Techniques of Project Team Management
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Project team management can be defined as the process of managing a team that is working on a particular project in an organisation. Management of a project team is necessary to carry out a project effectively and efficiently. This case study is based on the case of Analytics Ltd in which a project team is formed for a particular project and the management of that team is done. In this case study the type of team, its characteristics, structure, role of team members, environment of work will be analysed. Various team conflicts , culture of a team and the way in which team communicates is also examined in this study, which will be helpful for an organisation to manage its team properly so as to carry out a project in a proper manner that will lead an organisation towards growth and success and will help to create goodwill of an organisation.
Type of team, theories and framework in project team management
Project management is basically defined as planning, initiating, executing, controlling the team work to achieve a particular goal related to project and to meet particular criteria related to project. It is a group of several methods, processes, skills or knowledge that is being carried out to achieve to specific goals and objectives of project (Scott-Young and Samson, 2008). In Analytics Ltd., a project has been carried out and for the that a particular team is made to carry out that project. If a team is made for a particular project than the management of that team is also necessary for effective work out of project.
The type of project team which is working in Analytics Ltd., is functional team. Functional team is a type of team in which there are workers from a same functional area or department . The types of resources that are needed to complete a project comes from a single area or department only, and if the project is large and requirement of several department is there , than each department individually complete that work (Meredith, Mantel Jr and Shafer, 2013). By this the completion of project is in more efficient and effective way because members work together and are dedicated to work on a project. Functional teams are the most efficient and effective in which little variation is required.
As a team member of a functional project team, basic role is to :
- Give functional expertise in a management process
- Work with different members and to ensure that the needs of the business is meeting with project that is being carried out
- Analyse and make documentation of the process that are running currently or those that will run in future.
- Map and identify the needs that are necessary for the project
- Analyse and define the requirements needed for interfacing, analysis of resources that are necessary to carry out a project
- Assure quality and to develop a plan needed for quality assurance.
Work environment can be defined as the surrounding or environment in which a employee is working, or which allows employees or members of a team to to focus on their objectives and goals (Bourne and Walker, 2008). Work environment should be friendly, good, clean, so that the employees can work effectively and efficiently. There are various types of work environment to work in. In Analytics Ltd , there is a enterprising work environment. It is a type of environment which creates a competitive environment in an organisation. This type of environment influence leadership and status. In such type of work environment members are energetic, ambitious and self confident.
As a team member of a project team in Analytics Ltd, the team in which I am working is a functional kind of project team. In which there are several members working in a group and each of them have a common function working for a common objective or a goal. Full participation of every team member is there in a team and all members give their energy and time to the project. Every member has trust on each other which helps in adding value in the project. Open communication is also carried out in a team so as to give or contribute several ideas, to provide feedback, to provide updates and clarification on anything that is confusing. Team also ensures quality, define clear roles and is risk taking (Pant and Baroudi, 2008).
There are several characteristics of a project team that leads it to the success, some of the characteristics are :
- Members of the team are team players, they are united and stay away from such people who tries to diverse them
- Members of the team are self driven, they are always ready to take initiative
- They are influential and always stay motivated to work for effective project
- Members of the project team are responsible, reliable and accountable
- They are creative, and always try to add new imagination in the ideas and plans so as to make the project creative and good
- Members of the team are always supportive to an organisation or to each other. They help others in understanding the difficulties of the project if they are facing any
- Members of the team communicate well with each other to share various opinions, ideas and thoughts that are needed for a project
- The team members have various skills, talents that are necessary to carry out a project in an organisation (Gido and Clements, 2008).
- Project team consist of various members that are responsible to carry out a project in a organisation. Members of project team in Analytics Ltd consist of
- Project manager who is responsible for planning, monitoring, execution and control
- Product engineer who is responsible for testing, installation, production or corrective action
- Quality controller who is responsible for the quality check of the product or for the quality control
- Circulation manager who is responsible for drafting business plan, circulation of result of project via website
- Process engineer who is responsible for testing of machine
- Project controller who is responsible for the control of finance and resources
- R&D director who is responsible for the budgeting and timing of the project
Sales and marketing manager who is responsible for the overall marketing of the product and who manages the sale of particular product in different areas
Main purpose of a project team is to carry out defined goals and objectives carefully in a project plan by implementing it effectively and efficiently. Project team is made to so that the members of a project team works together for a single objective by having effective coordination among various team members or departments. Project team is basically a group of members who work invest their time and ideas to carry out a particular project (Bredillet, 2008).
Project team structure
To have a particular structure of a project team is very necessary to carry out a particular project in an organisation. Structure of a project team has a important role to manage functions of a team. Project team structure has different characteristics of its own to carry out a project.
Illustration 1: Project team structure, 2017
Structure of a project team consist of various people and they have several responsibilities. A project team may consist of project sponsors who plays part of financial resources for a project in an organisation (Ajmal, Helo and Kekäle, 2010). They are the ultimate provider of the several resources or financial resources that are needed in an organisation for a project. There are several decision makers, who make important decisions regarding project quality, scope, time, objectives and goals. Project manager is a important part of any project , who make significant plans, check status of a project and coordinate with the team of the project. Then comes a team, which actually carry out the working of a project, and helps in the completion of the project (Project Teams Structure. 2017).
Project team motivation
- It is very necessary that a team of a project in a organisation should be motivated. Analytics Ltd have carried out several steps to motivate its team, these steps are :
- They set realistic goals that can be achieved by the team easily and the work load will not be there.
- Tools to measure performance is being set for then timely completion of task
- Success is being celebrated in an organisation to motivate employees and to celebrate their achievement
- To motivate employees it is necessary to know them so as to discuss their problems and to motivate them regularly.
Composition of project team and project team culture
In Modern business era, projects teams have become to essential work components of the business enterprise. The ability to complete work with success is depends upon the ability to complete a projects. Teamwork is helpful in working together to achieving vision of the business organisation (Ika, 2009). The important ingredients in managing a projects successfully are as follow:- Interpersonal relations, team spirit and collaboration. The mode, on which a team is created of “Analytics Ltd.” is also plays an vital role in its success.
The ability to direct work from individuals accomplishment is also increases the organisation growth. But only few team workers can understand the ability of effective team work, because it is also develops the performance of the project. So we can say , that team work is also contributes in succession of a project. But it is must to interaction of the team members, and their co ordination and corporatise is also involves in team improvement.
There are two critical elements that are completely attached with project performance. These are following :- team leadership and team environment. Every projects needs team approach in its compiling. But there are so many national cultures of the country, that effects performance of the projects as well as team also (Reed and Knight, 2010). Every individual of the team must have to involve in decision making process by being influencing each other and sharing their responsibilities with their innovates ideas. Self actualization of each individual also facilitates the team growth and development.
Project team communication
In today's scenario,communication plays an important role in every businees environment. To communicative with lower level to senior level is compulsory for every organisation, just to reduce the personal issues of the company, so that they ain't effects on employees performance. So if Analytical Ltd. wants to high performance, then it will have to create an effective communication with its team members. Communication entrenched to make these kind of results as the company wants. Successful team members, often involves effective communication skills in their projects. They listen issues of their employees, they act, and also give feedback to employees. It also creates a foster compatibility among team members.
Seemly, communication also increase to do team work together among its team members. So it is also facilitates development of a team. Frequently communication, is also make easier to keep away stakeholders. A project communication isn't easy as it looks, sometimes it creates very big conflicts and arguments in an organisation. The team leader have to take some strictly steps to stops all these conflicts . It occurs when some information is in and but doesn't go out. So team managers have to supply time to time feedback, meeting notes, and project growth, among other employees (Wysocki, 2011).
When an important information comes in to the organisation, communication plays an essential role. An skilful manager knows very well, how to plan an festive communication between employees so the chances of misinterpretation and arguments are reduces. The strategy of every project based communication must be pre-planned.
Project team conflicts
There are some conflicts that are occur in the team members while they are performing their operations in a group. Some of the issues that are faced by the group members are like lateness of the members, their contribution, absenteeism and so on. Due to these conflicts, the overall performance of the team is get affected and this will lead towards the high dissatisfaction among all the workers. Along with this, when all teammates will not equally contribute then due to the conflicts may arise so trust will not be established between the other members.
When a team is formulate then at the time of formulation no one knows each others so it will take some time to create a bond with each other. Due to this, they will not be able to ask questions to each others and sometimes this will lead towards poor performance of the team members. It is necessary to resolve a conflict among members of a project team. To resolve it it is necessary that a resolution should be prepared in which conflict should be acknowledged and its impact should be discussed. Situation should be understand and then the best action should be carried out (Managing a Project Team. 2017).
Negotiations or/and influencing skills applied in project team management
The word negotiation, refers to a discussion is among two or more parties, that aimed is same. Negotiation is a strategic communication Negotiation may be formal or informal, when it places in projects and any function of business organisation. Formal negotiation are based on agreeing a contract and informal are based on resolve arguments and conflicts or any other personal discussion. The skills of good negotiation involves to set an organisation mental object and limits, perception and emotional activity skills. In negotiation both side parties tries to influencing with each other, by their skims, goals and their future plans. They are always trying to stimulate each others, to agree his or her point of view (Cervone, 2011). There are four stages of negotiation such as:- preparation, exchange information, bargaining and close & commitment.
On the time of negotiation a manager must have knowledge about when and how negotiation will be closed. A project manager can negotiate effectively if he have such skills :- he must be a good listener, he have an excellent communication skills, he focuses on values and goals, and ability to ignore rigidity. Negotiation is helpful In high-grade bargain in organisation projects. We can say that negotiation is a essential project management implement.
When bidding negotiation goes on the far side acquiring reduced or higher prices of projects. In day to day dealing of project activities with other resources , negotiation is a great tool for project managers, during their employment. It is also helpful for project managers in persuasive for the management, when someone is asking form other additive resources.
Influencing others is also a heart of a project manager, but it is not works for all times. Sometimes it is very tough to influenced the third party. Because project manager don't know them personally. In this situation manager have take some extra ordinary tricks to influence the other parties and make their deals lightly and trying to make some personal relations, just to dealing in future.
Project team learning
Project team learning is related with learning of the whole organisation. It is helpful in creating new and innovative ideas among team members. It generates new knowledge among the project members, so that they can make their project more effectively and efficiency. Culture of the project and fair communication between all levels of employees also maximize the chances of a successful project. The long run performance of any project or any business is depends upon innovative and forward looking ideas. Managers have to think about newly generated knowledge among the team members, if Every individual of a team, have new an innovative idea a project can negotiate with other parties.
The manager have to clearly defined about the goals and target to team members, so they can perform accordingly. Managers have to run continuous learning programmes. To gain an edge for the organisation, continuous transformation programmes, will sprouting up to the over all organisation (Walker, 2015). It is strive them to better. Many organisation theories said, if an business learn for a long time, it will also established in market for a long time. The project members must have to creative, acquiring, and their knowledge must be transferable. Team learning puts an positive effects on its team members, they can work without any doubts and the workers also puts their innovative ideas on their projects. Project team learning can also create same target of every team member, which is beneficial for project, and project managers also can deals with other resources.
This study has been carried on the Analytics Ltd, in which a project team is made for a particular project. From the above analysis it can be concluded that there are several needed to manage a project team effectively and efficiently. It is necessary to define clear objectives and purpose of a project to a team. A well defined structure should be their to mange a team properly. Project team conflicts should be minimised to keep members of the team motivated. Training process is necessary for learning and a proper communication and culture should be maintained.
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