The Causes of Teenage Pregnancy and Sexual Health Issues
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INTRODUCTION TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY
Sexuality refers to the physical mental and social well-being of the people. The sexual relationship requires a positive and respectful approach to the physical relationship between people (Kmietowicz, 2002). The people may have possibility of discrimination or violence which should be avoided in sexual relationship. They should try to have safe sexual experiences and pleasurable which may be free of coercion (Paranjothy and et.al., 2009). The persons getting intimated their sexual rights must be respected, protected and fulfilled to be attained and maintained. It is seen that, the persons behavior, personality is structured also the emotions are congruent and integrated with a person’s self-definition. It is that state where the person speaks to the partner about the sexual needs and desire and to set sexual boundaries.
The girl in the age group of 13-19 becoming pregnant is called as teenage pregnancy. As per the (UNICEF 2008) before legal adulthood the girl become pregnant. It is also said that the pregnancy in females under the age of 20 under the time when the time it ends. As it is acknowledged that the pregnancy can take place at the start of the puberty and before the menstrual period but usually after the occurrence of onset of periods.
In the report the concepts of human and sexual behavior are been explained. The risk factors related to teenage pregnancy and health issues to the mothers are been described here. The various strategies have been implemented to face the teenage management problems and preventative measure are been taken for the same. Also national policies are been explained which are claimed by the government.
It is seen in UK that the teenage pregnancy is found to be the most important area of public and private policy. It is seen that country has highest rate of birth rates between the age group of 15-17 years. UK has the age range of 15 years where the underage conception rate of women is around 30.9/1000 women. It is also said that the poor physical, educational, mental health and social isolation is meant for social violence and abuse which are associated with teenage pregnancy (National statistics office 2011). The rational pregnancy has declined almost continuously over the last two decades. The pregnancy that ends in the live birth is under the consideration of teenage pregnancy.
This leads to miscarriage and abortion. It is seen in UK that the teenage pregnancy has declined by 51 percent from 116.9 to 57.4 as per 1000 teen girls. It is due to the contraceptives use by the teens and the percentage the adolescence that is waiting to have sexual intercourse (Hoffman, 2001). It has been encountered that about 77 percent of teen pregnancy are unplanned. According to the data of 2010 the majority of pregnancies to adolescent female age 15-19 in the united kingdom as estimated to be 60 percent, which are ended in the live birth, miscarriage rate is 15 percent and the abortion rate is 30 percent. In UK the rate of abortion among the adolescence is lowest since it is legalized in 1973 and 66 percent lower than it got high in 1988 (Jackson, 2012). On the other hand, the adolescents aged 10-19 years account for % of all the birth worldwide. They account for 23% of the overall burden of diseases due to pregnancy and childbirth. The women on the age group of 15-19 years face the unsafe abortions that belong to mow and middle income countries (Sloggett and Joshi, 2008). Further, it has also been noticed that the adolescence pregnancy is found to be dangerous for the child. The younger the mother the higher the risk is, during the first month of life 50-100% is found to be mother in adolescent versus older. The problems faced by the children of adolescence are the preterm birth, low birth rate weight, and all of these increases the changes of death.
CONCEPTS AND MODELS OF HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
It has been seen psychophysiology that the human body is evolution to be remarked as a complex and incredible life. In human life reproduction is the most significant aspect where the two people are combined for the next stage. It has been noticed that people have desires and selection for which they apply societal, physical, economical, culture criteria (Heilborn and et.al., 2007). Sometimes people show their desire for sexuality and where people experiences the human sexual behavior as an activity (Sharda and Watts, 2012). Through various activities and conduct the humans undergoes various psychological changes which reflects by their behavior. The adolescence get in higher risk of STD and pregnancy due to the people having sex at early age which are likely to use the contraception. These people mostly opt for having oral sex rather than having sexual intercourse (Duncan and et.al., 2010). The sexual relationships and dating is cause to be the new media playing role for the human sexual behavior. Further, it is generally seen that they acquire the behavior and development of sexual needs at the prescribed age of humanity (Donna, 2008). This is learned or acknowledged by them through the surrounding and atmosphere in which they are living in (Arai, 2009). Also it has been noticed that because of cultural norms, various issues of social control and sexual orientation creates to influence people for these activities of sexual behavior. Moreover, there was a survey conducted in the year 2002 in the European nations which studies in the Behavior of sex at teenagers. It was founded by the surveys done in various countries of Europe that 82% of them uses contraception for sexual intercourse.
Further, it has been encountered that the sexual arousal is said to be a vital variable where the emphasis is placed on the social episode model. This model is here which argues about the homosexual behavior. It is assumed that for the valid sexual intercourse a valid sexual orientation request must be exited to adequately response to it. The two independent stages are there namely consummator and preparatory (Amir, 2006). For the success in the changes in sexual habits and preferences it is associated with the freeman and Meyer (Swann and et.al. 2003). There is one more model which reflects the sexual behavior in transmission of behavior dynamics in which the population biology is undertaken for the STD in influencing the social, biological and behavioral factors and for the infection. It is there for identification in Sex partners and heterogeneity act for sex. The various assumptions are made on these models precisely which causes an advantage for it. The partners getting affected by various contributions are made to develop quantitative assessment. In a defined community for diseases and infection control the understanding should be developed inclusively by various methods.
The teenage mothers and their children faces health issues as they lead to poor health and social outcome. Teenage pregnancies are the serious matter for the country and society overall, it has been noticed that young mother have to drop from school as they become pregnant and can not face the situation (Belfield 2012). The young mother who are not so sound economically have to face poverty which also affects their health. The children who are born by teenage mothers faces more problems in future because of their poor health. These kinds of children are the reason for abuse and neglected by other people. Also the daughters of teenage mothers are more likely to become pregnant at adolescent age and the sons are more found to be doing crime and be in prison (White, 2008).
The teenage pregnancies are faced due to many factors such as the children who have single parent and the single mothers dating behavior. This mainly depends upon the family and parents who make such kind of surroundings and situation for their children that they get commit such kind of mistakes on their childhood. The family creates a negative impact on children due to this reason The parents who are least bothered about their children mostly that area found to be under the circumstances of teenage pregnancy problem. Such chis get lot of freedom or free space and because of which they commit mistakes (Hadley, 2014). Also parents who do not be in touch or communicate more with their children faces the problem of teenage pregnancy. In family mostly if the mother seems to be a teenage parent than their child seems to be committing the same mistakes. Further, it is also seem that the teenage that start using the alcohol and an early age get influenced towards these activities. They are more prior to use various substances which are not good for their health (Martin, 2014). Like usage of drugs but teenager in which they lose their senses and get out of control, in such situations the commit the mistake of having sexual intercourse with the partner. However, the children who find their friend group playing with such activities also get influenced for having the experience of these sexual activities at early age (Hamilton, 2012). These children have less interest at the academics section and get involved in such activities which cause risk for their life.
The preventive measures can be taken for teenage pregnancy which is as follows.
To avoid pregnancy in teenage the adolescences must use condoms and other barrier devices such as sheath. Making use of these devices can help to avoid the cases of teenage pregnancy. It is important to educate children about the use and prevention of pregnancy from these methods and techniques (Sloggett and Joshi, 2008). The female child should be given extra classes during school time by their teachers where they can guide them to use this contraception. The female can ask their partners to use contraceptives to avoid unnecessary risk in life (Duncan and et.al., 2010). The male adolescence should also have knowledge about these techniques so that they can change their attitude and behavior towards having safer sex practices (Hill and Robertson, 2009).
The abstinence is the reason of having having sex in oral form which is the effective preventive measure. Such as , the national campaign of UK paid attention on making awareness among the adolescence so that they can avoid this activity. This also makes sure to avoid the parenthood and sexuality transmitted infections. (Heilbronn and et.al., 2007).
The barriers between parents and child and poor communication can lead to these activities (East and Felice, 2014). The parents should talk to their children about the risk they can face while dating and being in relationship. The parents should guide them to stray away from love, sex at an early age. This conversation should take place at the time when child is going to its teenage age group (Cavazos-Rehg and et.al., 2011). The government laid policy to make parents ask their be children about their life. The children must be friendly to parent that they can ask them easily what they want to. This conversation can be done by parents when their child turns years (Bewley, 2009).
The children should be educated about the risk factors which are due to teenage sexual activities. They should gain enough knowledge which makes them to avoid sex. The harm from such cases which can affect their life should be taught by the teachers so that especially female children can avoid getting into such situations (Swann and et.al., 2003).
STRATEGIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY
There are various strategies which can be laid for managing the teenage pregnancy which are explained below:
The parents living in various communities must take preventive actions to form in society and educate youth about the teenage pregnancy.
The government of UK should promote about these activities by using multiple mode of things.
The government promote contraceptives and preventive measures which should be used by youth to avoid teenage pregnancy.
The government also organizes program to make awareness among the youth to uses the contraceptives and their benefits and disadvantages.
The young people desires and needs by providing the interventions particularly in high risk groups.
The teachers and experienced persons should provide clear information.
The person should be acknowledge at the time when get the negative result after the pregnancy test. The doctor must advise the adolescent immediately so that they do not repeat it gain and be on thesafer side
The community people must have an open discussion on matters related to sex, sexuality and contraception and when it should be carried out by the people.
The people who are guiding the adult person should be ensured that an individual have cross the age of 18 and according to that they can give their opinion to leaders and have peer group influencer's
The social workers must join up services related to preventing pregnancy with other services for young people and work in partnership with the community.
Their are various policies which are made by government these are generated by national institute for health and good care . Such as, the people who are under the age group of 18 and the prevention act for sexually transmitted diseases. Their main purpose is to guide the people under the age group of 25 years to make the use of contraceptives.
Teenage pregnancy strategy
The factor works on the matter that how to reduce the teenage pregnancy among the adolescence. The students and adults must be given guidance and knowledge about the risk which can be caused because of sexuality (Sharda and Watts, 2012). They must be treated as responsible for their own life. The adults must voluntarily participate to contribute for the teenage pregnancy act.
The government organizes various programs for young parents, these people are been given knowledge about their health in such situation and period (Wellings and Johnson, 2014). The young parents are provided with services by government about getting more information about this topic and to avoid teenage pregnancy in future and guide their age people for delaying in Sex.
Teenage pregnancy accelerating the strategy
This policy states to make awareness among the adolescence and guide them to avoid teenage pregnancy. The accounts to decline the the rates of young parents in the country. They search for those adults who are facing this situation in their life and provide them proper knowledge and guidance to avoid such circumstances (Johns, Dickins and Cleg, 2011). The government find such areas where this activity is practiced the most and try to increase sex education in those areas.
Teenage pregnancy strategy
This indicates why the teenage pregnancy prevention act has to laid by government, the number of cases increasing in the country affects the economy for which actions has to be taken. The rate of conceptions among the age group of 18 for that essential measures will be started
Teenage pregnancy evaluation
This strategy was conducted by the research team of London. This states that the number of cases which got prevented by the proper guidance of team members and saved their life. This strategy encountered that under 18 people data found to have reduce in birth rates. These achievement need on sustain and achieve success in changing sexual attributes and behaviors of the adolescence.
PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE AREA OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY
The doctors are their and accountable for spreading the awareness among teenage Groups for avoiding the sexual practices at the adolescence age. The doctors should have linked with various good schools in the states (Glasier, 2006). Those schools should take initiation in sending of a professional specialized, having full knowledge in this area who can guide the students regarding the sexual health. By face to face interactions with the students they can also ask questions and clear their confusion regarding of the issue which they have already experienced it (Heilborn and et.al., 2007). The specialized can guide them to use various contraceptives and delaying in sex which will help them to be on the safer side.
the institutions working for prevention of teenage pregnancy in the country, must take preventive actions to make awareness among the adolescent. The social workers must promote this issue through media, on television through advertisements and newspapers (Sloggett and Joshi, 2008). The social workers must also promote it by hoardings and personal interactions with the students studying in various schools. They also play their part in arranging of various programs who give knowledge to public about the risk factors of sex and various diseases cause by them.
USE VARIOUS HEALTH PROMOTION STRATEGIES LIKE COUPLES, PARENTS, AND PEERS TO GET GOOD ANALYSIS
The parents should actively take part in guiding their children about the sexual activities and providing them proper counseling.
The teachers must provide sex education in context to relationships and personal and social education.
The social workers should [promote the information about self esteem.
The doctors and clinics must draft notices to the corridors conveying the message about sex and its usage and various prevention activities.
The social workers must also advise on individual sexual heath and overall health and lifestyle due to teenage pregnancy.
The doctors must send specialized to various schools who can guide children about the legal issues affecting under 16.
The elder siblings must guide their younger brother and sister about the usage of contraceptives advice for teenagers.
The risk and pressure faced by teenagers at the time of teenage pregnancy and hoe it affects their life.
From the report it can be concluded that sexual health and teenage pregnancy is the serious issue in UK. Preventive measures must be taken by the government to avoid and safe adolescence from these activities. Also the doctors and social workers must promote the information of using contraceptives for adolescence in the age group of 15- 19 years to avoid the teenage pregnancy. There area preventive measures are explained to provide knowledge to students and reduce the number of area of teenage pregnancy.
Alio, A. and et.al., 2011. Teenage pregnancy and the influence of paternal involvement on fetal outcomes. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology.
Baker, E. C. and Rajasingam, D., 2012. Using trust databases to identify predictors of late booking for antenatal care within the UK. public health.
Bolam, B., 2011. Health Promotion in Medical Education: From Rhetoric to Action. Journal of Public Health.
Clifford, D., 2013. Book review: Ethics and Public Policy: A Philosophical Enquiry. Critical Social Policy.
Collins, S., 2014. Book review: Mel Gray and Stephen Webb (eds) The New Politics of Social Work. Critical Social Policy.
Ellis-Sloan, K., 2014. Teenage mothers, stigma and their'presentations of self'. Sociological Research Online.
Glasier., 2006. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death.
Hoggart, L. and Phillips, J., 2011. Teenage pregnancies that end in abortion: what can they tell us about contraceptive risk-taking?. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care.
Jackson, C. A., 2012. An overview of prevention of multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of public health.
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