Discussion on the preferred and least preferred paradigms in psychology and mentioning their relevance in the present scenario. The argument is to be supported with the use of two theoretical approaches.
- A brief discussion of the revolution on contemporary psychotherapies.
- Provide a description of why psychoanalysis is least preferred.
- Given a description of the reason for preferring PCT and BT.
- Making a strong argument relating to preferences and non-preference of such approaches.
Psychology is scientific study of human mind and its functions which can adequate impact on the behaviour in a given context or situation. It helps in understanding the desires of conscious and unconscious mind. The essay will make a comprehensive discussion regarding psychoanalysis and various techniques of therapy included in it. The essay will then discuss regarding person centred therapy which in inclusive of various elements, such as, empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. The essay also focuses upon behavioural therapy which has strong association to the environment, In then end, a comparison between both the therapies will be made so as to ascertain most preferred and least preferred one (Smith, 2015).
Psychoanalysis is considered to be set of theories and therapeutic techniques. It is related to the study of unconscious mind. The relation of the two helps in forming method of treatment for various types of mental disorders. The concept was originated in the early 1890s by Australian neurologist Sigmund Freud. The term was actually derived in 1896 which means “The interpretation of dreams”, which as per Freud was the most significant work. Psychoanalysis helps in building deeper understanding regarding conflicts between conscious and un conscious mind that can lead to metal disturbances in the form of neurosis, anxiety, neurotic traits and particularly depression. Unconscious type of material linked to an individual can be found in dreams and certain unintentional acts. It can inclusive of mannerism and slip of tongue. Clients tend to live in their infantile conflicts by projecting them in various types of feeling, such as, dependence, love and anger (Weick, 2015). Panic, phobias, obsession, compulsion, conversions and depressions are generally caused due to intrapsychic conflicts. There are various elements that are used to eliminate this condition of defensive operations. It includes essentially shutting of the brain mechanism that make people unaware of the elements that are causing conflicts in their brain.
Person centred Psychotherapy was developed by a psychologist, named, Carl Rogers in the beginning of 1940s. It helps in addressing inbuilt tendency that can actually lead to growth and fulfilment of the individual. There are certain aspects that should be sufficiently present so as to develop therapeutic change (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). There must be adequate therapist and client psychological contact where perception of each individual must be taken into consideration by the two. Inconsistency existing between experience of the client and awareness. Since, the therapist is deeply engaged with the client, disclosure of own experience can also be initiated in order to facilitate the relationship. It is important that the therapist unconditionally accept the client without framing any kind of judgement of approval or disapproval. There must be adequate empathetic understanding present in the therapist to ensure that client perception has adequately been considered at the time of therapy (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). Hence, it can be stated that there are three interrelated core conditions, which are, congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy, so as to initiate an effective therapist and client relationship. It has been stated that if the therapist is able to focus upon these three critical and reflective attitudes, then in that case, he / she can be able to liberate his client more effectively so as to confidently express their true feelings. Hence, it can be inferred that, the main goal of this therapy is to enhance, independency of client with awareness and goal setting of the therapist.
Behavioural therapy is another term that is related to clinical psychotherapy. It has been derived from the techniques that are used in behaviourism. Practicing behaviour therapy helps in analysing the specific and learned behaviour of an individual and its influence being gathered from the environment. It helps in looking for the treatment outcomes that are objectively measurable. It does not point out any one specific method that can be adopted by the therapists but it is a combination of wide range of techniques that can help in treating the phycological issues faced by the individual (Neisser, 2014). As per the assumption of behavioural theory, behaviours which are associated to psychological problems are learnt in the same process as the other behaviors are learnt. Hence, therapists generally involve in analysing the personality of an individual and find problems in the same. It helps them in assessing that how a particular learning has been influenced which is developing a behaviour in an individual regarding reacting or behaving in particular manner in certain situations. Behaviour therapist indulge incomplete functional analysis of the client on the basis of, organism, stimulus, response and consequences. Moreover, assessing the environmental trigger can also help in addressing a particular type of behaviour in which an individual may be indulged in. These variables play an important role during addressing client’s behaviour and their response to certain situation or stimuli. As per social learning theory of behavioural therapy, people learn from one another through, observation, modelling and imitation. Hence, it can be stated that memory and motivation of performing in a certain manner is gathered through environment only (Wickens and et.al., 2015).
Before giving any type of treatment to the client, it must ensure that what type of experience, the individual has gone through. It helps in understanding that every individual is different and hence the conscious and unconscious state of it can also differ in various ways. Learning their thoughts and finding out association with the unconscious mind helps in solving out the issue. However, it must be ensured that the thoughts are not pushed towards any type of undue interference. Instead of providing advice, a therapist can help in developing greater understanding the internal forces, that can lead the individual towards seeking help. The influence made in presence can help in sorting out the desires of unconscious mind as well.
Psychoanalysis technique of psychology is least preferred in comparison to the most preferred techniques, which are, Person centred Psychotherapy and Behavioural therapy. Psychoanalysis have not been able to concentrate upon analysis rather than it focus upon giving advices and recommendations to the client. Moreover, psychoanalytic is a confusing rather than clarifying the concepts. Some of the ideas that are presented in this aspect have gone outdated and are not applicable in present or contemporary setting. However, on the other hand, person centric and behaviour therapy have appropriate application on various aspects of the clients. It helps in understanding their experiences and behaviour and then reach to any type of specific results. It helps in ensuring that before opting for any type of treatment to the client, all the aspects are clearly understood leading to expansion of better application of therapy. The base of person centred therapy is existing on empathy, positive regard and authenticity, it is more inclined towards positive growth in comparison to what is expected out of Psychoanalysis (Behavioural Therapy, 2017). It has been ascertained from the research that Psychoanalysis is an old technique which used to applied at the time when any other technique was not available. However, the effectiveness and treating duration of clients are quite low in case of PCT and BT in comparison ton it. It is quite effective to analyse the behaviour and mould theb therapy as per the requirements of the individual.
It can be concluded from the above essay that psychoanalysis is a least preferred paradigm. However, on the other hand, Person centred Therapy and behaviour therapy are not preferred by the psychologists these days. Further, as per the person centred therapy, client’s perception must also be considered through empathy in such a manner that his experience is appropriately assessed at the time of therapy. It helps the individual in revealing actual feelings. However, as per behavioural therapy, it has been assessed that all the unconscious and conscious state of mind of the individual is the result of what has ultimately been adopted by him / her through environment. Hence, in the end, it can be stated that psychoanalytic is a least paradigm. However, Person centred therapy and behaviour therapy are mostly preferred in Psychology.