This assessment will cover:
- What are the appropriate range of tourism.
- Give the economic and environmental impact of culture tourism.
European capital of culture is established to highlight richness and diversity of cultures in Europe. European union organises this event during a period of one year where a series of cultural events are being held highlighting the various aspects of tradition, culture, values and beliefs followed by individuals living in country (Tan, Luh and Kung 2014). This event can be an opportunity for the country to foster urban regeneration and can generate considerable economic , social and cultural benefits to region. Report investigates about cultural aspects of Timisoara, Romania as the European capital of culture 2021. It highlights different cultural products and their linking with markets in Romania. Paper analyses and evaluates the social, economic and environmental impact Romania could face while conducting European Capital of culture. Assignment demonstrates the understanding of the trends and development that Romania would require.
Different range of cultural tourism and typologies available in Romania
1. Cultural tourism products and there link to market
For hosting the European capital of cultural event in Timisoara, Romania, country has to explore and make travellers aware about the cultural products that they can see and explore in there region. Like for example Music and art gallery should be maintained by the authorities. It has direct link to the tourist market. As it will attract more consumers and also in the event they can provide knowledge about the things kept in museum to travellers. Archaeological monuments should be kept clean as they highlight the richness of the Romanian culture. Also, they provide the deep knowledge and experiences about the history of country to the travellers. It will attract more number of tourist towards there region.
Historical buildings and monuments also have a direct link to the market as they make people aware about the past experiences shared by individuals living in that country. It increases there knowledge and people can have a better understanding about the cultural aspect of Timisoara Romania (Palmer, 2017). Pilgrimages, dance, art and music prefered by historical people should also be kept preserved in order to attract more travellers. These aspects have a link with the market. Preserving these would attract tourist and this will allow them to participate in European capital of culture program held by the country. Individuals will get more aware about this event which can make it more popular.
2. Evaluation of Mc Kercher and Du cross diagram 2002
Mc Kercher and Du cross diagram 2002 will support in identifying the typologies of tourist which will visit Romania for European capital of culture program. This will include:
- Serendipitous cultural tourist: These are the type of tourist when visiting any region or country they have a very few or no amount of considerable motivation for culture in there trip. They are the varied individuals who plan there trip for having fun and creating moments that lasts in there memory forever. But, when they visit any cultural place and participating in cultural activities end up having a deep traditional and cultural experiences. Like for example Romania hosting European capital of culture, so these type of tourist would gain benefits by participating in this event (Graham, Ashworth and Tunbridge, 2016). They would able to have better knowledge and understanding of European culture and beliefs. Also, making them aware about cultural and traditional aspects they would develop a feeling of respect towards Romania. This will benefit the travel and tourism industry of region as more travellers would be attracted towards them.
- Purposeful cultural tourist: These tourist have a primary purpose or motive of visiting a place in order to have knowledge and learning about the cultural aspects of that region. European capital of culture in Romania can assist them in having a better knowledge about the richness and diversity shared by European regions. It will support them in increasing here understanding about the tradition followed by individuals. Also, the tourist after visting will share a deep cultural experiences.
- Incidental cultural tourist: These are the type of tourist who does not travel for any cultural reason. There sole motive of travelling is to relax and have fun. They tend to participate in some activities and have shallow experiences about the culture and tradition followed by particular region (Nóbrega and Araújo, 2015). If these type of travellers comes Romania for a vacation than the city has to lay special emphasis and attract these individuals towards them. European capital of culture program can help them in making aware about the varied range of traditions followed by people in Europe. It would also support in highlighting the European culture. People will be more attracted if they are aware about the cultural aspects of region. This will attract more consumers and also revenue of the tourism industry would be enhanced by it.
- Casual cultural tourist: These are the type of tourist has a weak insight for culture and traditional aspect. These travellers will not be visiting Romania if they organise any event based on culture and traditional aspect of people. They would be only attracted by those cities where the region is engaged in providing an environment which is peaceful and relaxing so that they can spend a quality time over there. Also, it would be hard for the country to attract these tourist for European capital of cultural program (Yan and et.al., 2016). For this country should only focus on those individuals who are attracted towards culture, tradition, values and beliefs.
- Sight seeing cultural tourist: These type of travellers have the motive of experiencing culture but while having fun. The experiences shared by them is less deep. Romania can also attract these type of tourist to attend European capital of culture program as it would assist them in having deep information about the traditions followed by individuals. The travellers can have a knowledge about different type of music, literature and philosophy followed by Romanian people. They can also learn from the experiences shared by them. Also, it would attract more number of tourist towards them which will enhance the tourism industry over the region. Attending events such as European capital of culture can make travellers rich in experiences related to culture and tradition (Orams and Lueck, 2016). They will have a better knowledge and understanding about the ways, methods, values and culture followed by the individuals living in the region. It will create opportunities for travellers to have the benefit of becoming rich in knowledge about culture followed in the country.
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Social, economic and environmental impact if Timisoara hosts the European capital of culture 2021 (ECoC)
Hosting a big event can give enormous benefits to nation but it may negatively affect on region as well. European capital of culture is the most popular social event in which host country organises cultural events and make audience aware with cultural aspects of country. Hosting such kind of event creates opportunity for region to gain social, economic (Palmer, 2017). Timisoara is the historic region and authorities have selected it for European capital of culture in 2021. By organising this program, nation will be able to attract more travellers in destination. This will help in generating foreign reserves and increasing tourism activities in nation. Timisoara has rich culture and there are many tourists those who like to go to such kind of places where they can get in-depth information about cultural aspects. This would be beneficial in foster urban regeneration and creating positive image of destination in the mind of tourists. Hosting such kind of events is helpful in raising visibility of Timisoara and it would be able to develop an international profile (Graham, Ashworth and Tunbridge, 2016).
The main idea of organising such kind of cultural event was of Melina Mercouri who is culture minister of Greece. Individual has raised innovative idea to conduct annual capital of culture program. The main benefit of organising this event is that this can help in bringing Europeans closer (Reijnders, 2016). When all the involved countries and cites come closer and work together then it will aid in increasing import, export, trading activities. This will impact positively on economic condition of Romania because by this way government will be able to make healthy trade agreements with other nations that will increase economic value of region significantly. Furthermore, hosting a cultural event will be socially beneficial for Timisoara in order to highlighting richness and cultural diversity of country efficiently. By this way social values of the Timisoara will be spread across the world. People those who will attend this programs will be aware with common history and values of the place. This will improve social life of population (Nóbrega and Araújo, 2015).
Hosting ECoC 2021 will maximise the social and economic benefit of Timisoara, Romania. It is cultural based development strategy that can give long term benefit for cultural promotion of European countries. In order to organise such big event successfully Timisoara will have to make changes in its infrastructure facilities so that it can conduct it properly. This will boost improvements such as development of railway lines, airports, new hotels etc. so that guests do not find any kind of difficulty (Sabiote-Ortiz, Frías-Jamilena and Castañeda-García, 2016). Timisoara can generate huge revenues by selling tickets of this ECoC event. This will help in economic development of country. Furthermore, such event will gain attention of other visitors and they will plan to come to this location. Hosting cultural event will assist in generating more employment opportunities in Timisoara, Romania that will positively impact on economic development of the region. By this way people will get income sources that would support them in living a healthy life (Hannam, Butler and Paris, 2014).
Hosting ECoC for 2021 will also negatively impact on social and environmental condition of country. By organising this event Timisoara will have to face issue of overcrowding, this will enhance pollution in the place. Thus, normal life of residents will get negatively affected. Organising European capital of culture in 2021 will increase terrorism activities in country because in order to attract more travellers government will have to make changes in its visa norms and will have to make it flexible for guests ( Cheng, Chang and Dai, 2015 ). This may increase security risk and can enhance occurrence of terrorist activities.
Butler Tourism Life cycle of Timisoara for destination development
Butler has made discussion on carrying capacity and sustainability. This model explains that each destination starts developing from small to large scale. There are six main stages of destination development ( Wang, 2016 ). These phases are explained as below:
- Exploration: this phase clearly illustrate that there are only few people those who take interest in adventurous place for holiday. They find such kind of places which has rich culture and is naturally beautiful. It may be possible that such kind of locations is unable to offer attractive tourists services that may impact on overall development of destination because in such kind of place travellers will not take interest to go (Yan and et.al., 2016).
- Involvement: It is next stage in which local population pay attention on increasing tourist activities in the destination. This increases income sources for them because they would get opportunity to start their business of providing accommodation, transport etc. This helps in generating revenues and improving condition of destination as well. Government of the Timisoara can also attract people towards tourism activities so that they can start their own business (Orams and Lueck, 2016).
- Development: There are many big size firms those who invest their capital in areas that has potential to generate high profit. Authorities of Timisoara can attract such investors; they can open resorts and hotel in Timisoara so that more travellers can get attracted towards it. There are many private tour operators they offer amazing travel packages to consumers (Tan, Luh and Kung 2014). This increases tourism activities in nation and enhances job opportunities in nation as well.
- Consolidation: High investment aids in making money that gives opportunity to local people to generate income sources. By this way people will come out of farming and fishing and will get opportunity to generate more profit and live a healthy life. But such development may increase tensions in destination between local population and tourists (Silva and Leal, 2015).
- Stagnation: There is many other popular tourist destination that may influence travelling decision of travellers. By this way Timisoara may face issue in attracting people towards destination. This may be threatening situation for business and local people (Füller and Michel, 2014).
- Declining or rejuvenation: In such condition there are two changes whether destination may go down or can re-grow. In order to develop or re-growth of the location authorities are required to attract more private players those who can contribute well in development of the Timisoara. By this way more infrastructure and transportation development will be taken place that would be beneficial attracting more visitors towards the destination (How the Olympic Locations are Chosen, 2018).
Timisoara is the destination which is popular for its culture and natural beauty. But due to lack of facility it was unable to attract travellers towards the destination. It was in the consolidation phase from longer period. But now after getting hosting opportunities of ECoC in 2021 place has entered into rejuvenation stage. Authorities are working hard to upgrade existing facilities and improving the condition of place (Palmer, 2017). It is making connection with private players those who can invest their money for development of Timisoara. This will help in improving the actual reputation of this destination and will help in its development significantly.
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Required criteria to be nominated for host country for ECoC
Every year European Capital of Culture event is organised by different countries. Each city that wants to host this program put their name to the committee members as applicant city. The nomination of host country is being done one of the bases of several factors (Sabiote-Ortiz, Frías-Jamilena and Castañeda-García, 2016). There criteria are described as below:
- Capability to organise this event (Infrastructure, etc.)-The applicant city or Timisoara will have to provide that it is able to handle such big event. When a large cultural event organises in any destination then many tourists come to the place across the world. Many Politian, athletes and normal population attend in this event. Thus, it is the initial criteria for the Timisoara that to provide itself that it can organise such big ECoC successfully. Firstly they have prove that they have enough space for this event, furthermore, Timisoara will have to prove that it has adequate hotels, transportation, safety services and it can manage the mass audience significantly (Hannam, Butler and Paris, 2014).
- Acceptance of residence-Before nominating the host destination, authorities always consider that whether local population is agreed for the event or not. Applicant location has to convince the residents that this investment is beneficial for the development of destination and it will help in generating more job opportunities for them. In order to do the same country will have to increase tax rates so that funds can be collected for hosting such big event. But many times increasing such taxes do not accept by residents and people resist for changes (Füller and Michel, 2014). If there is such kind of situation in any place then authorities do not allow such destination to host such big event.
- Media exposure-Timisoara would be categorised as future European Capital of Culture if it has positive media exposure. Media plays significant role in making the program successful. Positive media exposure helps bid committee members in nominating the destination for hosting the social event (Silva and Leal, 2015). In the absence of adequate media support destination will not be nominated for the ECoC in 2021.
- Economic condition-This is considered as essential element for becoming a host city for future ECoC. As committee members have to look upon this point that whether nation has adequate financial resources or not. If the place has inadequate funds then it would not be able to manage such large event. It may increase chances of failure of event. By this way actual objective of organising such event will not be fulfilled (How the Olympic Locations are Chosen, 2018). Thus, committee always consider these criteria for selecting a host city for the big event.
- Political condition-It is another major criteria for the host country selection, if the place has unstable government then it might increase chances of crises. In such condition authorities of the place will not be able to offer facilities and safety to the mass audience. This increases chances of occurrence terrorist activities as well. In such condition bid committee do not consider the applicant city as host city because it is unsafe for the large audience (Graham, Ashworth and Tunbridge, 2016).
- Previous experience-Cost and financial condition of the city matters a lot but apart from this, authorities also consider experience of the place to conduct such kind of big events. If the place has no experience or negative experience of hosting any programs then committee will not select such destinations (Hannam, Butler and Paris, 2014). For example it was serious question of US that it will not be able to host the World cup alone because past experiences show that it was unable to manage such kind of sport event successfully. Thus, authorities have decided that it will be organised by two nations. Thus, past experience matters a lot because it shows the capability of the place to handle such kind of programs. In the case of Timisoara, it will be major criteria on behalf committee members will decide whether they will select Timisoara for this ECoC in 2021 or not (Silva and Leal, 2015).
From the above report it can be concluded that cultural tourism plays significant role in improving economic condition of the nation and raising employment opportunities for the residents. There are several social, economic and environmental impact on destination if it becomes a host for the ECoC in 2021. This raises value of currency of the region and helps in improving social life standards of population. But hosting such kind of events creates issue of overcrowding and pollution that negatively affect the destination. Authorities always have to put hard efforts and have to attract investors for improving infrastructure and other facilities so that more people take interest in coming to the location. Study has illustrated that economic condition, media exposure, acceptance of residence, capability to organise this event are essential criteria’s for being nominated as host city for European Capital of Culture in 2021.
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