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Insight of Salt Tolerance in Wild and Cultivated Rice

University: Brock University

  • Unit No: 1
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 18 / Words 4417
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: BIOL2P94
  • Downloads: 170
Question :

This report will cover the following questions which are given below:

  1. This will locate the problem and research questions in the consideration of existing data and the knowledge.
  2. This will result in getting appropriate graphic formats so these can be easily seen and interpreted.
  3. It should be concise recommendations to the client regarding to the original problems from the research.
Answer :

Methods

Primary data refers to information which is collected directly from respondent. It is considered as raw data that is gathered from original sources. This data is highly helpful in finding out actual conclusion for the problem or research topic. There are various types of methods which are used by investigator to collect primary data from targeted audience or respondents. These methods are described as below:

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Interview:

In this method of primary data is collected by asking questions from chosen respondents in interview. It can be said that information gathered in this method is true as person is less likely to lie during face to face interaction. These interviews can also be conducted on telephonic based conversation.

Questionnaire:

Questionnaire is combination of various question which are framed in order to find out solution for specific problems (Bose, Rodrigo-Moreno and Shabala, 2014). The questionnaire includes different option along with the questions from which respondents are required to give best suitable answer. This method is helpful in gathering information from huge population in less period of time. 

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Observation:

In this method researcher gathers information on his own observation without taking any suggestion from investigator. This method is helpful in finding out appropriate conclusion as it is free from biasness. Along with this, willingness and favouritism is avoided due to no guidance of respondent. It is considered as time consuming process as researcher have to give more time in observing all activities in surrounding and further it evaluated in order to conclude it.

As per the above mentioned primary method of data collection, it has been evaluated that questionnaire is considered as best suitable method in relation with the salt tolerance in wild and cultivated rice. This method is helpful as it less costly and suitable for large population. It provides actual data as respondents are free to represent their own knowledge on question which is asked to them. As a result, gathered information is free from biasness which is helpful for researcher to find out actual and most relevant conclusion. In relation to research topic, questionnaire is helpful for researcher to conduct appropriate comparison between cultivated rice and wild rice. After collection of information it can be estimated that which type of rice can tolerate more salinity and continue its growth without affecting level of cultivation.

In order to conduct this research, researcher has selected 30 number of respondents which was sufficient of performing the same.

Ethical issues:

Ethics refers to the principles or moral duty of individual which guides him what is right or wrong. In relation to the research, the field itself owns some sort of ethics which are required to be followed by researcher while executing whole course of conduct. It is essential for researcher to use all gathered information by taking permission of respondent as it includes some personal details of them. Along with this, gathered information is required to be kept confidential as this might not be safe and secure for the respondent. It can be said that every respondent gives true information to research so it is the responsibility of investigator to value their support by keeping the information confidential. In addition to this, ethical responsibility is not limited towards respondents but it is includes respect for intellectual property. It is important for the researcher to not copy work of any other person. And if required information is compulsory to take then it should only be taken after taking permission.

Limitation of research: 

Every research suffers from difficulties which interrupts in completing work in effective manner (Gupta and Huang, 2014). In context to this research, researcher have gone through number of difficulties. Time given for conducting research was not satisfactory as it requires huge amount of time to deeply study actual scenario of company. Along with this, money which was allotted was not enough as it if more money would have been available for researcher then their might be a chance of making this research more appropriately.

Results and Discussions

Q 1)Are you aware with the concept of rice cultivation?

a) Yes

b) No

Q 2) Do you know difference between cultivated rice and wild rice?

a) Yes

b) No

Q 3) Does rice consumption is the staple for south-east Asian countries.?

a) Yes

b) No

Q4) What are the major condition problem can be faced in rice production in near future?

a) Increase in sea water level

b) reduction in salt water

c) Salt salinity

Q 5) Which type of rice can sustain longer in salt water?

a) Cultivated rice

b) Wild rice

Q 6) Does wild rice cultivation is more efficient to increase production?

a) Yes

b) No

Q 7) what is the importance of rice cultivation?

a) Staple food

b) Economic growth and development.

c)Provides high nutrition value.

Q 8) What are the major drawback of salt in cultivation of rice?

a) Damages root length of plant.

b) Stops fruitification of plant

c) Minimises sustainability of plant.

Q 9) Does Australian wild rice is genetically different from other cultivated rice?

a) Yes

b) No

Q1 Are you aware with the concept of rice cultivation ?

Yes

11

No

19

Q1

Interpretation

As from this above graph, it has been shown that out of 30 people 11 people are familiar with the concept of rice cultivation and 11 shows the minority of people. In Australia less number of people are engaged with the activities related to agriculture and the rice cultivation is the another specific activity which is a part of a particular agriculture style and there are different types of rice that grows in the domestic and forest region of Australia and there cultivation process are also different and only 11 people knows the original concept of rice cultivation as they are doing this process form one generation to another generation. While there is majority of people that are 19 who does not feel even familiar from the concept because there working activities and work are not related to the farming activities and due to which they are not known of the concept of rice cultivation. The one who even belong from the agriculture activities might be they are not known of this specific cultivation process of rice or they could be of the cultivation process of wheat or other cereal.

Q2 The difference between cultivated rice and wild rice?

a) Yes

16

b) No

14

Q2

 

Interpretation

As per the above mentioned graph it has been evaluated that mainly there are two types of rice that is cultivated rice and wild rice. Cultivated rice is the one which is grown in the field (Zhu and et. al., 2015). Plant of these rice are less tolerable for salt water as they are not able to sustain with salty particles for longer duration. On the other hand, Wild rice refers to the edible grain which mainly looks like lengthy aquatic grass with vegetal taste and normally consumed in North America, China and India.

In relation to the respond of respondent, approximately 16 people said that they are aware about difference between cultivated rice and wild rice as they have read about it some studies of the education and others internet surfing practices. In this, they have evaluated that cultivated rice is mostly preferred by maximum number of people but due to increasing salinity in water its level of cultivation is decreasing day by day.

On the other hand, 14 respondents among 30 said that they do not know actual difference between wild rice and cultivated rice. As in their native countries, they do not give preferences to rice as the staple food. This is the main reason for their lack of knowledge about rice and its variety in it.

Q3 Does rice consumption is the staple for south-east Asian countries.?

a) Yes

19

b) No

11

 

Q3Interpretation

The above graphical representation represents the information reflects the perspective of community subject to rice consumption. Whether It is staple commodity in South-east Asia. 19 respondents assumes that rice is staple commodity for consumption for daily whereas 11 respondents thinks that rice consumption in not staple in comparison to South-East Asian countries. It is one of the essential aspect in terms of building the stable position and planning force for deploying strategies and plans for growing the sections in south-east countries.

Rice consumption is east and south Asian countries is staple commodity for regular consumption level. To analyse the relevancy for the this 30 respondents are chosen to derive the sections. For effectiveness of evaluation the analysis made upon the respondents the respondents are chosen form different continental areas and sectors for better evaluation and control. The management not only identify the potential areas but also the reason of being more popular and significant for developing the culture of staple rice in Asian countries. On ACIAR different methods and criteria are analysed for deploying strategies different sections.

the results are positive subject to carried out the research. The projected results are relevant to the research context as insight of salt tolerance in wild and cultivated rice. As most adequate results also found parallel to Wild rice.

Q4 What are the major condition problem can be faced in rice production in near future?

a) Increase in sea water level

11

b) reduction in salt water

9

c) Salt salinity

10

Q4

Interpretation

The above graph helps in demonstrating the results subject to determine the major condition problems in near future. The as per expert's perspective few aspects come across as 11 respondents assumes that if water level of sea increased that contingency of salted rice will be increased and it will deployed with different aspects. 9 respondents analyse gave their response in respect of eduction of salted water that will impact the overall consumption and will not get impacted form sea levels and different physiological aspects. The aspect is more over related to the suggested fields because the 90% area of South is occupied for agricultural purpose due to viability and adequate climate (Yan and et. al., 2013). Raining system and climate stability rate is stated to 8% and analysed more probable for contingency reserves for wild rice.

Q5 Which type of rice can sustain longer in salt water?

a) Cultivated rice

18

b) Wild rice

12

Q5

Interpretation

Above graphical information shows the results in order to determine the sustainability of type of rices. Wild rice and cultivated rice are the two different nature of rices considered to evaluate the results for better understanding. 18 respondents shows presents positive aspect in terms of cultivated rice and 12 respondents subject to wild rice. Results are positive in terms of cultivate rice There is a huge impact fall upon merging and migrating the gaining rate and analysing the cultivated across 114 countries. Globally it is observed that the quantitation of immediate rice was evaluated for determine the process of analysing the technical aspects for more critical and demonstrative analysis. The reduce rate was counted stable for salinity tolerance due to addictive gene effects. However the salinity of wild rice found more complex and reduced in terms of managing the stability and re productivity. In this case the stability states for crop yield ad the biochemical and physiological aspects. Reproduction rate of cultivated rice is sustainable for long term perspective in comparison to wild rice. Evaluation of cultivars was precise at morph-physiological level by estimating parameters like tiller number, leaf area, panicle length, root length, biomass elements for more flexibility and determining the plants.

Q6 Does wild rice cultivation is more efficient to increase production?

a) Yes

19

b) No

11

Q6
Interpretation

The above graphical information presents the favourable results in term of analysing the efficiency of production for more better and innovative way. The possibilities of changes also remain compressed for wild rice comparatively to cultivated rice. 19 responders consider that the wild rice are more effective and considerable for in order to attain the effectiveness of salt and salinity nature. The process of ultra structural and formal changes are the main aspects considered adequate for Wild rice crops (Zhang and et. al., 2016). At present, salinity is the second type of stress and is the most predominant hindrance to rice production acer drought of salinity on the growth and yield of rice in field have been well studied including the study of phenotypic variance for salt tolerance amongst the climate nature. It is evaluated that the exert services are more stretching and remain harmful for products and services in regular rigid.

The some of the salt affecting factors are the essential part to inbound the process of gaining crops (Lu and et. al., 2014). The inflexible time duration extend the process in more synchronised manner so that desirable outcomes get collected in time. The desirable biochemical level attains the effectiveness of concentration of salt with enhanced osmotic potentials. This issue majorly reduce the transactions for more summarised function ability.

Q7 What is the importance of rice cultivation?

a) Staple food

11

b) Economic growth and development.

9

c)Provides high nutrition value.

10

Q7

Interpretation

The above results shows the perspective of thirty respondents in order to determine the importance of rice cultivation for better results and assumptions. As per above analysis it is analysed that staple food mainly intend the less sustainability with 10 and 9 respondents presents the information for economical growth and development in rice crops and growing section. 10 respondents presents the perspective subject to nutrition values that will bring more sustainable aspect. The perspectives presents the relevant results for compressing to fulfil the results.

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Q8 What are the major drawbacks of salt in cultivation of rice ?

a) Damages root length of plant

7

b) Stops fruitification of plant

8

c) Minimises sustainability of plant

15

 

Q8

Interpretation: In the above graph it has been concluded that only 7 people agreed that salt damages the overall root length of the plant as the root length it is not possible to measure every time and it is less effected because by properly giving decent amount of manures and fertilizer the damage of root length could be stopped and 8 people agrees that if the amount of salt is more than fruitification of the plant is stopped as converting flower into the fruit requires time and some time the insect can also harms the fruitification process which could also be stopped by spraying the fertilizers and through this insects can be repel for the plant and the above two points that is root length and fruitification salt does impact them for short period of time, but 15 number of people agreed that salt mostly harms the overall sustainability of the plant as it harms the region or particular area where the cultivation process is going on . In addition also salts also slows down the process of oxidation due to which overall life of the plants also decreases and due to the nature of salt the fertility of salt also destroys. So when the process of seeding would done for the next season then it growth and sustainability decreases to the higher value then the previous one.

Q9 The Australian wild rice is genetically different from other cultivated rice?

a) Yes

19

b) No

11

Q9

 

Interpretation

Genetic seeds are unlike any other seeds and they are grown in the ground but what makes them difference is that they are genetically modified and have desirable traits (Kim and et. al., 2014). Under this, seeds are generally modified with the help of traditional plant breeding techniques. Therefore, in terms of Australasian wild rice it is genetically different if it is compared with rice which are cultivated. Australasian wild rice, provides with opportunities to cultivators because they are improved. Therefore, in relation with customers their prime choice or priority is wild rice because of its cooking methodologies as it represents its quality. As compared to other cultivated rice they wild rice contains more nutritional value. Henceforth, with the help of above mentioned graph it has been evaluated that Australasian wild rice as per the 19 respondents out of 30, they are agreeing with the fact and saying “Yes”, which means according to them Australasian wild rice are genetically different from other cultivated rice. Whereas other 11 respondents have chosen the option “No”, which shows that they are not agreeing with the fact and according to them as Australasian wild rice are genetically modified so it can put an negative impact on the health related problems.

Conclusion and Recommendation

From the above mentioned discussion it has been concluded that cultivation of rice is considered as main aspect for the future food production. It has been observed that rice belongs to the staple food of the south east Asia which is mostly consumed by their native citizens. According to its requirement in the future, it is important to preserve its cultivation and remove other barriers which might affect its growth. It can be said that main component which is important in growing rice is water which is required to utmost in order to grow rice crop effectively. But, as per the research it has been found that approximately 71% of earth is consist of sea water which is mostly occupied with salt water. This is considered as one among major drawback which affects cultivation level of rice. In this research, investigator has conducted experiment in order to find out that which type of rice can sustain longer in salt water. After the experiment, it has been found that wild rice owns some new genes which helps the plant of wild rice to sustain longer in salinity water. On the other hand, cultivated rice is not able to survive in salty water.

It has been also evaluated plant height is considered as another factor which affects the growth of rice. It can be said that if height of plant is taller than it will enhance its level to catch sunlight which helps them in preparing their food in effective manner. Unlike, smaller plants whose height is not that much do not own capability to reach sunlight which affects its growth. It has been analysed that if plant does not receive proper sunlight it stops them to prepare their food through photosynthesis. This is considered as the main reason which affects the growth of rice plant. Thus, it is important for cultivator to initial focus on the height of plant as if they are capable to its height then its chances for survival can be increased.

It has been observed that Australian wild rice are genetically different from other types of cultivated rice. Its important for researcher to evaluate that acceptance of consumer is considered as the major priority because cooking methods depends upon the quality of rice. Because rice is the staple crop for people which is important to be cultivated in regular manner. Therefore, it is important to grow rice as it is basic need for its user. It is important to find out actual solution and ways which are helpful in increasing cultivation of rice with same salinity issue.

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Recommendation:

Rice is a staple food product which is high on demand and consumption. From the research, it is recommendable that rice crops should grows in new and better way and do not treated like machine to be manipulated and forced to do anything against the nature. It is advisable to use System of rice intensification(SRI) which has discovered and demonstrated some important methods for helping rice plants to achieve their potential outcomes (Five ways System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices and ideas can help “feed the world”, 2016). This system will help in increasing the roots and tillers to consume more water which they receive through irrigation, so that plants would become more productive and usable. There should be proper management of soil, water and crops in order to effective preservation of rice cultivation. It can be cultivated by using advanced method and technology for reproduction of crop through effective soil management, essential irrigation techniques and time to time supervision. Climate change also plays influence on rice crop production.

It is also advisable to farmer to become experimenter to apply their own methods of maintenance of rice crops. Adequate drainage canals are require to make ensure about proper water control. Levelling the crop field is also important and sufficient water layer on the field. It is important to make sure that soil would be well-drained inside the crops and utilized by the root of the rice crops. It is my suggestion that farmer should observe their rice crop and rice field carefully, looking for any sign of harm or poor growth of a rice crop. Farmer should feel free to make some adjustments in practices like timing, spacing, weeding and soil preparation etc. Innovation for proper cropping should be tried first in smaller area rather than applying on whole and big field. Farmers should be encouraged to experiment with different varieties of rice. It must ensure rice crops must be well-managed before spreading water to the dry crop and maintain water level for optimum absorption by sun rays. It is also advisable to using less salt based water to stop harming rice crops by using filter technology to clean water and again using same water again and again. Soils generally harms roots of crops, it is required to avoid using salt based water. For this SRI system is efficient one to protect crops and production of rice more. 

REFERENCES

  • Bose, J., Rodrigo-Moreno, A. and Shabala, S., 2014. ROS homeostasis in halophytes in the context of salinity stress tolerance.Journal of Experimental Botany. 65(5).  pp.1241-1257.
  • Gupta, B. and Huang, B., 2014. Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: physiological, biochemical, and molecular characterization.International journal of genomics,2014.
  • Shelden. and et. al., 2016. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.Journal of experimental botany. 67(12), pp.3731-3745.
  • Kumar. and et. al., 2014. Over-expression of dehydrin gene, OsDhn1, improves drought and salt stress tolerance through scavenging of reactive oxygen species in rice (Oryza sativa L.).Journal of Plant Biology. 57(6). pp.383-393.
  • Wang. and et. al., 2014. Root proteome of rice studied by iTRAQ provides integrated insight into aluminum stress tolerance mechanisms in plants.Journal of proteomics. 98.  pp.189-205.
  • Kim, H. and et. al., 2014. Overexpression of PYL5 in rice enhances drought tolerance, inhibits growth, and modulates gene expression.Journal of experimental botany. 65(2). pp.453-464.
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