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Project Management is a planning of an organization’s resources for today’s and future’s events for the completion of the organizational goals. It is mostly used for closely associated tasks, which have complex set of components to complete. Project managers’ uses different types of visual representations like Pert charts, Gantt charts etc. to show the flow of work, which will be done by the departments of the company (Walker, 2007)
Innovation in project management means unique factors which make the project challenging the ideas which innovation project management use are generated by curiosity, observation and passion towards finding the new idea (Dainty, et. al, 2007).
Complexity in project means the difficulties faced during the different interpretations of the work after having so many experiences and training.Project management systems are tools which assist the business and moderate the project during the life cycle of project. They provide visibility as whole of the project. Additionally, provides resources visibility of the project and metric visibility is also there to show the current status and relationship of project towards the goal.
For any project there is also a requirement of an organizational structure for this some brief intro of organization is given below:
Organizational structure is delineating of business, which is hierarchical in nature and accumulates its looks of power and communications, and assigns rights and responsibilities (Handy, 1999). In any organization management is based on the four basic poles they are:
Planning: It is a formulation of one or more plans in detail for achieving the optimum balance of needs and demands. It identifies the goals and objectives to be achieved, formulate strategies, arrange the requirements for the means or goals, and implement monitor and control all the sequences.
Organizing: It is an arrangement of several elements for the purposeful structure or order.
Leading: It is a process where the leader of project puts a high degree of control towards the working force.
Controlling: It is management function which establishes the benchmarks or standards among the organization and competitors.
Walker has described division of work as the wealth of nation means for developing a country division of work must be there in these three factors puts the effect they are:
Pin factory: It means that if each worker of an organization performs its limited operation than they could produce a big amount of output in a day.
Task division: It is also said that if the tasks are divided into subtasks than it would be easier to work and the productivity of work will increase.
Specialization: If in organization specialized works will works than their experiences and work technique can give a good output towards the firm .
Departmentalization it is a second building block, it means that each work must be given to different departments for the tasks and the combination must be there among the departments for the best result. Hierarchy is the third building block in which company members must be aware of the definition of the hierarchy so the work will be done by every level of the project. In this management control spam is required with the chain of the commands from upper level to the lower level of organization. In these hierarchy people comes from mangers to subordinates of different departments. Last building block is best coordination is required for the development of work between group and individuals also (Egan Report, 1998).
According to the classical approach in the hierarchical structure organization structure management each level of management group has its own objectives and responsibilities. The high management like chief executives has long term goals of the organization. The middle management oversees the supervisors and lowest level do the work of supervising the day to day activities like addressing the issues and providing the training to the employees. Here the levels of leadership are very clear and very well defined. In the division of labor employee’s responsibilities and expectations are very clear and they get specialization in a particular area. The incentive idea of motivating the employees’ also plays a good role so workers work hard and productive. The autocratic approach says that there must be a single leader for making decisions, organize and direct. But it can work in small businesses only the argument occurs when leader never consult with the team member such as board of directors.
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The system approach it is a group of individual operating parts in an organization for achieving the goal. And for success the different thinking idea is needed. Systems theory recommends unreal thinking because administration is not skillful in a vacuum. Manager’s decisions affect many environmental and organizational variables. It is a basis for perceptive associations and their troubles which may one day produce a rebellion in organization. In this the person’s willingness is required for success in the business and to achieve the organization goal a common purpose is required. The general theory of system says to know an organization its parts and relationship between them is required at highly basis. Different levels are there of every systems in an organization. And it is proved that all organization is open system for the survival and it can be possible only from interaction between one another. Learning in organization and knowledge management also plays a main role in system approach. So, human resource development activities, strategic and other planning activities etc. are needed for learning and developing skills.
Managerial role is that what management does for the growth of business from interrelated roles to interpersonal relationship, from transformation of information to decision making techniques. Management role can be classified into two parts:
Line Management: This management is related to those managers who are responsible of the main activity of a firm in which transport, accounting etc. services is provided for the generation of the product. In the line management a standard chain of command is made by the manager which is made from top level to the bottom level and hierarchal in shape. Decisions follow from CEO to the line manager then sub mangers etc.
Staff Positions: If is a chain of command in organization for providing the information to the line managers. It doesn’t have any formal authority for transferring the information.
Delegation: It is an allocation of the task to individuals and the groups for the effectiveness of the firm. The responsibilities are always assigned to the lower level of the company for the completion of work because this group has enough ability to carry out the output (Latham, 1994).
Clear lines of authority: Clear lines given by the authority enables the staff to understand the work that is to whom the work is going to be delegate the task for the best output and monitoring of task must be done (Masterman, 2002).
Delegation avoidance: During the allocation of the task there are some phases which should be avoided by the managers. The things are as incompleteness or the gap between the works. Every task must be completed on the time no delays will be bearable towards the work. During the task no overlapping, duplication and splits in the arrangement must be there it will waste the time with no result .
In an organization if so many people work than conflicts became a part of work so its management and negotiation is required. This management is very complex, iterative and interaction with human process. Mostly the conflicts occurred in groups as if group is big than complicit must be more. So, to sort this problem group cohesiveness is required which will try to complete the goal in any condition and on time. It may be occurs because of in compatibility in the task. And it may be because of lack of support. Group decision can play a good role to solve the problem. Other way is negotiation with the group to solve the problem here research is done, positive comments will arise, and the emphasis is given only to problems. The win-win condition will be there from both the parties and in last the climate will be open and trusting by others (Solver, 2012)
In organization the management of project is needed and from a long time they are based on some basis they are:
Triangular Basis of Project Management: Before the long era ago for a successful project management there are three basic aspects which are used they are time, cost and quality. This three are one of the useful concepts of management. All more emphasis is placed on one and others are less emphasis. As only high quality can be achieved at a fixed time but with this the cost of the work will increase.
But this theorem is not effective as arguments are there companies need to maintain all this qualities in a project to fight with the competitive market and for survival of the business. Now the life cycle of project comes in next step of management that is:
Project Life Cycle
Every project has its project life cycle it is from initiation stage of the project of its decline stage, all as following:
1.Project Initiation: It is a first phase in which it involves the starting of new ideas and ideas must be innovative because of competition in environment. Innovations like IT uses, working style changes etc takes place. At starting the project the task of defining the purpose and scope of project, justifies and provides the solution to implement the project in its correct way is done (Dainty and Loosemore, 2012). For acquiring all this needs a good project management team is required, which uses the six steps for the initiation of the project they are: Development of a business case, now a feasible study is done of the case, next step is the establishment of the terms for the case reference, now a team is being appointed by the company, set up a project office to perform the task, and at last the phase review is done.
2.Project Planning: After defining the project and appointing a team, it’s a time to enter towards the detailed project planning stage. In this phase, a planning document is created for the guidance of team (Hamilton, 2010). This phase have steps for planning they are: Creation of project and planning for resources, financial planning, quality plan and risk plan is maintained, after this acceptance of the project planning is done, a communication plan is maintained, procurement, contract is given to the suppliers and project manager performs the work of project review.
3.Project Execution: Now the time comes to execute the project in this phase the deliverables are made and delivered to the consumers for the acceptance. During the construction of the deliverables that time process is controlled and monitored by the management time for the best output of the project.
4.Project Closure: It involves liberating the final deliverables to the clients, documents are handed over to the company, supplier contract are terminated, all the project resources and communication with the stakeholders are terminated. After the all closure a review is done for identifying the success level of the project.
In a project there are people, who are the players of the project they are land and property agents, advocates, planning and consultant team, design and its coordination team, financial management team, teams of production and management, group of material and component manufacturing team, environment and acoustic, marketing and sales team project team members
Enterprise strategy is the widest point of approach, created at the intentional level of an organization by the Chief Executive, top management and the Board (Johnson, et. al, 2007). Strategy is needed for the achieving the goal of the project and it is one of the important part of the project management.
Strategy: A strategy gives the direction and scope to an organization over the long term basis to achieve the profit the company resources with the competitive and changing environment for meeting the needs of market and for fulfilling the stakeholders’ expectations. Corporate strategy, business policy, management policy, organizational policy all are known as the part of strategic management.
1.Business Environment: Firms take strategy management as analyzing the business environment either the market is static or dynamic, complex or simple etc. So, the company gets the idea of market condition.
2.Market Influences: What are the segments from which any market get influenced their analysis is done in this phase either the market is affected by the political interfere, economical conditions, social environment and the technological environment.
3.Competition: Analysis of competition is done here that what type of new competition is in market and how will it affect the business. It also helps us to find the current position of our business in market.
4.Opportunities and Threats: In this idea of new opportunities get generated that next what type of decision we can take for the growth and what the threats for our business so face today and in future.
In every project management procurement management is required its help the firm to purchase goods and services from the suppliers. In this project also the procurement management is required for purchasing the orders, delivering and receiving products, approving the payment of suppliers and managing the contract of suppliers. Types of procurement:
1.Stock Procurement: In this goods are shipped to the stocks according to the terms which are periodically defined. In this the firm has stock at their ware houses until next order is received by the customers. In this approach high flexibility is given to the customers but the procurement cost became higher.
2.Vendor managed Inventory: Here the suppliers are responsible for the stock. The cost is lower and high flexibility is there because of a close network relationship with the suppliers.
3.Just in time procurement: Here the stock level is low at the customers’ company. The cost is less and a lean and balanced process is this. Here the relationship must be very close with the suppliers. A perfect coordination is needed for the success.
4.Just in sequence procurement: It is very lean way of procurement every work needs just on time technique with a highly good relationship.
Ship to line: Here the goods are directly delivered from last process of the supplier to the first process of customer. Only few steps are needed for supply and transportation.
In an organization planning is required for project and it is done by using some steps like creation of the project plan and planning of resources which are required. Financial planning is done. Quality plan is made to fulfill the customers’ needs. To avoid risk its plan is made. After this acceptance of the project planning is done. Now for the communication in the project a communication plan is maintained. After this the procurement plan is made. Now the contract is given to the suppliers. At last the project manager performs the work of project review. This all work is done by management team for the success of a project.
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