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Tourism is one of the booming sectors in the economy nowadays. The population is traveling here and there searching for open-air excitement. Travelling has several reasons like people move to undertake meetings or events, they may travel to make fun or recreation. Cultural heritage tourism is a part of tourism directed towards cultural heritage location where tourism is prevailing.(Timothy, 2011).
The present report is based on the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism. The report is focussing on the potential conflicts in the conservation of the heritage and cultural resources regarding the study of Lhasa which in Tibet. (Ashworth and Larkham, 2013)
The report explaining how the needs of different customers are meeting with the help of heritage and cultural attractions. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry. The methods and media used for interpretation regarding this for tourists are discussed here.
1.1 Analyse the growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry
Culture and heritage tourism principally comprises the components such as living civilization, history and moral significance of a place. The relation between culture and tourism has collectively become beneficial. It creates additional income runnel for both. As a result, it encourages and amplifies cultural resources which are diminishing in this era. The economic development of the UK, security, and honor are seen as the contribution of this. Stonehenge, the Roman empire in Germany, London museums, etc. are some important areas of culture and heritage which is located in the UK . The industries, as well as the government, are mutually working for the preservation of these areas as they are the keys to make more revenue.
Other advantages regarding this development are scattering tourism on the basis of spacial as well as secular as it is independent of the climates or weather. The resolving issues in terms of particular place development are done by the private and government bodies on a contract basis. The private sector gives contracts to workers for taking care of individual places and this is making employment for them on a regular basis (Newsome and et. al., 2012). The government bodies also generating livelihood by creating jobs for the protection and management of the cultural heritage like forest department jobs to care for several national sanctuaries of birds as well as animals. The society loves to travel the sanctuaries and exploring the flora and fauna by making images of it. As a result, this impacts an important place in the commercial field (Smith and Richards, 2013).
Different chances and economical fields hazards are examined by doing proper planning and research over travel and tourism and resolutions are made by concentrating on decreasing the weakness or enhancing its power. This also gained support from municipal and geographical supremacy. Hence this is aiding in the upliftment of cultural and heritage in the travel and tourism industry in UK. These industries are treated as an asset in achieving the destination continuously.
The Olympics is occurring in London in the past few years. Because of this, a large population of the world is visiting this place. At this time the crowd is moving towards the monuments and other historic places (Zhang and et. al., 2011). The evaluation of tourism destination competitiveness Consecutively making a way for the growth of small or large scale businesses here. The glorious events are arranged here like Queen's Diamond Jubilee. Here all the historical places are redecorated due to this the place has regained a reputed image. This event becomes a major factor for the development of this place and increments the travel and tourism industry directly. People came to London for becoming alive audiences of some events like Queen's Diamond Jubilee, Olympic games, Royal Baby, etc. from all over the world. What is the reason for coming doesn't matter whether it is for making fun ultimately spreading the cultural heritage importance? (Lynch and Chute, et .al ., 2011).
1.2 Discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
The conservation of heritage and cultural resources has been highlighted by the population of the country. As they realized the ancient places and monuments are disappearing day by day. The ethics of cultural heritage has also been decreasing by the sole of people due to several reasons discussed below. The commercial growth has also affected a lot by generating waste materials at large scale. It causes harm to cultural resources and beliefs also. (Richards, 2011 ).
Tibet is identified as the roof of the world as it is a worldwide tourism destination. It is the home of religious temples, the Dalai Lama and the unique hospitality of Tibetan people. Lhasa is the capital of Tibet which is mostly visited place in the country. There are approx more than 10 million people visiting yearly. The people are mostly domestic plus foreign visitors and journalists who are traveling in this region (Salazar, 2012). This shows that half of the revenue collection is arranging from the traveling and tourism industry. The potentials of Tibet has been recognized by the Chinese government and also from some large scale projects. A Chinese government-led renovation of Lhasa’s traditional Barkhor old town district outside the sacred Jokhang Temple, as well as plans for a Tibetan theme park on the city’s outskirts (an investment of $4.8 billion dollars), are about to boost the tourist numbers in near future. Also, InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) plans to open ‘Resort Lhasa Paradise’ a proposed themed hotel with 1,100 rooms making this the biggest luxury hotel in Lhasa (Keitumetse, 2011). But there exist a number of potential conflicts. The reasons for these conflict-ions are as follows:
- This conflict is risen by the London-based Free Tibet. They had launched a campaign to boycott the IHG hotels. They are saying that this project neglects the repressive political scenario for the civilians living there. They are also making concerned about the PR according to them it gives priceless gifts PR to the Chinese government bodies. This is answerable for the mistreatment of gross human rights around the Tibet (Hartmann, 2014 ).
- An international haunt group of a five-star hotel is being constructed in the Lhasa( the capital of Tibet). This can set more financial ventures in the city which enhances the cultural heritage of Tibet. But it has also warned by the abroad advocacy group.
- The Free Tibet has also been showing concern about the IHG employment strategies telling that this can be a made reason for discrimination against those populations who are not able to speak Chinese (Cuccia and Rizzo, 2011).
2.1 Assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers
The protection of culture and heritage steps is a very rigid task as the ancient monuments which are in their natural form from many years have to keep the same in the future coming years. If any interchange is done scientifically or by engineering causes the loss of natural look as well as value for that place. The visitors are coming from all parts of the globe to see the natural beauty of the buildings or monuments by spending a large volume of money. But if they are not getting so. then this will ultimately create a bad impact on the country financially (Jimura, 2011).
The reason for keeping the scientific museums is to conserve the scientific innovations done in the past as well as existing in the present times. Several scientific museums are present in the UK attracting a large number of scholars or entrepreneurs. They get engaged in several calculations and even they use their wisdom to do so as the past innovations are inspiring a large group of people. The major inventions like lie- detector, an artificial intelligence created many robots, etc. which gives an efficient contribution to the country's growth economically as well as educationally. Manchester, a place in the UK consists of several museums where the past shocking innovations are decorated. This attracts large people to take a look at that. The first plan engine, James model of DNA, etc. are some examples of such innovations (Ashworth and Page, 2011). Therefore the persons who are quite interested in modern science and technology travel these places.
The IHG hotel in Tibet generates a larger amount of jobs. This also increases the tourisms income there. This aids in developing the living style of the Tibetan people. The growing tourism industry also helps local civilians by creating new jobs locally like one who spoke Tibetan can be hired as tourist guide. The hotel owners also said that they will talk to non-government organizations (NGOs) to keep the commitment of human rights by creating more and more local economic golden opportunities. Hence by making these changes, the hotel is really improving the livelihood as well as their living standards. This ultimately contributes a lot in making the capital's value (u, B., 2011 ). So, the heritage and cultural attractions are effectively meeting all types of needs of different customers living in different regions.
3.1 Evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
The management of heritage and cultural sites has made a great impact on different types of ownerships or organizations. The revenues received by the travel and tourism mainly from the heritage and cultural sites cause much ownership including the public as well as commercial organizations to fall to get ownership. The private ownerships are those which comprises all profitable enterprises which are not operated by the government body. While those corporations which are being a part of the government sector and controlled by them also are known as Public ownership. The examples of this different ownership are given and discussed below (Ashworth, and Page, 2011).
Many ownerships are working towards protecting the cultural heritage and the monuments in the UK. One of them is the English Heritage which is also known as a historic building and monuments commissions of England. It is a non-government sector working for the welfare of the historical monuments and culture. It is an example of 'private based ownership'. The English Heritage is a registered charity manages the collection of national heritage. This consists of over 400 historical buildings of England more than 5000 years old monuments and sites. The portfolio includes Stonehenge and the best-preserved parts of Harridan's wall. Its job is to conserve the ancients buildings, palaeoecological sites, historic immersed environment, etc. The British government made a plan to the English Heritage so that it becomes an independent financing charity by providing it approx eighty million in revenue. The national portfolio which deals with historical properties sustains to be public ownerships but the English heritage has given the license to manage them in 2013 (Salazar, 2012 ).
Heritage Lottery Fund was established in the UK under the National Lottery etc. Act in 1993. The fund was granted to be used in 1994. It is an example of 'public based ownership. It is a public body that is non-departmental sponsored by the culture, media and sport's department. The money earned from the National Lottery is used by Heritage lottery funds to have remained the same and modified. With the help of this organization the historic areas, museums, parks, art galleries, etc. get investments. It is run by the pre-existing NHMF( National Heritage Memorial Fund).
The yearly turn over of HLF is more than that of the work of NHMF. The decision controller is situated in Scotland, Wales, etc. Therefore the public, as well as commercial owned heritage ownerships, are getting large amounts of profits. Hence the Heritage Lottery fund is effectively aiding towards the upliftment and management of heritage and cultural sites by attracting a large group of people to visit its site globally. In fact, several tourists get engaged in this work and consecutively they are making revenue based on it (Du Cros and McKercher, 2015.).
3.2 Analyse roles and responsibilities of an organization in the Heritage and organization culture
Many organization is working on protecting historical monuments and cultures. English Heritage is also working for protecting the monuments and cultures. It is not obligatory for an organization to work on it. It totally depends on the willingness of the organization. For this function, one commission body is made that is a non-government body, is known as the “Historic Building and Monument Commission” that works for protecting the historical building and architecture. This body is made in UK and also known as 'English Heritage'. It had taken responsibilities for protecting the historical building and cultures within the English coast.
In UK, not only English Heritage is working but also another organization is also working like National trust, woodland trust, Heritage Lottery fund, etc. Its main objective is to protect the natural beauty of the country as well as plants, animal lives, etc. It is only the basic aim to protect it but its major objective is to protect those places and houses where tourists are visiting for picnic purposes because foreigners are coming in the country for the purpose of visiting, they take an image of the country. If there is no natural beauty then the tourist will not come then there will be loss of foreign currency to the government as well as will occurred other losses. So for protecting these all things, English Heritage, Woodland Trust takes an initiative (Richards, 2011). English Heritage has the following roles and responsibility towards the Heritage and Culture industry which are as follows-
- It does investment in this industry for supporting and encouraging the development of this industry.
- It has a responsibility to develop heritage and other places where tourists are visiting.
- It makes rules regarding protect the heritage and culture of the country that have to follow by everyone [companies as well as an individual].
- It evaluates the historical building and culture timely if there are any requirements of repairing or any other things then it organizes for it.
- It gives the incentives or rebates if any business is following the scheme and helping in protecting the tourist places.
- It has to give advice and organize the program by telling people about the rules and regulations related to heritage and cultures.
- It makes laws that every business has to follow and report it.
- It manages the budget and makes strategic planning.
- It manages the funds from the external source.
- It contacts the media for promoting tourist places.
- It ensures that there should be cleanliness so-that visitors will not affect negatively.
- It designs and analyzes the feedback of the visitors.
- It uses technology for increasing the no. Of visitors.
- It recruits and motivates the employees for taking care of building;
- It develops different ways of attracting visitors and conducts a program so that visitors can enjoy it.
4.1 Methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry
The media is one of the key factors used for interpretation within the heritage and cultural industry aiding the tourists in the British Museum and royal arts in London. The main motto of the media is to increase visitors by creating an attractive picture of ancient or cultural heritage. They make them understand the importance of that after visiting and making a large no. of clicks of the ancient monuments, art galleries, sanctuaries, museums, etc. Victoria and Albert's museums are such a museum that has enlisted several methods that are used to clarify and increase their practices in the form of art- drama. It also signals the stories related to the same.
The stories created the medial make a good brainwash of the country people and also the tourists with its guides. The crowd reads that parts and makes themselves knowledgeable -full regarding that area. The management or engagement of historic events and fairs are also done by them. This attracts a lager no. of citizens and tourists across all over the world to visit that place and make them enjoy. This enhances the revenue's value of that place also. The drama or play led an important role in the UK at museums in London. The play can be done in any languages or it may be in the combination of diverse languages.
This keeps the cultural heritage of the UK or any country. The tourists travel that places and learn from that about the different cultures and territories. The media corporation even make episodes regarding that and play on the televisions by making their personal channels. Some time that play is shown live. The people who are not the local can also learn other cultures partially. Civilians can enjoy that play by their homes only. As a result, they get attracted and in the holidays they are used to visit such places. This aids ultimately in making more customers for the tourist departments (Su, 2011). The different media used by the British museum are the following:
Television channels: The museums use different channels in order to make more familiar with their heritage and culture. They sometimes make their own television shows to gain more popularity.
Journals or books: The British also used to publish their magazines in which all the relevant information related to the museums can be gathered in the book only. The images of the ancient museums are kept in those magazines so that more people get attracted only by seeing them.
Posters: The organization makes the posters of their monuments and stick those in the streets and in marketing places. This spread information about that to all of the people who cross from them. The Royal arts use below listed media to gain attraction among the local or distant people.
Street play: The enterprise used to perform street or road plays so that the pictures designed by painters or sketchers are known by all the civilians of the localities.
Exhibition: The arts made by artists can earn money as well as familiarity by arranging exhibitions at different places.
Television shows: The corporation make their own shows in which arts are shown so that the one who is not known by these arts and design give knowledge about this.
From the above-mentioned report, it has been concluded that travel and tourism have grown its potential in the united kingdom. They save the cultural heritages and other ancients resources by taking various methods and with the help of the media's organization. The growth and conservation of such heritage show a dramatic interchange in the living standard as well as the employment of the people of Tibet. But there exist some potential conflicts for example in the IHG company which are being constructed in Tibet's capital Lhasa.
This causes the boycott of these developments by London-based free Tibet. This creates a situation of concern by the owner of that organization. The report also shows the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers. The British Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum are such examples that show the attractions and the fulfillment of different visitor's needs.
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