project. If anything from these unclear, it may be bring an impact on the project cost and schedule or performance (Alzahrani and Emsley, 2013).

Finally yet importantly, the consultant project manager may face several difficulties because of the fixed project location, large volume and different locations of different projects. The poor control of these factors may produce quality problems and increase the possibility of failure of project by losing more money and time (Ebrahimi and Sadeghi, 2013). Hence, the project manager of construction should look after the risk management because as the quality of construction increases the possibility of risk occurrence decreases. Project risk is always unknown as it is an uncertain event or situation that if it raises it will have a negative impact on at least one project objective such as scope, plan, cost and quality. Although there are many reasons for these causes like requirement, assumption, constraint or situation that creates the probability of negative or positive outcome. For example, causes could include the requirement of an environmental permeation to do the work, or having limited personally assigned to the design of the project. If anything from these unclear, it may be bring an impact on the project cost and schedule or performance (Alzahrani and Emsley, 2013).

It is the job of project manager to reduce the risk by change of process or to solve a problem in order to deliver the benefit to the organization with minimum cost and time. Some risks in the construction process can be easily expected or readily identified and some can be totally unidentified. Construction risks can be related to technical, management, logistical reasons or can be related to natural disasters. In the domain of project risk management, some of the critical effects of risks are failing to achieve an operational requirement and the required quality as a result the project will not be completed within stipulated time and estimated cost. Moreover, project risk management includes the process of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, monitoring and controlling on a project (Luo and Liberatore, 2009).

The contractor only works with the specification, which are written by consulting and agreed upon by the client. For example, specification should contain all details that the contractor should follow directly to guarantee the quality that the client ordered. Correspondingly, there are also plenty of factors touching the quality of construction such as design, material specification, table of quantity, machinery, construction technology supervision, method of operation, technical measures, management system, topography, transaction, geology, and hydrology and so on (Kikwasi, 2013). Construction contractor could get the best profitable outcome, if they follow to the principle of quality first and insist on quality standard with the core of artificial control and inhibition. As a result, this will provide a higher quality, safe, suitable and economic composite product. The quality management in the construction industry differs from that of the product industry. In the product industry, the quality of any product is more or less good than another, but it cannot say this in terms of grade of concrete or steel. Equally important, the objectives of project management are to increase the probability of impact of positive events by decreasing the probability of impact of negative events in the project (Malkat and Byung-GYOO, 201). However, in order to be successful, the organization should be committed to addressing risk management, proactively and consistently throughout the project. Therefore, a mind full choice must be made at all levels of the association to actively identify and follow effective risk management during the life of the project. Moving onward on project without an active focus on risk management increases the impact that a recognized risk can have on the project and can potentially lead to project failure (Mohammadipour and Sadjadi, 2016). It’s not easy to get a permission to construct a building in the UAE, because some certain rules and special conditions should be followed, the project life should pass through two stages which are design stage and supervision stage. The design stage means completing the study of the project with full details and follow-up departments to get the approvals. At supervision phase, the consultant supervises the contractor and makes sure how the work is done; if it’s same to drawing and terms and conditions that were agreed upon during tender.

The title of this thesis is talking about project quality management for commercial residential building in UAE and how it will impact on the tenant’s decision and owner's profit, a case study will be provided from the GULF SKY Engineering Consultant and project management. GULF SKY is an integrated Planning, Architectural Design, Interior Design, Civil Engineering, Electromechanical Engineering and Project Management Consulting firm. It has structured with highly qualified multi-disciplined team of professionals who cover the majority of servicessupported by highly competent technical. The process of guiding and controlling a project from start to finish may be further divided into 5 basic phases for a consulting engineer:

1. Construction Project Idea, Formation and Beginning

Under this, an idea for a construction project will be carefully studied and designed to define whether or not it benefits the business in order to satisfy the client. During this phase, a decision making side will identify if the project can straight forwardly be completed.

2. Project designation and planning

A full plan of a project, project approval and project choice may be put into designing and outlining the work that needed to be done in the second stage. During this phase, a team should arrange the project, calculate its budget and timetable by making a feasibility study and table of quantity, and determine what resources are needed to determine the specification required for civil work and electromechanical (MEP) (Oakland, 2014).

3. Project launch or execution

Here, tasks are distributed resourcefully and teams are full of duties. This is a good time to bring up important project related info to study the risk, which might occur in the future in order to avoid it with minimum risk.

4. Project performance and control

Project managers will compare project position and progress to the real plan, as resources are required to perform the planned work. During this phase, project managers may need to modify timetables or do what is necessary to keep the project on track by managing the inspections, approval materials, approved shop drawings, NOC (No Objection Certified), Daily reports, Monthly Reports, Meetings between client and contract and subcontract etc (PMBoK, 2000).

5. Project Completion

After the correct completion of project tasks with government department approval, the client approval and satisfaction with the result, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project success. It is also required to learn from a project history of increasing the experience of the next project (Palaneeswaran, Ng and Kumaraswamy, 2006).

Chapter 2- Literature Review

To begin with, the definition of project management and the constituent elements differ from author to author. While reviewing of literature, various models that describe the dimension of the project’s success, which can be understood by reducing the time and cost constraints. In other words, it accelerates the delivery of the project without any impact on the plan.

Unfortunately, two important aspects of construction industry field had received extended critical attention. The first criticism deals with Quality management that includes the process and activities of the performing organization. It determines quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project is able to satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. The second criticism deals with Risk management that indicates the failure to achieve operational requirements and the required quality, non-completion of the project within stipulated time or estimated cost or any other risk types (Rajendran, Clarkeand Andrews2012).

For this study, 8 articles were identified as reputable outlets for research in the area of impact on and effectiveness of the quality management on the project success. Different articles deals with a different question solved with the different methods used. Since 2009, the review deals with 7 year period of span. In order to understand the project, it is important to identify the quality that is required to carry out various functions to have a successful project (Rajendran, Clarke and Andrews, 2012).

Many manufactures are determined to become world-class competitors. To meet the desires of the customers, companies should continue their migration towards a holistic quality, cost management approach, Jaju, S.B., Mohanty, R.P. And Lakhe, R.R. Towards managing quality cost: A case study. Total Quality Management [1] is proposed for quality interest costs and statistical analysis is done to discriminate trends and relationships between several components. They also present a comprehensive categorization of quality costs that can be exercised to prepare a data framework. They also showed that it is possible to characterize the link between the different categories of costs (Harris and McCaffer 2013).

The study presented in this paper was proposed to provide a methodology and approach in a very efficient, careful and objective mode for:

  • A manufacturing company pursuing TQM in order to identify the costs caused by each activity, department, product, cost and organizational unit.
  • Internal departments and supplier performance, promotions by identifying areas of non-performance along with the responsibility for corrective actions. This analysis also helps to identify cost savings opportunities.
  • The management of business processes to understand clearly and to try to measure all intangible quality costs (consequential cost of failures) that have a greater impact on the company’s performance image in the eyes of its customers.

By a case study, it has explained that manufacturing company from a total quality cost viewpoint and to quantify by regression analysis the effect that changes in one cost group have on other groups and the total cost. The role of different project managements is to ensure the performances or success in a way which it has been widely designed in areas such as the planning and control of time, cost and quality. (San Cristóbal2009) has mainly focused on analyzing time and cost and also emphasis on models for optimizing construction time, cost, and quality together.

To maximize long-term return on investment, different types of contracting methods placed an increasing pressure on decision makers in the construction industry to find an optimal resource employment strategy that minimizes construction cost and period while maximizing its quality. In this paper, an Integer Programming model which enables meeting quality output principles and meeting time and budget objectives respectively is advanced. The model supports to meet three objectives: to minimize costs subject to quality and time objectives; to minimize time meeting quality and cost objectives; and to maximize quality subject to time and cost objectives (Zhang et al. 2013).

Most Significant ways to measure the project progress and project performance to cover any time and cost deviations from the plan is monitored. (Aliverdi, Naeni and Salehipour 2013) were responsible for monitoring project progress. It is dealing with offered an approach to overcome this limitation by applying statistical quality control charts to monitor earned value indices. For this point, project time and cost performance indices of a real construction project were monitored regularly on individual control charts. It is worth mentioning that while the planned approach can be used successfully to other Earned Value (EV) indices, it can be customized according to the project under execution, considering factors such as the underlying distribution of EV indices' measurements, and their dependency or independency. Although, the approach is not limited to the underlying distributions of indices' measurements, but the researcher should note that it is limited to only independent data. Thus, as long as the data are statistically independent, the method can successfully be applied to projects, no matter what the underlying distribution is.

Above all quality, management philosophy targets for the continuous improvement of the performance. Consequently, the impact of quality management practices on firm performance has been the subject of steady interest and challenge among researchers. Ebrahimi and Sadeghi (2013) have participated in the development and understanding of Quality Management (QM) implementation and the effects of applying it on firm of performance. In spite of some discrepancy, the literature indicates that effective QM implementation chiefs to significant improvements in performance. Based on the check and a simple frequency analysis, the study offers seven Elements QM practices from an almost complete list of different practices. These practices are discussed in section of Customer focus and satisfaction, Human resource management, Top management commitment and leadership, Supplier quality management, quality information, Process management and analysis strategic quality planning (Purnus, A. and Bodea, 2014). The literature proposed that, among QM practices, human resource management practices, customer focus and satisfaction, top management commitment and leadership are leading in terms of contribution. However, QM practices contribute to the results as a whole and none of these practices can guarantee improved performance. Simpler Size is the most obvious limitation in this research, this study need to focus more on larger sample sizes (Oakland 2014).

By talking about risk, it affects all aspects of a project, its budget, its plan, client choice and the agreed level of quality. Risk can increase the chance of positive result or reduce the release of negative event, it is ingrained in all human attempts and construction project are not exceptions as they include activities that are lying to different types of risks. Many researchers in construction management and other related field of study have defined risk in various terms, Ogunsanmi, Salako and Ajayi(2011) discussed the classification of risk for the construction project, which are some related to cost factor, time factor or quality factor, by classifying risks in design and build project into groups, a step wise different analysis was undertaken for the risk groups and its independent variables. This study shows that clients and contractors using Design and Build method for their project performance should watch out for cost overrun and poor quality as both factors can help to classify clearly met risks in their projects. These emerging classification models can be used as early warning systems for managing, controlling and mitigating risks in Design and Build projects. This research based on empirical evidence from the result of the study. The limit in this research that the contractor watch out for cost overrun and poor quality without focusing on the time period of the project which it’s important for project success as cost and quality.

One of the important aims in project planning is to analyze the tradeoff among different components of the project attribute. Mohammadipour and Sadjadi(2016) use a mathematical model to solve a specialized project scheduling problem by interest in different objectives One of the main problems in the real world is related to the overall project duration which is planned by the contractor is not suitable for the client and aims at reducing its completion time. Since there are a number of important aspects of a project and cannot be ignored at all. They should be considered simultaneously for project completion time reduction and should not be sacrificed for one another. The resulted multi-objective such cost, risk, quality, etc problem has been solved using goal attainment technique. This paper shows that the model has practical implications, since there are many cases where a project time scheduled needs to be reduced, which may influence on various factors such as cost and quality. On the contrary, the contractors in the UAE will be happy more if they can extend the project time more than the client so they can work as they want with little worker, the material will lose its quality and some will lose its Guarantee. In the same meaning the client will lose his profit from the investment period if the construction delays for one day.

Essentially, Construction projects used likely to delays and add additional costs, which reduce a company’s profit and can lead to its going into liquidation. Purnus and Bodea (2014) provides a practical approach to quantitative risk analysis using the MONTE CARLO method and it highlights the correlation between the parameters of time, cost and resource limitation in construction project. The project performance is analyzed not only by the possibility of the parameters of time and cost together, but also by the trends of them together. This approach combines the scope, time, cost, resources and the risk of a project and provides a better idea for decision-making. To demonstrate the advantages of this approach, a case study of construction project is analyzed using spider project software. This article gave a special focusing on the limitations in project resources, which are major and frequent for many construction projects. In this study, the probability curves for project duration, cost and other project parameters created from the Monte Carlo method are only valid if the resource levelling heuristics used in the risk simulation process are the same as those used for project planning and management. It also proposed a combined qualitative-quantitative risk index that takes into account the distance between the target dates i.e. duration-cost and the middle point of the solution cluster i.e. from the Monte Carlo Simulation along with their relative position. The limitation of this paper that it just uses three parameters with focusing more on one parameter such as Time, Resource, Cost. It also shows the correlation between time and cost in a quantitative risk analysis of construction project by using MONTE CARLO method it didn’t link it to quality.

In construction, the word “delay’’ refers to something achieved at a later time than planned, expected, specified in an agreement or beyond the date that the parties agreed upon for the delivery of a project. Kikwasi (2013), in a study concluded that there are existing number of causes for delays and disruptions and their effects and put construction projects at great risk that have an effect on their performance. These causes are delays in payment to contractors, design changes, information delays, poor project management, compensation issues, funding problems and disagreement on the valuation of work done. Similarly the effects of these delays are time overrun, negative social impact, cost overrun, disputes and idling resources. It is therefore recommended that apply a satisfactory construction budget, timely issuing of information, finalization of design and project management skills should be the main focus of the categories in the project procurement process.
The success of a construction project is mainly related to the contractors, their duties start when the execution stage begins. Alzahrani and Emsley (2013) reports the statistical result of a survey focused on collecting understanding of construction companies, the critical success factor (CSFs) of contractors that great effect on the success of a project. 35 CSFs were selected for this study. By taking on a factor analysis approach, the 35 critical factors identified in this study are further categorized into nine underlying groups, namely: (i) past performance; (ii) safety and quality; (iii) experience; (iv) management and technical aspects; (v) organization; (vi) resource; (vii) environment; (viii) financially; and (ix) size/type of pervious projects. Four logistic regression models were built to examine the impact of contractor powers on project success and identify the significant association between the success criteria and the nine underlying clusters. From the results of logistic regression, it was found that the success of a project is significantly associated with seven of the supported variables. They were quality policy, turnover history, adequacy of labor resources, waste disposal, and adequacy of plant resources, company image and size of past project completed. The findings showed that new and emerging criteria such as safety and the environment are becoming measures of success in addition to the classic iron triangle's view of time, cost and quality.

The main idea of my research contains a huge number of professional journals devoted to the study of Quality/Risk related issues, in spite of the fact that there are still many missing idea that didn’t discuss yet in the academic journals. One more point to note here that there is an important limitation interrelated to the using of “frequency” of published articles. With Respect to all research papers there are a lot of factors which have been missed out. It is very well known that the most important point for the owner is to make his project successful. That is why he chooses a consultant engineer to lead his project to success without involvement in the details. The purpose of this research is to guide the project’s owner as a consultant engineer to have a high quality project in construction phase.

Chapter 3- Research Methodology

Introduction

It is the most important chapter in the dissertation that mainly focuses on the different areas that supports the investigator in conducting the successful research. This chapter mainly includes topic such as research approach, data collection method, data analysis technique as well as research design that is been used by researcher for successfully conducting the dissertation. Along with this, information collected through this technique also support the investigator in taking accurate and reliable decisions (Bauer, 2014). Without focusing on this chapter researcher would not be able to conduct the research in proper and ethical manner.

Research approach

The key aspect in the research methodology is research approach it is defined as the route that is designed by the researcher so that they may conduct the research in proper manner. Along with this selecting an effective research approach also assists the researcher in developing effective methodology for the study. For the present dissertation the selected approach is deductive approach. The justification for selecting this approach is that research is conducted on the directed path as well as it is also considered as the time consuming approach (Billig and Waterman, 2014).

Research design

Another element within the research methodology include research design it is defined as the blue print or the framed path through which researcher would acquired the data from both owners and customers of the construction industry. The research design that is used for conducting the study is descriptive research design in which the investigator focuses on gaining the in-depth research regarding the study and topic that is the role of consultant engineer in the construction project as it supports the engineer in designing the effective plan regarding the construction activity (Cammarota and Fine, 2010).

Data collection method

In order to conduct the research another key aspect include assessing the data collection method that is used by investigator for collecting and gathering the accurate data. With the help of data collection method researcher may easily acquire the reliable and accurate information regarding the topic. There are two form of data collection method primary and secondary source of data collection. In the present dissertation researcher has used both the sources. With the help of using primary sources researcher engage in conducting survey through questionnaire. On the other hand, secondary source of data has been collected through conducting the literature review with the help of assessing the books and journals. The justification for selecting the primary source that is survey is that with the help of these customers can easily provide their viewpoint as well as essential factor that they require in the new apartment (Flick, 2015).

Sampling

Another essential aspect in the research methodology includes sampling. It is an effective feature within the research methodology that mainly focuses on targeting the unit from the whole population. The selected sample unit is mainly demonstrating the perspective of whole population. The selected sample size for the survey includes 100 owners within the construction industry. Along with this survey is also taken from the customers that utilize the activities of construction organisation through renovating their home and apartments the selected sample size for customers is 200. On the other hand, for selecting the sample size from the UAE region investigator has focused on simple random sampling. Under this technique the investigator would unbiased select the sample that represent the whole population (Gast and Ledford, 2014).

Target Customer

Different types of Customers exist in the UAE and can have defined market characteristics, as well as their individual behaviour. When the consultant engineer designs the apartment project, he should follow standards which will attract the customer to live in this project and so the owner’s goals will be achieved. The customers are looking for a unique apartment which has high qualities to live in. In the UAE there are different types of customers who can be divided as the following demographic, geographical and Psychographic segment customers.

(a)Target Project:

As we all know, each project has a unique design, specified according to the project target, defining the target project type or design will be easier after understanding the types of customer in the project, the project must be a success if the customer meets his requirements in design or specification, customer’s choice must be taken into consideration:

1)Specifications of Project: if the scale of project is high so the target should follow the educational or high social level customer.
2)Location of project: project in down-town and quiet places or near to industrial or crowded places will change the customer’s target.
3)Budget: Each kind of customer has different types of requirement, and each type of requirement has its level of budget.

(b)Project Life Cycle:

As we all know each construction project has a start point and an end point, the start point begins with an idea fabricated at consultant engineer and the end point is done when the idea becomes true by contractors.

First stage the kind of project should be decided if it is Residential, Commercial, or Artificial.

If the project is residential this means it’s personal or for family use and not for trade or another use. Based on a selection a proposal should be made on what the owner wants:

  • Number of floors, Ground Floor or Ground plus One.
  • Number of Bed Rooms either is it master or not, with dressing or not.
  • Size of rooms.
  • Number of sitting room either separate female and male.
  • Entertainment (Children’s play room, swimming pool ...etc.).
  • Entrance hall size.
  • Shape of proposal.

After the proposal is done, it will be presented to the owner to take the approval from him after that it should be applied for planning and survey department to have their approval on that, this stage finish for residential project.

If the project is commercial project the proposal will be made according to planning statement:

  • Maximum Number of Floor
  • Number of car parking require
  • Area of land
  • Defection to the limit of the earth
  • Ground level
  • Point axes

One or two and sometimes three proposal will be designed, each one will have different characteristics’ (number of apartment in each floor, types of department etc) on each proposal a feasible study will be design to show the rate of return of each one, at the end the owner will choose one proposal to complete with it.

Second stage full drawing shall be designed with professional specialized engineers (Architect, Electrical, and Mechanical, structural) these engineers studied all needed Drawing:

  • Architectural
  • Structural
  • Drainage
  • Electrical
  • Etisalat
  • Civil Defenses (Fire Fighting ,Fire Alarm)
  • Gas
  • Water Supply

Each drawing should go to its allocated services:

  • Gas should be approved from gas department.
  • Electrical drawing and Water Supply from Electrical and Water Authority.
  • Etisalat from Etisalat department.
  • Civil Defense from Ministry of interior.

Architectural, Drainage and structural from Municipal building permit section.

After obtaining approval from all government departments and municipal according to their conditions and terms, then a book of specification shall be written to work on them, this specification shall contain all details:

  • Kind of material should be use in all fields.
  • Method of work.
  • Conditions.
  • The obligations of the main contract and sub-contract

After collecting all drawings and the project specification has been written, the consulting sends an invitation tender for all contractors who are able to participate the project with municipality conditions and terms; the contractor should be approved from Municipality.

Third stage will be mostly for contractor work, in this stage and after the contractor respond to consultant invitation they start study:

  • Quantity
  • Specification
  • Prices

At the end of the study project each contractor sends his quotation with his prices breakdown, the consultant should make a comparison sheet, this sheet will show the contractor quotation prices together to compare each item with each other in order to neglect some contractors.

Fourth stageannouncement of the beginning of the building construction starts with chosen contractor, the consultant here should supervise the contractor with his specification and drawings to control the quality, the contractor should submit for the consultant:

  • All material as specification
  • Shop drawing for details
  • Breakdown for all item.
  • A timetable for the project contain (Critical Bath, Wise floor, Item floor, Cash floor etc.)
  • Inspection for each work done, material fixed.
  • Daily report contain (Work done, Number of workers

At the end of the work done the contractor should issuance of completion certificates depending on the relevant government departments under the name of owner, consultant and contractor.

Fifth stage takes place when the project has been accepted from all government departments, the project keys should be submitted to the owner based on his investment procedure. The consultant will stop 10% of the total cost of the project from the contractor to become a responsible contractor for maintenance after submitting the project for one year for quality assurance.

(c)The Role Of The Consultant During The Design Stage:

Involving the consultant at an initial stage of the construction project is often valuable for the owner. Indeed, a consultant could even be involved pre-design in order to support an owner with responsibilities such as project management and budgeting, environmental studies, space relationships, and site selection.

Through the design stage itself, the consultant defines the feasibility of the project from logistical, an artistic, technical and financial standpoint. The consultant makes project design concept and look for approval for this design idea. It is also through this stage that the consultant finds the required development permit for the project.

Schematic Design

During the schematic design, the consultant defines the feasibility of the project. The consultant studies and proposes the initial concept and expected cost of the project. The consultant requires analyzing and studying the characteristics of the selected site, various design approaches, the types of construction contracts, and structural, electrical and mechanical design concepts, between other things. Whether the consultant is an architect or an engineer, he will have to coordinate with his corresponding person at all stages of the development of the project (for example, an architect consultant will typically coordinate normal MEP Engineer)

The consultant will require to thoroughly reviewing everything that may affect the budget of a project prior to giving its reasonable estimate of cost. The consultants are required to hold to their estimate unless they can meet the stringent test of modifying an increase in costs. Consultants are guaranteed to own a reasonable amount of skill in their profession and to use a reasonable quantity of care and diligence in carrying out of work which they accepted, including the preparation of plans and specifications. If the price of the project is not sensibly close to the consultant’s approximation, it is the responsibility of the consultant to show how the contradiction arose and why he cannot be responsible for it. Any changes to the cost approximation during the project caused by forces such as design changes or inflation must be perfectly and promptly presented by the consultant for the consultant to escape negligence. The High Court has found almost a custom between engineers and architects, that parties relying on estimates must suppose a 10% minus or plus variation.

(d)Design Development

During this stage the consultant pass forward with concept approval from owner. It is likely that it will take a more depth in seriousness look at some of the objects considered through the schematic design stage, also develop and coordinate the actual design of the project.If it’s not done already during the schematic design stage, the consultant engineer should review the building code, and create a development permit submission. In some cases, the consultant may charge for additional jobs like rezoning variance submissions, geotechnical and/or civil design development, interior design development, promotional presentations and other special studies reports.

One of the consultant’s responsibilities is to determine which licenses and permits must be acquired and recommend the owner regarding the same. Also one of consultant duty is to guarantee the owner is responsive of the choices available through this stage. For example, the architect engineer made some inquiries with lower level employees at a planning department regarding the category of exterior finishes and fit the number of car parking with apartments. The architect had favorable answers from these staffs and reported this to the developer, who continued to file plans according to the architect’s data. The plans were basically rejected by the decision-maker at the planning department. Because the architect had not guided the developer that is the planning department decision-maker might be asked at the pre-design stage of the project.

Generally, the owner accepts the consultant’s design. To the level the owner has the same or more understanding with any specific aspect of the design, the consultant could avoid responsibility about design component; also the owner might be in a better situation to decide whether the design must continue with that component as is. Contrariwise, the owner will only be in charge for the technical aspects of a project on unusual occasions; generally, the owner does not have the professional experience needed to be held an answerable for these parts.

(e)Construction documents

As we said before, the consultant is responsible for drawing all details, plans and book of specification related to a project. Unless time limits are exactly accounted for in the contract, the consultant is responsible to arrange for the owner with the drawings, plans and specifications within a reasonable time. The specification books are a set of detailed and carefully written description of the project, while the drawings and plans are shown the same details. It is highly important that the drawings provide full detail because they are used by contractor for both, firstly estimate the cost of the work involved, and to construct the work as designed. If the specifications or drawings do not indicate unusual advantages or risks on a site, for example, the consultant may be held unaccountable for the increased rate of construction resulting from a contractor’s face with these items. This responsibility is subject to the terms of the contract between the contractor and the owner. Moreover, while detailed, it is unusual for specifications and drawings to give any information to the contractor regarding how the work should be constructed. Unless otherwise written, contractors are at independence to choose their own construction methods.

While typically, the consultant has been used before the engineer generates the drawings, plans and specifications for a contract. At these times, drawings are organized by a consultant and sent to an owner in the faith that the owner will use the consultant for the project. In these situations, the consultant cannot think to be paid for his effort in organizing the drawings. Whether a consultant is allowed to fee in a condition where the owner asks the consultant to arrange the drawings, but firstly receive the owner’s approval to subjects, is little clarity. Whereas from England an early decision specified that the consultant didn’t have to be paid in these situations, later decisions have gone in the different direction, holding the responsible of owner for payment. For example, an architect was requested to design a house for a family similar to the family’s standing house with a little change. The architect made schematic sketches and design drawings for development, as well as MEP drawings which were submitted to Building Permits Section in the municipality in the city to obtain a building permit. After seeing the schematic sketch the owner expressed not satisfied with certain part of the drawings, claiming they didn’t show what they had initially discussed. The responsible engineers had other meetings, revisions were made for drawings, but a set of decision was not made with regard to some details. The owner left for business trip, the architect arranged the final drawings and he was confident that the owner will accept them, so he submitted the drawings to the municipality. When the owner discovered that the drawings didn’t reflect his purposes he hired another architect who finalized the family’s home. By the same time the owner ended his relationship with his primary architect, the architect had submitted an invoice to the owner for payment for the fee of preparing the drawings for submission. The law court found that the architect engineer was entitled to this payment.

(f)The Role of the Consultant during Bidding and Negotiations

The consultant represents the owner and act as the owner’s deputy in the preparation stage, supervision and issuance of tender documents. The consultant also co-ordinates, prepares, and matters the additions to the tender documents, if needed. Tenders receives on the date of delivery, the consultant evaluates them then discuss with the owner about them. Even though the consultant is responsible for a significant amount of the tender process, the owner may have been taking care with some part of it. ACEC 31, section 2.7, mention that the owner is in charge for the advertising related for obtaining tenders, and on that the owner need “reimburse or provide the engineer for obtaining needed legal, insurance bonding, accounting and other counseling services related with the project”.

The consultant responsible a duty of care the project owners, even if there is no official contract between them. In one case, the structural engineer had no official contract signed with the owner. The engineer is mostly worried with the soil report conditions and he informs about this to the architect. However, he becomes unsuccessful to tell the owner and is found responsible of failure for the project. It is the duty of the consultant to guarantee that the tender documents cover all of the data that the owner had been relating to the project. If the tender documents neglect or provide incorrect information, the consultant must attract this to the contractor’s attention. If errors or new information occurs after the tender documents have been distributed, the consultant should confirm that all contractors interested in bidding collecting an addendum to correct the deficiency. If the consultant does not follow this process, the consultant or the owner could be liable for some results, which is harmful. In this case, engineering stated and designed the specifications book for a road construction project. A firm for a construction had successfully proposed the project, based on the drawings and specifications that the engineering set, and was given a contract. After starting the construction, a claim is received from contractor that the documents which were prepared by the engineer were incorrect and as a result they incurred loss. The Court agreed with the contractor about their loss as the contractor had full trust in the documents that the engineer of the firm provided.

(g)Construction Contract Administration

Under the construction contract management, the consultant has a responsibility of the owner to guarantee that the contractor accepts all the terms of its construction agreement. It also ensures that it stay on the specifications and drawings in the construction of the project. The most public system for the consultant is to guarantee that the constriction contract is following the specifications and drawing is throw site inspections.

(h)Site Inspection/ Field review

Site Inspection Definition: Review through multi visits during project period start with receiving the certificate of completion. The inspection will be for working place in project and where applicable (locations where the building components are fabricated at the project site) and it considers important to be familiar with the quality and progress of the work and to determine that the work is in common state or conformity with the constructions specifications and drawings.

The consultant engineer is not expected to be found at the project site every moment of construction period. However, he should be at the project site during all significant part of the project period. Before issuing a certificate of completion of the project and the project is not subjected to inspections, the consultant is responsible to guarantee that the contractor is complying with the project drawings and specifications. Moreover, the consultant engineer has to give more attention to the project to check whether the project becomes more complicated, and the risk becomes greater if something goes wrong with the project. In a general situation, the responsibility of the consultant is to inspect that the project is not just a look, it should go beyond merely looking at it. Rather the consultant engineer has a positive commitment to ask the questions necessary to satisfy him that the project drawings and specifications are being complied with.

One of responsibilities of the contractor is to ensure that the consultant engineer knows when the project is advancing from phase to phase. If the contractor ignores to do this, the consultant can ask the contractor to reveal work which already has been covered so it can be inspected. If the covered work which was not inspected is not possible to reveal from the contractor, and the contractor didn’t give a notice to the consultant about the stage the project has reached, so the consultant should report the contractor that it didn't abide by the conditions of its contract. In this case, the contractor will be responsible about any damage that would happen if an inspection would have avoided this result.

(i)Change Orders

Changing orders Definition: This order comes from the consultant, when a change in work is required or proposed. The consultant should arrange a written report of the change in the work for the contractor. In a form of acceptance to a consultant, the present contractor shall introduce a method statement of modification or amount of modification of the contract rate, if any, and the modification of the contract period, if any, for the proposed change in the work. When the contractor and owner agree to the modification in the contract rate and contract period or to the technique to be used to determine the modification, such a contract shall be effectively directed and shall be verified in a change order. The value of the work achieved as the result of a change order shall be involved in the submittal for progress payment.

Some times after the actual construction of the project started, the consulting engineer is going to amend the project specifications and drawings. It is common for the consultant to have the contractual authority needed to order additions or changes to the project. The requirement for a change in order could be due to changes made by the consultant or owner, difficulties in the drawing to be applied or deficiencies in the drawings, and also unexpected difficulties in the physical situations of the site or in finding necessary materials. If the change order takes place because of a loss in the project drawings or specifications, the consultant may be in charge for undertaking additional cost.

As discussed before, one of consultant duty is to take care to the owner, and this duty takes over when the consultant is considering any change in drawings or specifications. This change should be studied carefully from the consultant that means it must consider the interests of the owner in agreeing to any change.

(j)Impartial Adjudicator

When there is a disagreement between the owner and the contractor, and they are not able to resolve the issue due to the dispute resolution process will be for the parties to involve the consultant. The basics of the power of the consultant are set out in US Federal law (FEDIC). The consultant authority is to resolve all disputes or claims related to work performance or the interpretation of the contract documents details, or any other problems where the parties are not able to agree to the contract requirement.

The consultant is required to decide disputes in a fair and an unbiased manner. In such circumstances, the consultant should remove himself as the representative of the owner on the project to become a neutral arbiter in the dispute between the owner and the contractor.

Consultant would fear that his role of decision-maker in the first place will weaken if their own decisions were exposed by a disappointed party. Sometimes, the consultant has requested that the agreement includes an additional condition which is a waiver of any claims growing from a consultant’s clarification and outcomes with respect to the intent of the contract documents. It requires to be negotiated between all parties to be balanced amongst them in order to maintain the consultant's impartiality. It would be more appropriate to include this waiver of claims.

The consultant has the power to give instruction to the contractor to guarantee proper performance of the contract, and to avoid delays. The parties must implement the instruction, and without prejudice to their right to keep their position in the dispute. At the end if the final result is that the orders of the consultant resulted to work outside the scope of the agreement, the owner is liable to the contractor for the rate of the work, including price resulting from interruption of the work.

(k)Payment certifier

Construction Contracts are different to other contracts, which mean that under construction contracts. As a result, the contractor would be able to receive partial payment for its work before finishing the entire project. the construction contract will give the typically outline for number of phases at which the contract is entitled to progress payments, and the volume the contractor is permitted to for each payment. Usually when the specific work has been completed on the project, the contractor would be able to apply for partial payment for finishing that particular part. One of the responsibilities of the consultant is to determine whether these phases have been successfully done by the contractor, and on that the contractor is entitled to receiving the payment. The contractor will not be able to receive any payment without the consultant’s approval.

The contractor in charge of submitting, the payment to be approved within a suitable time. Contractor must provide any evidence detailing if it has any support the claim, such as bills of sale of materials. The consultant must study all claims for payment if it approve. The payment should not be approved from the consultant by determining either the work has completed or not and the materials delivered or not, but also be checking the quality of the work conforms to request of contract. The consultant has the power to deduct from the contractor's payment for incomplete work or not in suitable quality, at the end; the consultant is responsible for approving the final payment.

(l)Post-Completion inspection

When the project was completed, the consultant is responsible for going for the final inspection. Visual inspection is not enough in the post-completion inspection. This inspection should include an obligation to make appropriate inquiries of the work done. The post-completion inspection should be comprehensive, and include Mechanical, Electrical, Drainage, Etisalat, Gas, Fire fighting, Fire Alarm, and Architect inspections. When the consultant decides that the work was completed, the final payment certificate will be issued for the contractor.

Data analysis

Another key feature within the research methodology is data analysis under this researcher identify the ways in which they accumulate and analyse the collected data. Basically the researcher has two technique for analysing the collected data that is quantitative technique and qualitative technique. In the present dissertation researcher has focused on using the quantitative technique with the help of engaging in Monte Carlo method. With the help of using this method in the data analysis researcher may easily engage in computing the algorithms from the repeated sampling that outcome in gaining the numerical results.

Reliability and validity

Another aspect within the research methodology include measuring the reliability and validity of the data that has been gathered for conducting the dissertation. The reliability shows that researcher has engaged in conducting proper experiment and research so that they may get reliable results that indicate the role of consultant engineer for the success of construction project. Whereas researcher has also attained the validity through assessing that information that are from the old books and journals is not considered as well as the researcher has also not used the information that has been published in 2000 in the study. So that it may be considered that data collected for the study is valid as well reliable in nature.

1.1Rate of Return

When each project starts, a feasible study should be made for it, which is an analysis and an evaluation of proposal project to determine if it (1) is technically feasible, (2) is feasible within the estimated cost, and (3) will be profitable. On that if the rate of feasibility is more than 10% per year, the project is successful otherwise it is a failure.

So on the income of project will be according to market price at current time, which will be increased after the project is definitely done. Here is an example of feasibility study, in this example a commercial building will be analysed and evaluated:

Quality Assurance

One of the most successful factors of project is quality assurance, by achieving the owner/investor requirements for the project to be fully satisfied and capitalized on the project without flaws or obstacles either it exists or not, to ensure the quality of the project for the long-term, the consultant should follow a format :

Sub-Contractor approval: Each project contains more than one sub-Contract, this sub-contract will be responsible for specific type of work for example: electrical work, civil defence work. The main contract should request to approve the sub-contract from the consultant by submitting with his request the sub-contract company profile.

Request for Approval Drawing: The Main Contractor/Sub Contractor should request to approve the drawings from the consultant, although the original drawings were drawn out by the consultant but they have to make a shop drawing for them. The shop drawing will contain more details from the original drawings to clarify any misunderstanding or missing points from the original drawing.

Request for inspection material: After the materials have been approved from the consultant, the contract will start delivering it to site for fixing it. when the material arrive to site an inspection should be submitted with delivery note to know its source and same to approved material.

Request for inspection Work: This inspection will be after the work done from the Main Contractor/Sub Contractor. They apply this form to consultant engineer either Civil Work or MEP (Mechanical, Electrical or Plumping) to check it from consultant engineer to take the approval of the work done.

Request for information: Sometimes the contractor will face some difficulties in drawing which is unable to be done in site because of some reasons. There might be some missing points which should be clarified from the consultant to the contractor. In this situation a request of information should be sent to the consultant to reply on it.

Site Instruction: This form will be used when the consultant wants to inform the contractor with some work to be done and be responsible for the work to be done.

Site Report: The site report will update the consultant with information about the project, the site report should contain many information like :

  • Number of worker
  • Types of work done
  • Types of material delivered
  • Types of material use

Meeting: According to the size of the project and workload the meeting should be proceeded annually. This meeting will update all the details of the project for each work what is done and what should be done with by comparing it to the project plan :

1. Progress of work
2. General Work
3. Civil Work
4. Electro-Mechanical Work
5. System Air Condition
6. Civil Defense
7. Low-Current system

1.2Expected Budget:

Each project should have an expected budget before start, initial cost of guessing will be firstly when a feasibility is studied, then when the contractors give their quotations with analysis the cost will be determined according to the accepted contractor to be in an expected budget, if the expected budget equal is to the project cost by the end that means the project is a success.

1.3Project plan and scheduling:

The project plan/schedule is a tool that communicates what needs to be performed, which resources of the organization will perform the work and the timeframes in which that work needs to be performed. The project schedule should reflect all of the work associated with delivering the project on time. Without a full and a complete schedule, the project manager will be unable to communicate the complete effort, in terms of costs and resources, necessary to deliver the project.

Work Breakdown Structure (Wbs)

The building blocks of a schedule start with a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The WBS is a hierarchical reflection of all the work in the project in terms of deliverables. In order to produce these deliverables, work must be performed. A typical approach in developing a WBS is to start at the highest level, with the product of the project.

Within the construction project, there is different types or levels of WBSs that are developed to correspond to make the project success:

1. Project work breakdown structural (WBS of Project)
2. Consultant work breakdown structural (WBS of Consultant Office)
3. Contractor work breakdown structural (WBS of Contractor)

Each level of the WBS is a level of detail created by decomposition. Decomposition is the process of breaking down the work into smaller, more manageable components. The elements at the lowest level of the WBS are called tasks. In the example above, brochures, advertising and commercials are all work packages or tasks.

Once all the deliverables of the project have been identified, tasks will be performed in order to create the deliverables. In some cases, these activities are the physical deliverables, but in other cases they are the actions that need to be performed. A physical deliverable, for example, might be an image (an actual file) that is needed for the brochure. Listing out each of the tasks to beperformed will result in an activity list as demonstrated below.

As a project manager, the level of decomposition will be dependent on the extent to which you will need to manage. Project Insight supports as many levels of hierarchy as are needed. The expectation is that each task will have a single owner and the owner is expected to manage and report on the work necessary to deliver the task. In Project Insight, this is called the 'task owner.' If you cannot assign a single owner, or you need to have additional visibility into the progress of that task, additional decomposition is recommended

The Submission of Timetable should contain result which improve and guaranty the process of work to success the project:

1. Floor wise
2. Item wise
3. Cash flow & Man Power
4. Resource Profile
5. Full details scheduled layout
6. Official schedule layout

Research Framework And Problem Statement

Problem statement

The problem statement is a brief description of the problems that is required to be addressed by a problem solving team. On the other hand, the statement of a problem is a claim of more than one sentence in length that delineates the problem addressed by the study. The most important objective of problem statement is to concentrate the attention on the problem solving team.

Around the world, each investor is looking for successful projects, in the construction industry. The project will be successful if it has achieved its objectivesand goals. The investor will be optimistic if his project wins the satisfaction of customers. In that case, the quality of the project should increase in parallel with the requirements of customers and all of this should be accomplished with less cost and time (Gap 2013).

The role of the consultant on a construction project is often not fully understood by the other parties involved in the project, including the consultant’s client and the owner. Consequently, the consultant may find himself underutilized. There are also instances where the consultant itself is not fully aware of his duties and obligations to the owner and others. As a result, the project may face many problems caused due to weakness of design and the poor supervision, which is known as the main theme of the consultant engineer. Therefore, one of the main reasons that lead to the success of the project is to have a clever and strong consultant engineer in designing and supervising the work of the contractor. In all the previous researches, it was addressed to the success of the project in general factors. However, from the above discussion, problem statement for the investigation is to find out the responsibilities, roles and effectiveness of project management consultancy to make a project successful. This aim will explain the effectiveness of services provided by the project management consultancy to the owners and the clients.

The gap is evident in the literature review as it shows that the project management consultant has faced the problem of construct ability issues which have raised from the team members. Along with this, none of the researches have demonstrated that project management consultant has deal with problems with the contractor which directly affects the project activities. Further, from the previous researches, the researcher has determined the gap related to the quality level needed for each system that has attracted the customers to lease apartments and owners to give accommodation to customers on lease with good profit. The gap is evident in the literature review as it shows that the sample size requires being large. The increase in sample size gives greater power to detect differences.

Chapter 5- Analysis and Discussion

Introduction

Data analysis is another chapter within the dissertation that support in analysing and discussing the information and data that has been gathered by the researcher. The quantitative technique has been used by the researcher for analysing the data that is been acquired through conducting the survey from owners and customers that are using and delivering the construction services. Along with this finding has been provided in this chapter for understanding the knowledge regarding the topic.

Response of owners

With the help of gathering data through conducting the Owner survey it has been found that the most of the owner that is around 17 has stated that building design is the foremost critical success factor for them, as they think that by focusing on this part large number of customers will be attracted as it would meet their needs and requirement. Therefore, through this owner will enable them to charge higher prices than the others. As a result, they can improve this part in many ways such as exploitation of all spaces or by imagining themselves living in the house and determining how the design should be.

With conducting the survey it has been analysed that owner has ranked, maintenance on the second position as they care about maintenance because of its effectiveness. Form the 100 respondents 16 has stated that maintenance is the second option that they prefer as it support in decreasing the situation of accident within the apartment or building. Along with this, through considering the maintenance aspect it results in engaging the healthy provisions so that it may results in attaining the emergency issues.

Through conducting the survey among the owner they has ranked management, at the third position. Around 13 participants were supporting good management as the essential success factor. This is because good management will care more about the structure in many ways, like to keep it clean, follow up with customer requirements and will take care on all matters that should be followed up. A good manger will reduce risk for owner by paying for useless things. It will also give the owner the highest quality of how to manage the building needs. A good manager will reach the customer’s need without paying more cost.

Fourthly, around owner has also stated that Air Condition System is one of the most important parts/system in UAE, and this is due to the extreme rise in temperature and humidity. From the view point of 11 owners in the survey it focuses on air conditioning system within the UAE. Therefore, it is impossible to live without an air conditioner, and it will remain working almost all day long which will reflect the high monthly electricity bill. Choosing a good material for Air condition system will reduce the possible crash and it will increase the strength and the amount of cooling.

At the fifth position owner give the priority to the interest in Interior Design by the owner because it reflects the greater value of the project and makes it distinct from the neighbouring projects. From the survey 9 owners has rated it the interior design can be done by increasing the class of specifications and finishes of the project, the owner can care on interior design more by caring on the Entrance & Corridor of the project more than any parts, because those places in the project will be the first place for the customer to see.

On the Sixth position 8 owners has rated Location is one of the most important factors for some Owners because the project location will mostly attract people who are working near the project. For example, the project that is near to the area of banks will attract people who are working at those banks even for industrial areas. Also its location from the city centre to be near to all places (Schools, services institutions..etc....) and for sure people would not prefer to live in places known as crowded areas.

From the conducted survey it was stated that around 7 owners has concentrate on the factor that is Plumping & Electrical system is a critical element that broadly affects the cost of the project and the cost of the maintenance. Therefore, whenever the selected quality for this is higher, the cost maintenance period becomes less, which would reduce the amount of complaints from tenants. The consultant engineer will be responsible on the installation method statement and point’s distribution in order to achieve a high-quality coordination drawing that should be designed from either main contract or sub-contract and approved from the MEP engineer.

Another critical success factor for owner include Civil Defines. From the survey among 100 respondents 6 has voted to the civil defence in general it can control fire action and limit the occurrence and spread, on that it gives a safe feeling for tenants and owners.

Ninth, Gym & Swimming pool it is not important for owners because it is costly and it is a kind of entertainment for tenants. They will be responsible for the safety of the people who are entering it. From the conducted survey among the owners 5 were in the favour of that as it assist the building and apartment to look designed. Along with this for the youngsters it is one of the important factor that need to be consider while constructing or renovating the apartment in the UAE.

Through considering the view point of owners from the survey it has been assessed that 4 respondents has stated that view point within the owner is consider as an effective aspect that support in successfully implementing the project. it depends on the location of the project and what is near to it. The view part is good and needed but not a critical point for the owner because they will not live in it and they think that if they find the customer’s satisfaction from another point, they would be distracted and not really care to look for the view.

From the conducted survey only 2 respondents from the overall 100 respondents were in the favour that enabling the parking activities is consider as the effective Parking is a less requirement for owners, because it will cost them too much without return on it. One of the terms is that there should be one parking for each apartment and most of those parking will not be used because a lot of people will find and prefer a location to park their cars outside instead of going up 3 or 4 floors to park.

By analysing the Customer survey we found that the most important part for them is the design of building. From the survey around 41 respondents from the overall 200 stated that building design is the foremost critical success factor. If the design achieved the requirements of the customer with the needed space, apartment style and shape; then it will make them more comfortable. On that reason they will prefer it more than other apartments even if it is more costly.

Secondly, in the survey customers has ranked air conditioning system on the second position as the UAE is one of the most humidity region that requires air conditioning factor. 26 customers from the 200 has ranked it at the second position.

From the conducted survey around 21 respondents have voted for the parking factor that they requires while engaging in the construction activities, each family has more than one car with them and the capacity of building cannot fit all numbers of cars. Moreover the public parking now are prepaid, which will be costly yearly and fine will be applied for cars which did not pay. Along with these customers has stated that parking the car outside will effect badly on the car because of the strong sun. Even though the people will not prefer to spend more time looking for parking on that the parking part will be important for them

Fourthly, 19 respondents from the 200 customers in the UAE consider Maintenance as one of the basic elements complementary to the project because there are implications for the extent of its impact on tenants. The tenants care about either the problem in their apartment will be fixed directly or indirectly, if the maintenance team are professionals or if they will do the annual check-up.

From the conducted survey around 18 customers has stated that location will be their fifth factor that they would consider. Location will be critical for some people more than others because of location of either their work or near to family or far away from crowded area or located in city centre, their choice will save time and money for them.

At the sixth position it focuses on the Gym & Swimming Pool, will be mostly for big families who have many children. From the 200 respondents 15 respondents has ranked gyms & swimming pool factor on the fifth preferable position. These families will prefer to live in buildings which have gyms & swimming pools instead of sending them to the sea or any location far away. This will be mostly in the summer when the sun would be strong, even though for fitness, people will not prefer too far gym because it will waste their time and spend their money.

At the seventh position from the conducted survey it has been analysed that 14 customers has responded towards the goof management within the company so that they can easily engage in effective design of the building and apartment in the UAE. Management a good management will care about tenants more than others. A good management will even care about the project.

13 customers were in the favour of Civil Defence. This system is preferred but not critical for tenants because it will be useful only for fire which will happen rarely that means it will not play a significant role in taking decisions.

While through conducting the survey among the customers 12 respondents or customer were in the favour that they also prefer interior design factor while engaging in the construction activities. Interior Design, people will care about this option if they have more guests or otherwise they will not prefer to pay more to have special interior design.

On the other hand, 11 customers in the UAE has focuses on Plumping & Electrical System factor while engaging in the construction activities. Therefore for this, tenants will not know the details of this option, they will look if the drainage system is working or not, there is no leakage, contains enough light & Sockets.

At the last from the survey it has been analysed that from the 200 customers 10 respondents have ranked the view perspective at the last as they consider as the least critical factor while engaging in the construction activities. customers has voted for the aspect of view will not effect on tenants choice, all their requirement is sunlight to enter to the middle of the apartment.

From the conducted survey it has been identified that critical success factor ais accordant with the UAE requirement. It’s not easy to get a permission to construct a building in the UAE, because some certain rules and special conditions should be followed, the project life should pass through two stages which are design stage and supervision stage. The design stage means completing the study of the project with full details and follow-up departments to get the approvals. At supervision phase, the consultant supervises the contractor and makes sure how the work is done; if it’s same to drawing and terms and conditions that were agreed upon during tender. GULF SKY is an integrated Planning, Architectural Design, Interior Design, Civil Engineering, Electromechanical Engineering and Project Management Consulting firm. It has structured with highly qualified multi-disciplined team of professionals who cover the majority of servicessupported by highly competent technical. The process of guiding and controlling a project from start to finish may be further divided into 5 basic phases for a consulting engineer (The standard within UAE):

  • Construction Project Idea
  • Formation and Beginning
  • Project designation and planning
  • Project launch or execution
  • Project performance and control
  • Project Completion

chapter 6- recommendation and conclusion

Introduction

last chapter in the dissertation is recommendation and conclusion that mainly summarizes the information and data that has been gathered through conducting the data analysis. The recommendation has been provided so that manager may result in completing the project within the specified budget. On the other hand, conclusion has also provided that clearly states the certain factors that assist in completing the construction process in proper manner.

Recommendation

It is recommended that owners only need successful projects, which should be completed within budget, schedule and a reasonable quality. It also recommended that Quality Assurance is required for achieving the requirements for the project and guarantee the benefits of the project without flaws or obstacles and ensure it for a long-term. The consultant should follow different types of format. Municipality terms and Requirement of all government department is critical for the consultant engineer to follow these terms and requirements to have the approval of all the drawings in a short time. This responsibility is to take all the preliminary approvals for the project and follow up any modifying outcome of the project. Along with this it is also recommended that in the UAE, each project should be designed by a consultant office, which should provide the owner the perfect specifications, which in turn offers a good quality with the required budget. Before the consulting engineer starts designing the project with the owner’s requirements, the target customer should be defined in the target project, then the project will go in a life cycle (Planning & Study, Design & Municipality Approval, Tender, Construction, and Handover), many factors will decide whether the project will succeed or fail, the factors are:

Rate of return: assumed by a feasible study before the project starts, on that rate of feasibility if it is more than 10% per year, the project is a success, otherwise it turns to fail.

Expected Budget: to have an expected budget equal to the project cost.

Project Plane & Schedule: The project plan must also describe the execution, management and control of the project. This information can be provided by referencing other documents that will be produced, such as a procurement plan or a construction plan, or it may be detailed in the project plan itself.

The project plan typically covers topics used in the project execution system and includes the following main aspects:

  • Scope management
  • Requirements management
  • Schedule management
  • Financial management
  • Quality management
  • Resource management
  • Stakeholder management – New from PMBOK 5
  • Communications management
  • Project change management
  • Risk management

It is good practice and mostly required by large consulting and professional project management firms, to have a formally agreed and version controlled project management plan approved in the early stages of the project, and applied throughout the project.

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Measurements: the measurement of project based on different factors ( Building design, interior design, location, Air condition system, Plumping & electrical system, Civil Defences, Entrance and parking, Management, Gym and swimming pool, maintenance, View ), a two survey were made on owners and customers to know which factor should be focused on, The result show that the most important for both is the design of the building followed with the owner's maintenance and management, for customers followed with air condition system and parking. The worst one for owner was the parking and for the customer was the view, the consequence will be shown in a table:

Specification: Generally, should be written after the drawings have been approved, this specification should contain all details about the project (civil work, Electrical work, Plumping Work, Air Condition System work, Etisalat, lifts, Gas, civil defence…etc. ), this specification should contain the work method and the materials to be used, this specification helps to identify the project and show its value.

Drawing: Each project has drawings which have been approved by municipality, the drawings will be the reference of the project later, so if the owner needs to know anything about the project's details he should check the drawings, so as the drawings are more clear for him because he can go back for it.

These factors indicate the success of the project in general, the success rate of each part indicates the percentage of the project’s success. Each factor has many roles that push to success. These factors are related to the consultant’s work to lead the project to success.

Through making the above recommendation it critically reflected that with the help of this I can easily assess different factors that are required for engaging in the successful construction process. It also support me in gaining and understanding the role of consultant in framing the plan for the construction process.

Conclusion

The consultant should be playing many varieties of roles during the construction process. Because the consultant should be available in each part of the construction project and usually he should be involved in the project from the starting point until delivered the project to the owner. It is important to the consultant for understand his roles and his working procedure.

Along with this, it is also there are also plenty of factors touching the quality of construction such as, (Design, material specification, table of quantity, machinery, construction technology supervision, method of operation, technical measures, management system, topography, transaction, geology, hydrology and so on.). Construction contractor could get the best profitable outcome, if they follow to the principle of quality first and insist on quality standard with the core of artificial control and inhibition. As a result, this will provide a higher quality, safe, suitable and economic composite product. The quality management in the construction industry differs from that of the product industry. The successful consultant engineer should follow his own laws to do his unique design and his supervision way on projects. In this research, the role of consultant engineer is to make a successful project by analysing both sections (design and supervision) to get stronger and superior results to satisfy the owners, the lessees, and achieve fame in creativity. In this paper, we also are going to identify the effectiveness, roles and responsibility of project management consultancy. This thesis analyzes successful project 9 factors, according to the consultant, and describes how the consultant can affect these factors.

References

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  • Forsythe, P.J., 2012. Profiling customer perceived service quality expectations in made-to-order housing construction in Australia.Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management,19(6), pp.587-609.
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  • Kikwasi, G., 2013, February. Causes and effects of delays and disruptions in construction projects in Tanzania. In Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building-Conference Series (Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 52-59).
  • Luo, W. and Liberatore, M.J., 2009. Achieving it consultant objectives through client project success.Information & management,46(5), pp.259-266.
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  • Ogunsanmi, O.E., Salako, O.A. and Ajayi, O.M., 2011. Risk classification model for design and build projects. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management, 1(1), p.46.
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