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Legislation and Ethics in Travel and Tourism- British Airways

University: University of Bristol

  • Unit No: 1
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 13 / Words 3321
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: THT3112
  • Downloads: 972
Question :

This assessment will cover the following questions:

  • Identify the legislative framework which governs the travel and tourism industry.
  • Examine consumer protection legislation in context to travel and tourism industry.
  • What are the international convention and treaties that ensure the safety and health of the individual.
  • What are the major difference between law and ethics.
Answer :
Organization Selected : British Airways


Ethics are replicated as standards and moral values for indicating members of society with its act. The present report will give brief discussion about legal and statutory framework of travel and tourism sector with context of England and Wales. It will provide discussion about surface, sea and air transport law on basis of carriage of passengers within regulatory and legal framework of UK. In the similar aspect, it will reflect impact of principles of safety, security and health legislation and analyse the legislations related to equality. This report will show contract and consumer protection legislation pf consumers of travel and tourism. It will articulate about ethical dilemmas and policy of corporate social responsibility of British Airways.

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1.1 Explaining legal and regulatory framework of travel and tourism sector

The travel and tourism sector of England and Wales is directly regulated through British Travel agents association with context of insurance, booking along with other issues. It would be regulating the process of booking and travelling process along with travel code. Generally, these rights are driven under this industry. The main objective is for regulating tourists safety along with customers prospective. The regulations of safety and health gives major function in giving safety to particular tourists. The wellbeing of employees are observed under industry. With reference to standard approach, legal guidelines and association are followed for purpose of experience of travel (Su, Huang and Huang, 2018).

ABTA: The procedure of tourism under England and Wales are directly regulated through ABTA. The main objective of forming ABTA to ensure travel bookings and permits are directly derived as per regulations. Their aim is for regulating numerous offers given to tourists through various company. It is responsible for purpose of provision in context of facilities of departure, booking and insurance.

Strategic Rail Authority: The objective of appropriate management of laws and prescribed with reference to Transport Act of 20000. In the similar aspect, it is facilitated related to transport strategies and purpose undertaken through British railways.

International Air transport Association: The objective of association is for tracking schedules and routes of airline for purpose of functioning and forming rules. It designs strategies which might concern the alteration in route with its presence in industry.

Health and safety Commission: The commission objective for deriving benefit’s safety to employees and public working with reference to tourism industry. The duty of occupier for maintaining premises for ensuring employees security. With this context, similar objective of association to give proper equipment to maintain premises cleanliness. The safety and health standards are regulated according to this (Alvarado-Herrera and et.al., 2017).

Air travel Organiser’s Licensing (ATOL): The business entity has objective for maintaining licenses and support given to numerous service providers in form of holiday packages and offers under tourism industry of UK.

1.2 Discussing sea, surface and air transport law in context to carriage of passengers in regulatory and legal framework of UK

The mode of transport with application of carrying tourist through one place to another as compared to responsibilities of carrier in form of injuries and safety which is caused during transport. It might alter on basis of transport mode. For air, sea and land the transport mode which is differing in nature. There are various kinds of transport mode which are stated below:

The Road and Air Act of 1979, there is requirement of carrier for ensuring that on boards during the journey as secure and safe with any damage. The carrier is directly liable for purpose of vision along with measures required with involvement for maintaining regulations of safety. It should ensure about each passenger with equal treatment and to ignore any situation of death, injury or luggage and loss. In the year 1974, the Athens Convention has identified that international carriage via sea which must be regulated via cargos, ships and vessels. While travelling on sea, it had been extracted the safety of passengers and luggage will be protected through mental or physical harm impacts loss during unloading and loading, the ship or vessel owner service would be highly responsible.

This act has huge requirement of carrier on roadways for determining claim and rights of passenger given for purpose of ignoring mental, physical disorder which is caused through unloading and loading of boarding, de boarding and luggage. The safety is given with travel time for purpose of presence of carrier boarding. As per carriage of passengers through 1974’s road act, there is regulation for passenger’s safety along with luggage. The legislations and rules are given in present scenarios at Guild of British coach for presence of appropriate coach. The Domestic Carriage order of 1987 gives protection to domestic carriage travel along with safety. In the similar aspect, Athens Convention Act, 1974 has regulated three forms with context of travel under industry of British tourism. The damages and losses are comprised in regulations which are responsibility for carrier undertaken through passengers at perfect time (The Package travel, Package holidays and package tours regulations 1992, 2018).


2.1 Analysing impact of principles of safety health and security legislations

The health and safety at work act, 1974 gives protection to employees on basis of the health and safety like presence of individuals in premises. It had signified that visitors, employees along with service providers for purpose of implementation of process of tourism must be checked through employers. In the similar aspect, employer’s duty is to ensure about safety provisions and working environment is maintained on premises along with safety regulations. With reference to aviation industry, it is very difficult as its employees and consumers face difficulty along with non-compliance of safety regulations. It has been required that customers, employees along with support of crewmembers for supporting organization’s regulations. The people’s safety is prioritizing in travelling and provided assistance for facilities which is difficult for safety (O’Regan and Choe, 2017).

There is requirement of giving appropriate training to its employees under industry of tourism for ensuring people’s safety with journey’s duration. It has responsibility of spreading safety across numerous hierarchies, team members and managers. It might consider management with legislative bodies. As per legislation of health and safety, management’s right and responsibilities has been prescribed. In this context, employees and employer are cooperated with each other as employer should evaluate well-being of each kind of employee who belongs to different religions and background.

With reference to Occupier’s liability act, 1984, it is mandatory for premises of occupier in England and Wales for undertaking precautions about safety along with maintenance for ensuring visitor’s safety along with trespassers. The legislation has prescribed permanent or temporary visitors for safeguarding possible harm and danger which is created by breach of security. The occupier is directly obligated for reflecting warning signs without undertaking security measures. Hence, it is necessary for safety regulations which are abided in form of safety and health regulations (Fong, Wong and Hong, 2018).

2.2 Analysing legislation on basis of equality 

There is requirement for ensuring employees that they are treated equally with context of employment. The legislation of equality with tourism sector with objective of specifying equal opportunity to its employees along with best services for travellers in whole industry. The employer must prohibit discrimination among customers and employees with context of disabilities such as race, dislikes, religion, likes on other aspect.

As per sex discrimination act 1975, it is necessary through employers for ensuring that employees are not discriminated on basis of gender. Each situation must be treated with employee consideration as women and men are treated equally with application of situation. In the similar aspect, particular performance of job is not compared on basis of gender (Sex Discrimination Act 1975, 2018).

As per employment protection act 1978, ensures employers about employment in written format. The documents consists of employment’s regular development like joining date, form of dismal and employment along with pay scale. If employment has need of specific treatment for any employee and similarly it should be identified in employment letter which comprises responsibilities and duties. If organization gives holiday allowances or pension scheme then it should be included on notifying alteration in a month (Law, DeLacy and McGrath, 2017).

According to disability discrimination act of 1955, it is necessary through employer for not to discriminate on basis of person’s disability. This person must be given similar chance from able person. It has been forbidden with application of disability not in favour of employment where employee is disabled. In this aspect, promotion, training and transfer. As per Race Relations Act, 1976 all employers are forbidden for discrimination with reference to employees race which are inherited through them. There are various biases on basis of race which are not allowed in employment.

The main purpose of legislation of equality for ensuring that each individual has shown equal opportunity with application of job for sustaining in business entity. With reference to tourism industry, the service providers and tour operators must consider each aspect of tourists by giving services for ensuring equal treatment with comfort. The legislations apply to ensure about hiring employees with ethical approach and process in organization.


3.1 Explaining contract legislation on basis of customers of travel and tourism

The contracts are vital to be precise and thorough. A valid contract is formed among parties as per acceptance and offer of same is reflected. The parties of contract have mutual intention for entering in contract for similar purpose. It is essential for breaching contract which should met with damage as it is claimed through parties to contract but with absence of third parties. The duties and rights of parties to contract are defined under contract. The required elements enter in contract is replicated as consideration. Each contract has exchange mechanism for identifying the determinant impacted and given fulfilment through other party. A contract is entered in any offer made through offeror through offeree. The offeree has acceptance of contract formation. The contract has enforceability which is identified on basis of intent for entering in contract. If contract has social purpose which is not enforceable with similar mentioned.

As per consumer law of 1990, the contract of hospitality has need of parties for ensuring about concerning terms with consideration of contract. The price of each service and product must be clearly identified along with duration of provision which should be explicit. These contracts consists of package holidays which are governed through legislation of Package Tours regulation of 1992 and holidays. A package comprises contract with involvement about presence of mix of two or more hospitality industry which will relate to tourist’s security along with belongings. It also covers food, insurances, lodging, luggage, alcohol and entertainment. If tourists faces damage or loss which is caused through contracts which might be recovered with loss of value with promise of tour operators at time of package selling. The experience of out of pocket which were directly assured on visit of value loss along with enjoyment through negative experience so trip has been encountered. The insurances cover safety and personal injuries of luggage for failure to undertake the necessity of precautionary steps for protecting consumer.

3.2 Explaining consumer protection legislation on basis of travel and tourism customers

The legislation of consumer protection has need of organization to protect and encourage tourism in its industry. The operator of tour must give competitive pricing for facilitating participation of consumer. It is mandatory duty of supplier for ensuring service developments and to prevent inappropriate practice in business. The relationship among suppliers, tourists and tour operators is very critical with need of protecting interest at each step. For the similar aspect, the legislation at international and national level is considered through each party for protecting well-being of its consumers.

As per Warsaw Convention of 1929, passenger’s right is directly supported for claim of damage or injury created at time of travel. The goods security is bound for protecting carrier which might be directly sued with similar breach. With reference to Hague Protocol of 1955, it is identified as passengers for undertaking air travel, the airlines would be directly responsible for giving passengers with mode of transportation which is regulated and liable for injuries or loss for suffering during travel.

The trade description act of 1968 has prohibited misleading or false indicator of goods and service’s price along with accommodation and other related services. It helps in setting responsibility of trading standards officers for checking:

  • Application of misleading trade description through provider
  • Supply along with offer of supply with implication of false trade description
  • Creating false statements related to provisions of services along with accommodation and facilities.

The package travel regulations of 1992 for assuring miscommunication about corrected about service end with provider of creating necessary arrangements. This explicitly gives minimum requirement of contract for holiday contract. With reference to valid and comprises various facilities like tourist services, transport and accommodation.

In the similar aspect, OFT lays special emphasis on regulation of market competition for implementation of practices and code of various regulations of tourism industry. The Air Travel Organizer licenses gives assurance to tourists and consumers through which operator is certified with country’s legislation. A financial protection is given with travellers’ scheme. If at each step, tourists and consumers are dissatisfied with product or service which is claimed with concerned legislation along with entering in contract through parties for special purpose.

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4.1 Analysing ethical dilemmas faced through travel and tourism sector

There are various issues faced through hospitality industry with its growth along with passing day and must be addressed in positive aspect. The objective of industry is to give ethical experience along with freedom of ethical dilemmas. The industry has huge engagement of constant interaction of its customers with tour operators and providers. In the similar aspect, it has involvement of application of natural and manmade resources with its appropriate step of tourism facilities. Thus, it is necessary for undertaking environmental perspective by giving customer experience to its tourists. The factor of enjoyment must be considered while giving facilities to be natural and fabricated. Tour operators must directly ensure about various cultural differences which are minimised by organising this tour. The tourists must be given with information right and knowledge which should be guided for undertaking travel (Litvin, Goldsmith and Pan, 2018).

In the similar aspect, it is observed in general as tourists are travelling overseas and facing exploitation along with discrimination on basis of skin colour along with heritage values. The language difference has framed barrier for better communication among tourists and citizens. There are different factors which are contributing for deleting social values along with natural dilemmas faced through industry. The country’s economic instability has impacted its tourism with absence of favourable travel costs. There are various assumptions in some culture to take off shoes during visit of religious place but it is vice versa in western cultures. It might form barrier on basis of culture and possibility has been evaded related to positive experience in city or country (Rajaobelina, 2018).

The variations in mannerism are adopted for tackling confusion along with dilemmas which are differing through country to country. The ministry of tourism has concerned with country for requirement for undertaking process of redefining its authorities and approaches for regulating these dilemmas for minimising it. The dilemmas are ensured on basis of citizens’ safety along with tourists. The industry of hospitality must inculcate various approaches for dealing with different dilemmas which are raised under business. Further, sustainable approach must be adopted for assuring positive gain of different actions which are undertaken. The tour operators must be capable for adopting and approach of eco-tourism. The industry of tourism comprises standards of world tourism organisation for protecting tourists and to develop industry in fair and equitable manner. The operators of tour must ensure about satisfaction of tourists should be given. Each tour operator reflects effective and healthy experience of global standards with its adaption for regulations of tourism industry.

Student also like to read about: Legislation and Ethics in Travel and Tourism - Thomas Cook travel and tourism

4.2 Analysing corporate social responsibility

The main objective of corporate social responsibility is for including various government practices for business with its social advantages. The corporate consist of activities and step  which provides advantage to social welfare as compared to activities which are considered in corporate social responsibilities. With context to various business it has been required for determining numerous factors for corporate to adopt a framework of social welfare for ensuring constant contribution with these activities (Sittig, Belmont and Singh, 2018).

With reference to British Airways, the activities are laid special emphasis on basis of sustainable development of tourism industry with development of different competitive goals.It is giving focus on giving carbon efficiency. In the similar aspect, it hosts various fundraising events for regulating different CSR activities. It had collaborated with Solena for giving high generative fuel which is replicated as bio fuel. It drives focus on economy’s sustenance for purpose of outsourcing its services and helps in decreasing cost of numerous empty resources. The decrement in pollution is met through adoption of renewable resources for recycling the waste discharged. British Airways has directly adopted the approach of waste management for regulating and disposing waste and to raising efficiency of cost reduction. The noise, air along with fuel qualities for regulating on daily basis for increasing impact of quality through quantity. As per company’s goal of 2050 with its identification about CO2 reduction by considering maximum eco-friendly approach which might be adopted with industry of aviation business. The object is to process 0% waste for increasing fuel efficiency. The British Airways had laid on delivering a whole experience to societal benefits along with tourist. This company has hiring employees with identification with impact and understanding regulation importance with its industry standards with encouragement of initiatives of education (Kelbley, 2017).

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From the above study it had been concluded that facilities given through carrier’s various transportation mode. The sea, air along with roadways transportation with context of legislations with its applicability. The role of various regulatory bodies with reference to hospitality and industry. There are various factors which influence consumer treatment, tourists and employees in industry of tourist with explanation of impacting legislation of consumer. It had been articulated various kind of activities of corporate social responsibility undertaken through British Airways with explanation for reducing ethical dilemmas faced through tourism industry.


  • Alvarado-Herrera, A. and et.al., 2017. A scale for measuring consumer perceptions of corporate social responsibility following the sustainable development paradigm. Journal of Business Ethics. 140(2). pp.243-262.
  • Fong, V.H.I., Wong, I.A. and Hong, J.F.L., 2018. Developing institutional logics in the tourism industry through coopetition. Tourism Management, 66, pp.244-262.
  • Kelbley, C. A., 2017. Are There Limits to Constitutional Change? Rawls on Comprehensive Doctrines, Unconstitutional Amendments, and the Basis of Equality. In Rawls and Law(pp. 55-104). Routledge.
  • Law, A., DeLacy, T. and McGrath, G.M., 2017. A green economy indicator framework for tourism destinations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 25(10). pp.1434-1455.
  • Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E. and Pan, B., 2018. A retrospective view of electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 30(1). pp.313-325.
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